Wednesday, February 9, 2011

PHATSEINA


Hiche lekhabu hinsundoh Pu Thangkholet Kipgen thil sut’hi kaven chule athil holdoh hole athilpohdoh hohi kangaitoleh giltahle thuhtah’a ahin boipile ahin khohsah hi hoi kasan pachat umlheh kasai, lunglut’ tah a hichan’na thuhtahle giltah’a ahinhol doh’hi inam pumpi diuva thilphatah ahin khangluile khangbullang thuho ahin chubana khang thusim dolla asut ho ahin tahsan theitah in kamui. Kenjong kakinep-pin kapah chalheh in chujongle kaki paapi lheh’e.Hiche lekhabuhi imalamjouse a eiho injong iphatchompi sohkei diujong ka kinemin katahsan’ne.Asimjouse dingin Pathenin phatthei boh henlang lekhasunpa jong Pathenin phatthei buoh’hen,
Kakipah’e.

Dated Imphal
The 13 March 2007

Sd/- Professor Dr. TS.Gangte
Director of Education Govt. of Manipur.

CHUNGGAM LEKHABU


BUNG I
1960 -2000  
NAMPI  LUNLAI  CHENG

Col. Sonkhopao: Khang nu nunga gamle nam thudolla hungvai kondoh masapen ana hin vangset jeh’in ana lolhing thei tapon hijongleh anam ngailut nahi suhmil theijin a’umpoi.1975 kumin jong D. Gangte in MNF sunga tohkhompi dingin lekha anathotnin hiche chunga jongchun kipah tah’in ahin donbutne, ahin don butna lekhachu hitihin akisune.“Kanga ilut’tah D.Gangte nalekha kamu achun kakipah lhehjenge  kahinkho sunga kale khamu lah’a kakipana pentah hina laijinte, keiman hitobanga nampi dinga natohnahi umlouding hitante tia kagel ahitan,tuhin keiman nampidingin lou-hon (Medicine garden)khat kabollin hijongleh nangman neihin tem nachu kipah tah in kasange hinlah ichihthei louvuleh songkul  lutsa kahitan govt.nin ahetpou pouleh hithei louding ahin, phante nati niniuleh speedboat khatna khen beihella ka inkouva neihung pohdohjeng louvuleh phaponte, chuleh keiman hichemong tipong kate neikoi koinao vachu umjeng dingin kakigel lhai.”Hitihin lekha ahinthotne.Amahi nampi dinga lunggel thengtah le ngailut naleh gentheina  a kipum pehna neilah’a amasaloi ahin, hijeh’hin nampi ngailu kiseina chana suhmil theilouho lah’a amasaloi hijingdinga lomtah ahi.
DEMKHOSIEK Gangte : Chunggam mite lah’a lungdih tahleh lungtheng tah’a gamlenam dinga ngailutnale natohna ananeiho lah’a manlu tahkhat anahi.Chuleh amahi lungthim giltah chihna thuhtah neimi ahin imacha bolmo neibeh sehlou chuleh hoichanah chejongleh alunggel kikhel chomlou mi guntah khatchu ahin, gam lenam angailutna to kilhonna tohthei nading hinkhole phat amanchah thei tahlouhi aman jong phamo ana salheh e. Ama jonghi nampi khan khoto’ho kigeldoh nalah ’a aminhi sanatuija sutdingloi ahin, chule adamlaija athuseiho jong  asei bangin aguilhung jinge.
Dr.Vumkhohao: Amahi Burma gamsung mi ahin cabinet minister anahin chuleh ambassador jong anahin gamlenam ngailutna jalla atoh theichan tongjing mikhat  anahin, khanggui thujong thuhtah in ana hollin “Zo’’ khang simna laibu tijong anasune.Amahi insung miho dinga miphachom tah suhmil theilou khat chu ahi.
Laldenga: MNF leader ahin gamle nam  ngailutna natong lah’a lolhin nakhat  hinboldohpen alolhingpen chu ahin,tua Mizoram state khu ama’a kona hung kisemdoh ahin nampi natong lah a sinthei umle tohga sodoh pen ahijeh in khang thusim’ma suhmil theilou pending le geldohjing pending chu ahitai.
Vumngul Kipgen:Anglo Kuki War laijin Jampi kihouna’a achapatoh anajaovin gaallaijin ama khopi Tujang chu ana sumang taovin Burma gamgei jin aban banin ana kithon pheipheijin ahileh May lhasung 1919 langchun Burmagam haosa jouse homaland nah sapten ana khomun  mi upapen penchu jailla koiding atiu  ahijeh chun  koi nahiuvem phung upa tia  ahindoh  phatnun koimacha chu apaopoh tapon chomkhat jouvin Chah satpan”kei la bullunmang hileng phungtin khu’tange namtin gol leldin” tia la ahinbol khum phatnin aman jong kahinai kei kahinai atiphatnin 
Ran-goon jailla dingin apotaovin ahi. Hicheni chun  amanjong  hitihin  la  anabol le, “Phunggol hou tong kito nin lung kikhollin ka ume, Genhison phunggol gamvangla .“ 
Mangpithang Kipgen: Japan gaal’ laijin Japan hotoh anakivopmin Japan Officer hochun ngansena lentah anapeuvin chule identity card khatjong anapeuve. Amahin Japante pao jong kihoulimna khamin ana thotheijin,chule Manipur gama dingin Japan techun amahi ana tamhet pen’nuve.
Dongkhojam  Kipgen (Burma): Class Vll gei ana simme.Kum 50 Burma gama Compounder na anatonge. Sa akaap’hi Sakin kila theicheh 8876 alhinge.
THANGJANGUL THANGEO (SITLHOU)  Assam Rifles history a Honourary Captain mu masapen ahijong nampi minphatna ahin, kithang-atpi um khat ahi.
Rev.Renghang Khi’eng:  Chunggam mite lah’a nampi khankhoto na’a genthei hesoh thohle pangdet’tah ahin chuleh chunggam mite dinga thului thugil chingtuple holgil pentah khatchu ahin amanjong gamlenam angailutna jalla na anatohna le aseina hohi amanlutdan suhmilthei ahipon nampi chapalah a suon umle kineppi theitah chule ngailutding doltah ahina suhmilthei loupen  khatchu ahi. Chunggam mite dinga atoh phatna simjoulou boldoh khatchu ahi.
J.F.Rothangliena: Gamlenam ngailut na dimset lungthimnei kum saotah manipura KNA presidentjong anatuh ahin KNA kiphudoh a kipat ama phat sungchu “Golden age”ahinalaije. Pu Seh-khohao Kipgenin Pu Rothang liena Presidentna ahaihi Sadar Hills sangin ka’itjoi tin anaseije.Ama banga kitah tahle hangsan tah chule lungdih tah’a natonghi tugeijin a’umkha hihlaije ama jonghi nampi ngailu kiseina jouse’agel dohmasat pena lomtah ahi.KNA President anatoh khangchun anampi dinga ngailutna tahbeh aneija ana kipumpeh jeh in ami pinjong amahi president holah a hin atahsan penin, akineppi penun ngailut thu ajong angailu penuve.
Tunkhopum Bai’te : Gamle namjalla ahinkho ana phaldoh ho lah’a khat ana hin nampi khankhoto najala ahinkho ana chaan masaloi ahin, adei banga anache thei tahlou vangin anam ngailut nahi nampin suhmil pehding lom ahipoi.
Lalkhohen Thangeo (Sitlhou) : Chung gam mite lah’a  nampi dinga atohthei nalam jouseleh akimanchah theinalam jouse’a amachamma akhoh na chana buhthing panna pang, suh miltheilou pasal lolhing khat ahinale hitabang hinkho nampi ngailutna kinna akipehjing najalla ahinkho geija anachaanlo ahin ama jonghi suh mil- thei loulah’a khat ahina geldoh jing dinga lom  ahi.
S.L.Lunneh (Kipgen): Khang nunung Chunggam mite lah’a lunggel them, lathem, thuseithem chule vaihom them khat anahin, aman adamlaija anaseina khat nachun tute chaten khonung tengleh kagu kachangho geija laidoh kitna saat teltel dingin hingeldoh uvinnate asei phaatnin ana kigeldoh leh chamlhat mite inahi diu ahitai.
Rev.Dr.T.Lunkim(Tongkhojang):Aphat chomna suhmil dinga lomloupen tahkhat ahin. Holy Bible aledoh in,  chuleh nampi dinga thukhoh thupi holthei channa hol seitheichana sei chuleh nampidinga phachom ding poupou khohsahtah mipa lhingset khat ahin amajong nampi dinga tahsathu hihen lhagaothu hijongleh iphat chompi naohi suhmilhoi ahipoi.Nam sunga damlai hinkhoa thilphachom tampi boldoh khatchu ahi.
Nehlun Kipgen: Tukhang nununga dinga Nampi khankhojal’la ahinkho phaldoh masapenle natong masapen ahin, lolhin nathu kiseithei hihlai jongleh angai lutnale akipehna thuhi nampi thu simbua suhmil louding holah a khat ahi. PV.Narasimha Rao Prime Minister hipetnin Kuki National Front minin memorendum agapen saipikhuup khatjong asilpeh in nampi dinmun thu akhohlai sejong anaseije.Kuki nampi khonungding thuhi D.Gangte in ana vedong lhehjengin atohkhompi sale atahsan penjing Pumkaam Kipgenchu anakouvin lekha jih’ing kating Chinale Kachin nadei johjoh’a gachetan atile aloipa chun ka nehmoh kagahol ding ham tia adonbut phatnin, ahile nampi khankho le thil umdanhi ivetle hitia umjinga damthei dinga nagellam tia aseikit phatnin, PK. chun nampi khan kho nangle kei thika beh ham tia adonbut kit phatnin, D.Gangte chun ima aseibetapoi.Ahinla Pu. Singkho khai (Pakang) Haokip min laijon ageldoh theilouho jeh in lung thasetna neihih beh o,idinmun nuhi mun hungchimding koncha ahitan nangle, Gangte in nathi masang lhonna abulbeh hijongle naboldoh manlhon loulevang lung gelle natohding himhim umdoh thei nading kahehih helle tia anasei jing phatnin ahile nganse theiding mi hinholtan tia ana vailhah phatnin Pu Pakang chun phat saothimtah chu mopo thei ding miholnan ahin sulut ne. 
Anah nah in amahi kamui ati phatnin PK.chun D.Gangtechu Shillong postinga a’umlai ahin lekha ajih in Pu.Nehlun chu akipoh sah in agalhun phatnin nampi khonung thu geljinga um pachu atahsan penpan hitia ahinsolchu akipapi lheh jengtan, hicheto kilhon chun credential chu ahinjih peh in agachetaove.Ache langu vinjong vang setna nasatah atoh’uve. Haam, haama natong theiding dinmun pumma hung doh theidinga ahung um phatnun, inmun na umho amaho sanga chingjole khonungdinga apha joding hehochun ahin vaihom taovin ahileh party khat sehchu party ni ahungsoh joutan, abanin thum ahungsoh jou kitnin, abankitnin lii ahungsobe jou kitnin lamchom chomin miching ahung pungjep jepmin 2008 kum langinvang olmona theile lungdon nading aum tapoi.Pu. Nehlun’hin thil umdanhi ipi kibolhen ipi kiseijongle imacha het themtheinale kilungto kitna dinghi keima khanghin ngahjou taponte, chubanna keihi kathi louleh koiman kanatoh hi ipi ahichu hetjong ahet doh louhelding ahibouve tin anaseije. Hiche ama kamcheng jeh’hin athi na chunga chun nangho jiing nikhoding jal’lin kanache masatai tin along chunga chun ajih’uve.  
T. Gougin  ( Tungnung): Nampi hinkho thudol holtohle sutohjing chuleh lekhabu jong tampi semma khonunga khangthah’ho dinga thil phachom ding gelna’a kisalel tahle miphachom tah ahijeh in ama phatchom najong geldoh pehjing dinga lom  ahi.
K.S.SeiboI:Ahinkho le athil bol theina  chule aphat hoilai jouse gamle nam ngailutna natohna’a anamang chai kei nampi chapa lah a gamle nam dinga tom ngaina neisaho lah’a khat ahin ama phat chomna jonghi nampi ngailu holah a suhmil louding holah a khat ahin amahotabanga kon’nahi tukhang kitihoho hung’ geidoh ahi.
Lalkholun Kipgen: Gamlenam ngailut na jalla ahinkho anapumpeh holah a khat ahin MNF movement laijajong amahi armyho lah’a mopo lenpen anahin natoh nale lunggelna jousea mihing hina’a mi feltah anahin, amajonghi nampi ngailutna thua suhmil loudinga lomtah khat ahi.
 Lamgin DoungeL: Chunggam chapate lah’a movies picture boldoh masapen ahin kipapi aum lheh e  hiche jonghi  nampi  ngai lutna  natoh  lentah  khatchu ahi.
Thangmang Kipgen: MNA holah’a Pu Lalkholun bantah’a commander anahin gamlenam ngailutna lhingset jingle Pathen na kingaijing mi ahin ama tom ngaina jonghi suhmil theilou lah a khat ahi. MNA cadre hon Manipurgam kukiho ipi kimule naneh phahdiu aumpon genthei tah in kanungu najuijuve,tijeh a Manipur lang miho lungel chu lamkaiho lah a kibahlouna ana uma chun ama le aloiho phabep hin mingol thusei jeh a imacha asetna dingle aphatbe nading gelchom ngaiding ham tia anapangloi ahin,thucheng ngeilou ana lung nat pihon disarmed anabollu vachun amale manipur gammi lamkai  a’umho chengse chu ahung khangale achatloh a’um khah le kaplih dinga tohgon umah anahi.  
Aneh Chongloi(Nehkholam): Army holah a sin thei umtah gallentary award mu masapen ahin gam le nam ngailutna a kipumpeh khat ahinahi suhmil loudinga lomtah ahi.
Seikam Kipgen: Adolf Hitler damlai  ja athu seiho lah a kelngoi banga kum tampi hin sangin keipi banga ni khat hinding kalhengjoi anatibangin ama jonghi 1993 apat milongte le chung gam mite kah a boinathu a steeljet bumber   banga ama anapan jengleh ikah uva hamsetna kitoh’ho ahung kibang domin, ahinkho chomcha ahivanga amahi a adeh a Sadar Hills Chunggam mite dinga khonung geija suhmil theilouding mikhat ahinahi Nampi natong lah a geldoh jingding khat ahi. 

KIPAPI UM MI PHABEP
T.Kipgen I.A.S (Thangkhopao) : Amahi IAS mumasapen le Secretary jong kaima sapen ahin, chule nampi dinga Govt. Officer ahisunga miphachom pentah  anahin tua V/A  act jonghi 1956 kuma anasut ahi.
S.Kipgen IFS (Sehkholen): T. Kipgen chapa alenpen ahin IFS mumasapen leh Ambassador kai masapen ahin amajonghi nampi min phatna mikhat ahihi  kipapi  umtah khat  ahi.
S. Singsit (Seikhojang):  Kimu topi jouse masanga mailhaisel jingjeng Pu.Seiboihi DM.College Imphal’la anakai chung gam mite chapate lah’a B.sc.distinction mu masapen anahin, chujouvin Madras University’a M.sc. 1st class ahin mukitnin, chujouvin IFS ahin mube kitnin 2007 AD apatnin Manipur state chief conservator ahintuh pan’ne.Kipapi a’umna tahkhat chu Houbung tampi in lungdon ngahna tah a aneijing theijuhi ahin kipapi aumin, chule kithang atpijong a’umlheh’e.  
Major. S. Kipgen (Sehkhogin): Army a kona ahungdoh nunginjong nampi lah’a thilphachom tampia kimangcha suhmil theiloukhat ahin, tua Chavang Kut jonghi ama’a kona hungkiboldoh ahin ama phatchomna jonghi pachat umtah ahi. Athijouvin Manipur Lengpa chapa P.B. Shingh ( Priyo barta )ngin anatoh hatdanle aphatchomdan chule afelna hohi ka-itdan pamai kasahdan keima tahsale hinkho sangin ka-iitjoi tin anaseije. Tujonghin Sadar hills sungah kumsehle ama minin matric 1st division’na hung jouse award akipejing nalaije. 
Chinthem KipgeN: Manipur numei lah’a IAS mumasapen ahin chuleh Ist among Ladies LLB in Manipur jong ahikitnin  kipapi  a’umlheh e.Kum so mle sagi ahilaijin Double Barrel (Cartridge) meithal anamangin sa anakapji 
Nengcha Sitlhou: Chunggam mite  chanuho  lah a manipur la dinga numei IFS mumasapen ahin amajonghi numei lah’a pachat umtah ahin  amajong  kipa pi  aumin  chule kithang atpijong a’um lheh e.
H.H.Mate: Chunggam mite lah’a lekhasun lah’a gold medalist khat  ineisun’nuchu ahijeh in kithang atpile pachat a’umlheh in  kipapi  a’umlheh e.
Dr.K.Kipgen(Kaikhohen): Haipi Haosapu ahin chunggam mite lah’a Doctorate (Hebrew) mumasapen chuleh natoh sangtah tong khat ahin amajonghi pachat umtah khatle kithang atpi theikhat ahi.
Ngulhao Thomsong (Singsit): NT Chung gam Thadou paova analedoh pachu ahin chuleh chunggam mite lah a tuilut masa pen jong ahi.
Ngailut  um  Jaampineng Sitlhou:  Numei Missionary Burma’gama analut masapen chuleh agentheina seijoulou hinkho lhuma Pathen natong dinga anakipedoh ahin ana kipehdoh bangbangin ahinkho lhum keijin  anatongin ngailut umle  lungset umtah  chubanna  voujangnat  umtah  chujongle Pakaija  dinga kipapi um, kithang  atpile pachat umtah ahin  chunggam mite khang a’um laisea  houbung thusim akiseina channa  suh mil  louhelding  penkhat chu  ahi.
Haolhun Singsit: Ahinkho phat atamjo gamlenam chule mipi ngailut na le khohsahna kina ana mang jing amihina a kitahtahle atohnalam jouse a suon umtah chule hangsantah, ponthotah, pasal it umtahkhat gam lenam ngailu suhmil theilou mikhat ahi.
Rev. Seikholet Singsit: Manipur Chunggam mite lah’a ordained masapen ahin, chuleh houbung dinga natong sotpenjong ahi. chule ama hinahi  chamna  neitah   mikhat jong  ahi.
M. C. Mary Kawm (Mangte Chungneijang): Pachaat umho lah’a achungnungpen womens  world champion ship  (boxing) hinmu  ahin amajonghi nampi choisang lah a tuchanna dinga achung nungpen ahin,Chunggam chanute lah’a aman tampen ahitai. Nl.Mary hi  min phatnale pachan’na boldoh chunggam chate jouse lah a asangpen ahinalaijin aman sports langa amin ana khumna achun chunga kisei bangkhun anapetan keidei lamtah invang Chungneijang Mangte tin ana sunleh inam pumpio dingin hetbailam mintin amimal hina jong dihpen ninte tin kagelle.Hitia  chunggam  chate numei khatnin Asian champion alah banna world champion ahin lah hi kagelleh chitin namtinin minpha khao vinte tia puonchun banga eichun laitah uva chunggam cha nute khat Chungneijang ahung lolhin hin chunggam chate niile lhaale ahsiho bangin chitin  namtin lah a eidom sanguvin hichehi Pathenin eigeldoh nao, lentahchu ahin kipa a’umlheh jengin  kithang atpijong  a umlheh jenge.India hi solkal kivaipoh dan ahoipenle anompen ahivangin Chiilenam tamnale kithietto nagam lentah khat ahijeh in apaoleltechu Independent sunga jaolou bepbepma kibolbanga aumkit jeh in hitabang jehhin War cum Sports langahin vanoijah minphatna amujouji pouve.Chunggamte chanu ChungNeijang jonghi India mina Gold Medal amuvanghin India solkallin mudajole adeijoh’u danin aumin, achung chonin Manipur solkal kisanin akihetmsah un suhmilpih teiding agelkit nalaijun achungchonin India solkal ahin Manipur solkal ahin kipaman jengjong apelhonpon imacha khatbehjong hichi jallin abolpeh pouve.Hitabang langnei sihnei jehhin Sports langahin talented miho akilheng jipon hijehhin gamlentah khathi imacha langa minphatna mukha louhella umah ahiuvin 2008 kumin Beijing Olympic ngachun Vanche ho khatnin Air Rifle shootinga Gold Medal ahinmuleh India miho apaojoudomho chu akipadan nuchu TV’a telecast abolnao vachun This made change India’s  new history atiuve, hinla hichi masanga jongchu Chung Neijang hin thumveijen analah ahitai.India solkalle Manipur Solkallin ichan geijin gellu henlang bollujongleh Chunggam miten vang Indiasunga medal kilahna aum  laichanin ChungNeijang minhi athah in akigeldoh sohkei jingjenge.
Lhingneikim Kipgen: 22-31- Oct. 2OO7 Bubaneswor AIFFU-13 girls foot ball festival lachun best palyer anapeove. Ama thilmu jonghi India sunga dinga chung-gam chate adinga kipana thilsoh masapen khat ahin kipapi a’umin kithang atpijong a’umlheh e.. 
Kim Gangte (Kimneilhing): Chunggam chanute lah’a MP kaidoh masapen ahin numei ahivanga pasal atamjo sanga Political lungthim neitah chanu mantam tahkhat ahin kithang  atpi  a’um lheh e.
Paokai  Haokip : Chunggam mite chapate lah a parliament member kai masapenle kijomma termni ana kaijoupen chu ahin,amihina a tahsan umtah ahin chule mikineosah  tahkhat jong ahin kipapi umle kithang atpi umtah khat ahi.
Ngailut umtah  Singkhokhai Haokip (Pakang): Ukhrul district sunga um Maokot haosapu ahin,chunggam mite lah a gamlenam ngailutna lungthim neitahkhat chu ahin,tuhin   ilah uvahin koima ageldoh  umtapontin hijongleh aman gamlenam ana ngailut behseh jeh’a sumlepai tampile ahinkho phat saotah ana  man’na seinathei komho jousele bolnathei jouse’a anabol’la kuonna tukhang political nukhah penhi hung  kiboldohle  hung  kiphutdoh ahin hitia athil bolho jeh’a ahinkho geija ana chaanlo ahin, ama gamlenam dinga apannale athilbol bana anam ngailut nahi nampi thusimma abul’langa pangjing dingloi ahi. Hiche ama anathat ho milong gamvah hohin ama anatha masang nguvin ngailut umtah ama banga nampi ngailutna neitah Pu, Holkholet Kipgen Saihaphoh haosapu jongchu anatha sao ahitai. Amajong chu Pu, Singkhokhai banga hin kho na mang ahijeh ahi.
Dr.Rochunga Pudaite (Kipgen): Chung gam mite lah’a missionary natong lenpen khat ahin kipapi umtahle kithang atpi umtahkhat ahi.
Rev.Kim Vaiphei (Nemneikim) : Chung gammite chanute lah’a Ordination masapen ahin kipapi umtahle kithang atpi um tahkhat chu ahi.
HL.SINGSON : ( Henlun) Ngailut umtahle pamaitah Nagaland MLA khat anahin akholjin na’a Car accident atoh in alellou vangin khonungteng phamonte tia hospitalla ache nalamin ahungthi lotan, ama ahungthi’a kipatnin ama anadei lou jinghochu ahung lolhing lheh taovin nampi dinmun jong asetul tullin tuhin Nagaland na Chunggam mite khochenle inchen akikhai sangtai. 
Jaangpu Kipgen: Khokhat hi akichaodoh diu ajah a kipatnin Jaangpu chu analung  gimlheh e, hichenile hichethu chung changa kipatchun amopohna hilouva kisalel jouse chu Jaangpu lunggim ahungkiti panin tulangin akihaman lhehtai.Leiset chunga  scientific lang hihen ipilang hijongleh thilloupi tahtah hingeldohle hinboldoh jousehi Jaangpu banga koima ngansena umlouva kisalella hinboldoh jengseh ahi bouve.
Thangminlen Kipgen: Manipur chung gam mite MLA kaidoh’ho lah’a power neikha loupen ahivangin  tunigeija  ulenao awgin daanin akitah penle taang guolla  mi khohsahle khoto penin akiseije.
Ngamthang Haokip: Manipur  Chunggam mite MLA kaidoh-holah’a mivaang phapen power neijingpen ahin, chule  kihoupi nomtahle kiletsahlouhel achung chuona ahuongphal penle agamsung semtam penin mipi lah’a hin akiseije.
Manipur state Assembly member kaidohkha Chunggam chapateho lah’ahin tunigeijadin Pu.Thangminlen Kipgenle Pu.Ngamthang Haokiphi anam mipite lunglhai napenle seiphat penin akilang kipapi aumlhone. 

         THAGUM   HAATNA   NEIHO
( Possessed extra Ordinary Physical  Strength )
Kaap khobung Valte : 1st world war  lai chu ahatlaitah anahin,ahinkho vang asaopon hinlah athagum haatdanhi Lamka khopi apat Silchar khopi akhun chii agachon ahung kileji’e  akitin, chule sielchal naonga neikhat achal lhingset khat khaovin akhitnun ato ajepmun ahalhaipet tah in khaova chu anung saaleh sielchal chu ama komah ahung nungchuh jenge  akitin, chuleh sapte  sepai 20 toh khao akiloito uleh amaan anop tah in akaipheng jenge akiti. Juchasa aneh a kona jaan khatna khang dohlotjeng ahi akitin, amahi  eiholah a  hetbai lamin  seileohen Zou  tribe  sungmi  ahi.
Thokhuol Kipgen:  16th Century lang mi ahin,porang le luongpawn kikah a Mom rangkham kiti kolkah khatchu thuhtah aumin lukop ilelhah jongleh huuijin ahinle muttou jeng vetngam hilou kolkah khat ahin amaan achop khupmin ahung lechop kitne, chule humpi nupa khatnin asielpi nucha anehlhon jeh in athatne. Atha daanchu avetnuleh khat alu aleng mangin khatchu alu achip deh’e hichu amu dung juijun khatchu thingphung ajepnaleh alu lengmang jenga khatchu toljepna a anei danin amu’uve chuleh mihat hina a kumsehle kai ananehji ahijeh in aloipa Laithang Haokip chun khat veibeh nahaat kaihi  kei nei kidonsah in atile, gakidontan atijeh’a ama dinga aga kidon ahin kaobel khat ahinpokhan ama inna akilhut ahibou vin Laithang chu midanghon Kipgen pa Kaobel kipohpa  atiuleh khonunga Kipgen hojoh kaobel podanin ahung kiseidohtai ajehchu tax chu Kipgenpa mina kidong ahijeh ahi.
Vumjavung Kipgen: Aminlhem Vung kang akitin Pakang jong akiti, ama  jonghi alim amel danglam tahtah’a khel lelethei anahin athagum jong athi kuon geijin koima athajou ana’um poi. Anaoteho lah a aguol hon apaijoulou cheh mithumin amachu adin jangpet sah uvin adop muleh adomkang joupouve. Akhutchal jung teni in abungbun akitung jangpet nin Imphal Khwairamban  keithel khu thumvei gangchellin avelle.Humpi in gamlah a adellin ahile amajong halhaijin alhaijin suonchieng phung chunga achopdohle humpin ada lhatai.Alim amelchu kidang tahle mielsetah a aki khielsah tengle British armyho geijin ajaamjiuve tin anakiseije.Chule hitabang thil vet sahna ananeina a hin British armyho khatnin double berrel khatnin ana chaangin ahileh akallin amoh bolbol nomtapoi. 
Sehjapao  Singsit:  Amajonghi chung gam thusimma thagum haatna anakisei lah’a khat anahin tua gahsei dinga Mizoram langa mihatna anakisei Vaanapa kitipa hitoh anakidella amahi haatjo anahin hinlah amahi achangseh ahijeh in Vaanapa chu ahatmoding phatnin aloihon akitho piuvin Sehjapao chu anavolhuvin kawl’lah ana lehlha taove  akiti. Ahaat jopachu anathitai.  
Tongkhogin Kipgen (special sentence) : K. Ex. Military Colony a School abol’ laitah in KNF (MC)  ho khutnah anathi khatai. Amahi keidinga kapi insung mite kapute ahin amao insung numei  keiju insunga  kalah uhi tampi ahitai. Kapu Tongkhogin thijeh hin keima insunga kapa le ka uteni nupa athilo lhontai. Iti dana chuti theija ham? Kapahi nampi khonung ding khohsah behseh jalla revolutionary movement body hinsem doh pachu anahi. Mn.Nehlun damlai japat ichan geija thukhoh umjongleh pangthei cheh dingin suon umdomcheh hi nampi khankhoding khohsah najalla itobang tohmun din munin umjongleo adalhah uva administrative bodykhat asotkhom diuva ana gonchu kapu Tongkhogin jonghi ami hinahi mi nasatah ahilou vanga anatoh ahin dalhah a ahung lutleh amachal theina ding lampi umdan anahin hichejeh achu kapachu ama hitoh kihoujing lhona ahin, hinlah ageltuoh hochun Tongkhogin hi hitihin kibolleh P.K. chunga pohgih lentah hung chuntin athilgon hohi ama khangsunga lolhing louding ahitai tihi anahin, hiche dungjuija chu policy makerhon abollu ahi. 
Kapu Tongkhogin jongchun insung hin dalhahding ati laitah ahitan achunga thu chutia ahungso phatnin kapa jongchun atohgon jouse pamai asahtoh kaputeo ahijeh a a itle alainat toh haam nomlou pao nomlou khopma a’um laitah in policy makerho thilgon chuto  kitoh chetnin thina’thuchu ama ahung king ohtai. Asungthu helouho dinga ama aki ngoh chu dihdeljeng ahitai. Hiche thinathu jeh hin amao insung langle keiju insu ngahin lungel kiseitona a’umtapon, hichethuhi tia kihou limnathei himhim amao insunga jong um theitalou  keiju insungajong umthei talou banah policy maker hochun atoh dingseo abana agon hou  geichun atoh chaibe taove. 
Hichu akihenan alonaje a’um tapoi. Ajehchu itilama ahungkibol dingchu  gah hetdohthei ahitahlou jehchun. Kapale ka uteni chunga thilsoh dingchu anidan mongmong kahetlou vangun kahetsao ahitai foreign mission board khatnin agonuchu akihenan itilama ahung kibol dingchu koimacha ageldoh thei ka um pouve. Hiche chu kaki  houlimpi khah lou hellu foreign mission natoh ahin  chule amaho thilgon hinboldoh dinga anganseo pachu MC holah a umkhat ahi. Movement douho chu lolhinga ahitai, tukhanga dingachu anoinunga kahitaove.
Tua political dinmun neilouhella i’umuhi itidana adeijoh theijuham kadatmo lheh e, achuti ngaalleh political movement hi bollouva, ngaicha louva umthei ihinah uvem ? ipichu hitaleh keimachu avangsen atum min kakigel dehpoi  ajehchu political idiology chu nopleda thu ahipon adoltah a ituhthei kahseova koi hijongleohen ipi kon ahinto bedingchu achamma lha ahin movement kibolnathu jouse a vaan noi gamjouse  a soh ngaimong ahijoh kenvang kahetheme. Kapachu kalung aselheh e, ajehchu upa ginchat um tampi ima gelphalou umta jongleh khangthah gamlenam ngailuchu anatam thouvin  amakomah ahungjiovin hepa imacha hepha louho jeh in thase hihbeh in tua upa phabephole  elected memberho  thuseile alungput nuhi ijopleh imacha gamlenam thujong a’umpoi, nangin nagel khoh behseh jeh a nanabolla hichan jong kipha ahitan nakamsung beh in tongnalaijin natha in ajoloujong kahenaove tia mitlhi  longleova ana houlim jiochu ana voujang natpiji lheh chu kanahei.
Insung mitehon  asungthu kahet sohkei loujeh uvin tuni geijin akihouto jejong kahehih laijuve. Hethemcheh leoveng iti kaki lainatpito tadiuvem. Mihem mitmu dingin akithat tote kahitaovin lungthim themho dawija chutia ka umkhah u ahitai. Kenvang asungthu umjehi kahetjeh in ichan’geija lungnat nathu ahitah vangin phamo salheh jongleng keiho kikah a dingin lungput kigamlatna kaneichompoi. Alang langa mithatna panghojong amaho lungthima kon ahipon, amahon amahlam ahung umdoh theina dinga chubou abolhon anabollu ahibouvin, ka insung miho thinadinga khut lamho jengjong athem’ mopoi kahe theme. Abon chaovin kangaidame, abolluhi ahetlou hellu ahi kahetjeh in,hetloujeh a abolkhel chungu vahin Pathenin jong ngaidamuhen. Ajehchu keiju khanghi midinga setna bolle phulah boljong kangai nao ahipoi.   
Kapate lah a alhumpenpa kapa neo Semlun jong chuti tobang mama in anathi in hinla kapu kapateho khanga patnin phulah kitihi keiju insung  dinga angai ahipon, ibolnomleh thilphabou bolding thilse a lungletha suhlut-hi kangainao ahipoi. Ipichu hitaleh ka insung  miho hitia “un natural death” ho jousehi lungmong tah a Christa a hinkho thah aneinao testimony aseinao kamit tah a kamu sohkei jeh in kalung among lheh e. Amaho hinkhohi lungset umle manlutah ahicheh jeh a kenjong amahocheng ka ngailutna vetsahna a gentheina  seijoulou puma hiche lekha buhi nampi lungsunga veiden na nampi khonung khankho a dinga thilpha chom ahithei khatle tia kahinbol ahi.
TAHSANDET : Jesu Christa a tahsan na kona lamvai nadin Satannin tanglouvin atongjinge.Ajehchu Pathen gamloupitah lhundingchu  Satanin athangsetpi behseh jeh in tanglouvin akisalel jinge. Satanin mihem alhepdinghi Pathenin ajahdapoi. Hijeh’a hi Diabolchun keipi kitum banga koi kavallhum theidem tia holle’a vahle ahin atahsan saho lungthim geija amanchah’a tahsan’na a kona apullhah nadiuvin choldo louvin atonge.Cross pella lamvaina dingin jong atahsan louho lahkeo hilouvin atahsanho lah ajong alhacha ding tampi alheng doh jinge.
Seijuiho khanglai jongchun Houbung ana umtan chucheho lah jenga jongchun mipi analam kaiho lah ajong satanin ana lhendoh’a ana manchah a’umjinge. Rome arena mun nachun atahsan houbung miho tampi chu cross a kikhai abungbu avai pheija, chule humpito akidelsah’u, mipi vetnom nomdinga abollai tah uvinjong houbung lamkailen Crispa kitipa jongchu cross chunga akikhai petchun ahinsamin tunin Pakai Jesu amatah vankot ahin hona eiho lamto dinga ahung kondoh kamui hijehchun nachonset nao ngaidama aumna dingin nachon setnao phongunlang taovun ahintitan ahileh mitheng Paul’chu alah uvachu ana umpet ahikhaan ahin phohpai jengin, vo Crispa nangman miteho tahsan jalla thina luigal kaiding kuontah hin mipi lungthim sunoh phah hih in, min Christa dinga ahinna peta’a chonset ngaidamna atuma umnalaiham tin ahinphoh jengin, hitabang laitah kisan geija mihem tahsan na thudolla  alamvai nahlai thei nading geija kineppi umpen hou vaipopa Christa jalla gim thohpet khat kamsung geija satanin ahin manchah nahlai  ahi. Tunjong suon umtah hole  kineppi umtahtah-ho satanin amanchahsa aumbanga umjing ding michonsehole Pathendang houho lah’a  Pathenin alhachading akoudoh a alhendohji  banga phatseh’a alhendoh kit jingding ahijinge.Ajehchu Pathen loupina ichan’nuhi satanchu thangthiip behseh jenga ahi.Chule tukhanga suhmil louhel ding chu namkhat  dinga kipe Hou a’umin mijouse dinga kipe Hou a’umkitne. Pathen chun Abraham henga chun nanga kona thusom,danthu chule Isreal katundoh ding ahi atipoi, nanga kona chitin namtin phattheina changding atijoh ahibouve ajehchu Pathen thilgonchu vannoi chitinle namtinin Christa jalla  huhingna amu diuchu ahi
Adam thisangui chu abeipoi Noah hi ahipeh in Noah chatehi mithum ahiuvin  Shem,Ham chule Japhet ahiuvin eihohi Japhet chilhah joh ihiuve. Vaan noija Hou thudol lahin Shem chilhahtehi Pathenin analhenge Judaism akitileh Abraham chu abulpi ahin hichu 2000 BC ahin,chule vaan noija hou alenna kihe adang dangho hungkondoh nahi Shem chilhah lah a Arpacshad nakon ahin, mipi hetna abulpiuchu Zoroaster ahin hichu 1800 BC a hungkipan ahi.Hindusm sese jonghi hichepa akona jengseh ahiuve.Zoroaster houvakona hungdoh sesehi thilha kitilang jepmin achen ahi. Abrahama konin  Islamle Judaism chule Christianity ahungdoh’e. Amaho jouse masangin Indawi chu ana umtai.Noah in Pathen henga maicham anasem jouvapatnin Pathenin mipale mi Uupa hohi amakhel bangin anakoijin mit mutheja Pathenin   ama geldoh theina dingin anangansei. Hijehchun Noah injong achatechu phatthei aboh in Jacob minjong achatechu phatthei anaboh in ahi.Hiche jouva kipatna athua Pathen anahou vuchu Abraham khang geijin anahouvun hichu Indoichu ahung hipeh’e.Indoijin Pathen bou ana lhaijin thilha anadeipoi vopjong ana kivop pipoi.Jacoble a insungmite Igypt gama alutnuchu 1600 BC ahin ahungdoh uchu 1270 BC ahi chubana daanthule thusom hungkipeh chu 1235 BC ahin chutichu ahileh Chunggam mite khulla kona chunggam hungdohchu 2200 BC ahitan Abraham khang masang kum 200 val ahitai. Aryan @ Hindustan’ho vanghi Shem chilhah ahiuvin Israelte tohin chikhat inkuonkhat ahiuve.Kumle phat hohi ivetle ahitheipon, chubana chiilenam thudolla ivetjongle ahitheipoi.Tukhangin Chung gam mitehi Jews @ Isreal chigui dinga kitahsan jallin Judaism’ma luutle  chieptan bol aume, hiche thuhi ihina kiholkhiel jeh ahi.Judaism kajopjoh ahi tijong uminte hinla Judaism jongchu Israelho dingabon hinna ahilouleh chidang,nam dangho dinga   ipi angaina umam ajehchu Pathen thilgonchu ahinan ahinla achamkim dinga anabol ahipon acham kimle abulhing ahungkah’a dingabou anati ahin, Daanthu chu Adam chonset jeh’a mijouse thidinga um ahi hetdohna dingabou kipe ahi chutichu ahijeh’achu Daan thuchu hinna hijolouva thiding umsa kahi tina, hetdohna nadinga bouchu kipe ahi.Hiche dungjui jachu Pathenin athilgon anunung pachu aphudetna amasapa chu alahdoh ahitai (Heb:10:9). 
Phat kipeh dungjuija chule Pathen thilgon dungjuija Israel’teding jengajong adoikhat aumvanga Lhagao hinna thudol la  phachuom ahidehpon chule thajong aneilou ahibana Jesu Christa khangjouva Pathenin alahdohkit ahitan Israelte ding jengajong tuhi akisim loukhang ahi, Pathen tahsan thudolla chu thisanin Isreal kihihen kihihih jongle vangam lutna dinga Pathenin chitin namtin dinga atunle thaneina lhingset apehchu Jesu Christa bouchu ahi.Ajehchu Abraham le Mosi jengjong chu Jesu Christa mihuhingna’a konabou hinna aneilhon ahi tia Bible chun asei ahi.Ama tahsana sangho chunga Pathen chu  lung lhaija atahsan louho chungachu lunghang dingbou ahitai. Akhoh penchu tonsot hinkemlou chubou ahin  hichu chitin namtin dinga alolhing penle acham kimpen dinga Jesu Christa chu Pathenin atun ahitai.Achainan koima Judaisma kona sohcha aumpoi, Abraham minla anitpon Mosi inla anitpon amanijong atahsan nalhon bou kisima chule Jesu Christa  lhagao huhingna a jaolhona ahibouve.Jesu chun keima Abraham masanga umsa kahitai keima nikho muding atupmin amutai anati. Chubanin Pathen hin Israelte bouchu anachinhoi ahipoi.Chunggam miten Indoi hinkiching chu Noah in Maichaam asemjouva taanglouva amite lah’a hungchepeh maichaam chu hunghipeh ahi.2000-1800 BC langin Abrahamle Zoroaster lakonin Houthu athah in van noijah ahung umdohkitne.E.G. Noah tuisanglet chu 2349 BC ahin,Babel paocheh chu 2247 BC ahi.Abraham chu 2032-1857 mi ahin  Sodom khopi kihalchu 1898 BC ahi.Jona Nineveh khopia achechu 862 BC ahin Nineveh khopi kisuhmangchu 612 BC ahi.Isac chu 1892-1732BC mi anahi. Jacobchu 1800-1689 BC mi ahi.Joshep chu 1745-1635 BC mi ahi.Israel @ Jacob le ainsung mite jouse Igypt gama alutnule ahungdoh uchu 1600-1270 BC ahi.David lengpan Israel le Juda agopkhon chu 1000 BC ahi.The Great Wall of China kisemkhu 221 BC-618 AD sunghi ahn kum 839 luutna kisem ahi.Chubanin Chunggam mite khuulkon thu’a Chunggam hunglhunhi 2200 BC ahin Babel paocheh joutil ahitai.Ahungdohnao Khuul kitia kiseichu Kailash le Kunlun Mountain range huop sung ahinjawtnao kiseina ahi.Chubanna Noah chapate mithum ho’akonin 2249 BC kumapat nin suonlepah punjal ahung kipanne.Amaho mithum lah’a Chunggam mitehi Japhet chilhahte ihiuve.Japhet chate lah’a Magog kitipa chilhah ihikitnun Magog chate lah’a Sinim chilhah ihung hiuvin ama insungkaija Chongthupa Insungmite ihiove.Tua Mongolia le China gamsungkhu ana lhatlenao ahin Laos gamlang geija ana lam lhaova ahi 1500 BC kumlanga tuitobit jeh’a hungtou kitloi uma achepheiloi jongchu umah ahiuvin, Chunggam mitehi 800 BC in Kabaw Valley apat tu Manipur la Pallen nakhun akicheng luutne,hichi masang chun kum 130 velhi Kabo Valley @ Kaang maangphai jakhun anachenguve.India gamsung ngajong Dravi dianho bantah’a achenglut masate ahiuve.Noah descendent map khu velechun Sinim suonle pahho chenna gamkuolho kimunte.
MILOUPI PHABEP HO  :
Alexander the great            :    356-323BC
Aristotle : 386-322 BC
Abraham Lincoln                                                 : 1809 -1865  
Adolf Hitler : 1889-1945
Aurangzeb : 1618-1707   
George washington : 1732-1799
Cristopher Columbus : 1451-1506    
Chiengkaishek : 1887-1975
Guru Nanak : 1469- 1538
Indira Gandhi : 1917-1984 Jawaharlal Nehru : 1889-1964
Mao Tse Tung   : 1893-1976    
MK Gandhi : 1869-1948
Mahmad Prophet : 570-632         
Queen Victoria : 1819-1901
Rabindra Nath Tagore : 1861-1941     
Rajendra Prasad : 1884-1963
Socrates : 470-399
Vascoda Gama : 1460-1520
Rajiv Gandhi : 1944-1991     
Pope John Paul II : 1920-2005  
STATES OF INDIA AND ITS DATE OF FORMATION 
Andra Pradesh : 1.10.1953 Arunachal Pradesh : 20.2.1987
Assam : 26.1.1950
Bihar : 15.8.1947
Chhatisgarh : 1.11.2000
Goa : 30.5.1987
Gujarat : 1.5.1960
Haryana : 1.11.1966
Himachal Pradesh : 25.1.1971 
Tripura   : 21.1.1972
J&K : 26.10.1947
Uttranchal : 9.11.2000
Jharkhand : 5.11.2000 Karnataka : 15.8.1947
Kerela : 1.11.1956
Tamilnadu : 15.8.1947
Madya Pradesh : 1.11.1956
Sikim : 16.5.1975
Maharastra   : 1.5.1960
Rajasthan : 1.11.1956
Manipur : 21.1.1972
Punjab : 15.8.1947
Maghalaya : 2.4.1970
Orissa : 15.8.1947
Mizoram : 20.2.1986
Nagaland : 1.12.1963

PANORAMA
Countries            &  Date of formation
Afghanistan         :   19.8.1919(Islam)     
Albania                 :   28.11.1912(Islam)
Algeria                  :   5.6.1962 (Islam)
Angola                  :  1.11.1975 Indchr  
Antigua & 
Barbuda : 1.1198(christian)
Argentina : 9.7.1816(chri)
Armania : 21.9.1991(chris)
Australia : 1.1.1901(christ)
Austria : 1156 (christian) Azerbaijan : 30.8.1991(Islam)
Bahams : 10.7.1973 chris)
Bahrain : 15.8.1971(Islam)
Bangladesh : 16.12.1971(Islam
Barbados : 30.11.1966(cht.)
Belarus : 5.8.1991(christi)
Belgium : 4.10.1830 (chri)
Belize                             : 21.9.1981(chri)
Benin : 1.8.1960 (mixed)
Bhutan : 8.8.1949 (budst)
Bolivia : 6.8.1825(chri)
Bosmia
Harzegovina : 1.3.1992(mixed)
Botswana : 30.9.1966 (christ)
Brazil : 7.9.1822(christ)
Brunei : 1.1.1984 (mixed)
Bulgaria : 3.3.1878(ortho)
Burkina Faso : 5.8.1960.(mixed)
Burundi : 1.7.1962(christ)
Cambodia : 9.11.1953.(budh)
Cameron : 1.1.1960(cht.Isla) 
Chad : 11.8.1960 (christ
Canada : 1.7.1867 (christ
C.African Rep : 13.8.1960(cht.)
Cape Verde : 5.7.1975(cht, Islam)   
Chile : 18.9.1810 (cht.)
China                                                 : 221BC/1.10.1949
Colombia : 20.7.1810(cht.)
Comoros : 6.7.1975(islam)
Hongkong : 20.7.1997 (budhism) 
Conggo :     15.8.1960 (cht.mix)
D.R.of  Conggo : 30.6.1960(cht.)
Cote D’ivoire : 7.81960(mixed)
Costarica : 15.9.1821(cht.)
Cuba : 20.5.1902(cht.)
Crotia : 25.6.1991(cht.) Czech 
Republic : 1.1.1993(mixed)
Cyprus : 16.8.1060 (gr-oth)  
Denmark : 1000.AD (cht.)
Djibouti : 27.6.1977(mus.)
Dominica : 3.11.1978(cht.)
Dominican 
Republic : 27.2.1844(cht.)
Eastimor : 20.5.2002.(cht.)
Equador : 24.5.1822.(cht.)
Egypt : 28.2.1922.(mus.)
El-salvador : 15.9.1821(cht.)
Equatorial Guinea : 12.10.1968(cht.)
Eritrea : 2.5.1993(mus.cht.)
Estonia : 20.8.1991 (cht.)
Etheopia : BC (mixed)  
Fiji : 10.10.1970 (cht.)
Finland : 6.12.1917(cht.)
France : 486 (cht.)
Gabon : 17.8.1960(cht
Animis Gambia : 18.2.1965(mus.)
Guyana :       26.5.1966ch.hdu.
Georgia : 9.4.1991(mixed)
Germany : 3.10.1990(cht.)
Ghana : 6.3.1957(cht.)
Greece : 1829 (cht.)
Grenada : 7.2.1974(cht.)
Guate Mala : 15.9.1821(mixed
Guinea : 2.10.1958(mus.)
Guinea Bissau : 24.9.1973(mixed)
Hungary : 1001(cht.)
Haiti : 1.1.1804 (cht.)
Honduras : 15.9.1821.(cht.)
Ice-land : 17.6.1844(cht)
Italy : 17.3.1861(cht.)
India : 5.8.1947.(hindu)
Indonesia : 17.8.1945(mus.)
Iran : 1..4.1979(mus.)
Iraq : 3.10.1932(mus.)
Ireland : l6.12.1921(cht.) Isreal : 14.5.1948 (jewish)
Jamaica : 6.8.1962(cht.)
Jordan : 25.5.1946(mus.)
Japan : 60BC (budhism)
Kirgystan : 31.8.1991(mus.)
Kazaksthan : 16.12.1991(mix
Kenya : 12,12,1963(cht.)
Kiribati : 12.7.1979(cht.)
Korea N : 15.8.1945(mix.)
Korea S : 15.8.1945(bud.ch
Kuwait : 19.6.1961(mus.)
Laos : 19.6.1949(bud.) Libya : 24.12.1951(mus.)
Latvia : 21.8.1991(cht.)
Lebanon : 22.11.1943.(mus.)
Lisotho : 4.10.1966.(cht.) Liberia : 26.7.1947(mix.)
Luxembourg : 1839 (cht.)
Malaysia : 31.8.1957 (mix)
Macedonia : 8.9.1991(mix)
Mali             : 22.9.1960 (muslim)
Maldives : 26.7.1965(mus.)
Marshall Islands : 1.10.1986(christian)
Malta                                     : 21.9.1964(christian)
Mauritius : 12.3.1968 (Hnd&chris)
Mauritania : 28.11.1960(muslim) Micronesia : 3,11,1986(christian)  
Mexico               : 24.9.1821(christian) 
Monaco : 1419(cht.)
Moldova : 7.8.1991(orthod)
Montenegro : 3.6.2006(mix.)
Mongolia : 11.7.1921(budhist)
Mozambique : 25.6.1975(mix)
Moroco : 2.3.1956(mus.)
Myanmar : 4.1.1948(bud.)    
Namibia       : 6.3.1991(chri)
Netherlands : 1579 (mix.)
Nepal : 1768(hindu)
Nigeria : 1960(mus.cht.)
New Zealand : 29.9.1907(cht.)
Norway : 7.6.1905(cht.)
Pakistan : 14.8.1947(mus.)
Poland : 11.11.1918(cht.)
Palestine : 15.11.1988(mus)
Peru : 28.7.1821(cht.)
Philipine : 12.6.1898(cht.)
Portugal : 1143(cht.)
Russia : 24.8.1991(mix.)
Syria : 17.4.1946(mus)
Serbia : 27.4.1992(mix)
Singapore : 9.8.1965(mix.)
Slovakia : 1.1.1993(cht.)
Slovenia : 25.6.1991(cht
Solomon Island : 7.6.1978(cht.)
Somalia : 1.7.1960(mus)
S.Africa : 31.5.1910(cht)
Spain : 1492(cht.)
Sri Lanka : 4.2.1948.(bud
Sudan : 1.1.1956 (Mus
Lucia             : 22.2.1979 (cht Swaziland : 6.9.1968.(cht.)
Sweden : 5.6.1523(cht.)
Switzerland : 4.8.1291.(cht.)
Tanzania : 26.4.1964(mix.)
Thailand : 1238(bud)
Turkey : 9,10.1923 (mus
U A E : 2.12.1971(mus.)
U.K : 1284(cht.)
US. : 4.7.1776(cht.)
Uruguay : 25.8.1925(cht
Vatican City : 11.2.1929(cht.)
Vietnam : 2.9.1945 (mix.
Venezuela : 5.7.1811(cht.)
Zambia : 24.10.1964(cht
Zimbabwe : 14.4.1980(cht.)
Evergreen leaders of the land:
1. George Washington.
2.MK. Gandhi. 
3.Mao Zedong

BUNG-II
33--1700
MANIPUR LENGGAM THUDOL
Traditional,Folk Tale & History
Tu Manipur gamhi abonin amin ana umpoi amasapenin tua phaicham sungkhu kongjangphai anakitin abanin Leng inn hopsung khu Kangla ahungkitin phaicham sese khu kanglei ahungkiti kitnin abanin Meitrabak ahungkiti kitin achaina  in 1700 AD in Manipur ahung kitin tugeijin akitinalaije.
Manipur phaicham sungahin Hindus tan Brahmin hojong tampi aban banin ahung chenglutnuve. Gahseibai lamin phung 40 valjel ahung chenglut nuvin, ihetchet theina dinguvin aphung minpoh hou gah veuhite. 
1. Adhikari Majum     21. Laai Majum
2. Sija Majum 22. Laipubam 
3. LeihaoThabam 23. Hangoibam 
4. Takhen Changbam  24. HajariMajum
5. Phurailatpam 25. ManoharMajum
6. KshetriMajum 26. Mathurabasi Majum
7. Lairikjengbam 27. LaimajumAnoubam
8. GurumishraMajum 28. ChoudhuriMajum 
9. Labuk tongbam 29. Goti Majum 
10. Aribam 30. Anoubam 
11. Samurailatpam                                                              
31. Hanjabam 
12. Sanglakpam 32. Dhyandas majum
13. Hidang majum 33. Vrajabasi majum
14. Kongbrai latpam 34. Varilibam
15. Thonga tabam 35. Braja majum
16. Srimajum 36. Acharjamajum
17. Bechospati  -do-   37. Kuli majum 
18. Guru majum 38. A.Goswami
19. Brahmachari-do- 39. Radhakunjabasi 
20. Guru aribam 40. Adhikarimajum 
41. Kanouji Majum ahiuvin hicheho kalvalla jonghi umnalai ahiuve.Pangal kitihohi Bangal kitina ahin Bangali ahiuve.Hichehohi Manipur sunga dinga agamsung mitah ahipouvin Bengalla kona hungah ahiuve. Manipur sunga anacheng masaho agammi hisahohi chunggam mite ahin meilheite hijongle jat alen aneo kiti ana umpon haamlepao, Custom, Culture, nehlechah kibangchet jengseh ahibouve. Chunga kisei Ganga phaicham mihohin nisale lhathah chilhah kahiuve atiovin ama hohi leiset chunga achen vaanguva van mi dana kigel ahiuvin amaho tilou midanghi athenglouva agelluva athamsaole atoh khah saojong anehlou adon louvu ahi. Hichetoh kilhona Manipur phaicham sunga meilhei Brahmin jouse khu “Gangetic People” @ Aryanho ahiuve.
Khatleni kiveimi ahunglut leh Mani purgam numeiho toh ahung kichenden jiuleh Hindu ahiojong beija ahaamle apaaojong khangnilang ahi tengleh mangji ahitan,tampipi hungho chu chengden jongleh hindu ahina lhatheilou apao vujong lhaa ’vah thei talou hitabang umdan anahijeh a’chu ahunglhun tilluva lei’nuoija chengho thongkha da taba anatiuleh khonunga thonga tabam hung kitiuva, chuleh ahunglhun tilluva phailei buh a cheng hochu khonunga labuk tongbam ahinpoh u ahin hitabanga hi Gangetic miho tampi Bengal, UP,Bihar, Gujarat, Orisa’a kona hunga cheng denho atam behseh phatnuva meilhei paole hindi, Bengali hi ahung lhatkhom nao kum asot phatna kimoh chohal dehduh ahitai. Achung chonin 17th Century AD achun Santidas kitikhat Bengali lengpa naopa khat-hi michingle thilbolthei tah khat-hi lengpa komah ahung vahlut kitne. Santidas hi a’upa lengpachu achunga lunghanga thading atileh hung jamdoh ahin Manipur lengpa koma aumhin a’upa  chun chithi ahinthotnin Santidas chu anathat teiteijin ahintile lengpala lekha simtheilou  ahijeh chun Santidas mamachu asimsah le aman adeitah a akiledoh a kanao patah ahin keimajallin ngailut tah’in ana umpin kenjong nahahsat na aumleh kapanpi ding nahi tia aseipeh phatnin lengpan athusei jouse  agelkhoh peh khatai.Chubana Santidas jongchu mi chingle lekha them ahin ama a’konin lengpa chun Hindusm ahindeitan Manipur chu 17th Century AD chun Hindu leng gam ahung hidohtai.
Hiche khangahin lengpan  jithahkhat miji alahpeh khat aumin amanuchu mihoitah chunggammite chanu Chothete lah a Thao kiti phungpite ahin ajipan Rani title apehloujeh in Bangali khattoh chapa khat ahin neilhonin amachu Pamhaiba lengpachu ahunghitai ama chiguija konahi RK kitihohi hungkiseipan ahin ahung chetou peh in Budhachandra geichu ahung hitai akisei Chothe numeinu minchu Chaipi akitin leng inn nachun Ningthin Chaibi atiuve.Hiche’a konhin Brahminho dingin houthu le chendan lampi ahungdet chehcheh pantan tulang dehdeh hin Brahmin meilhei hokhun agam’mi meilhei hokhu meilhei maimaijin agellun amaho johbou akigelsang jotaove. Tampi hung chenglut jeh uvin agam mi meilhei numei akichen piuvin,phat  ahungsot phatnin Brahminho ahiovin meilheiho ahiovin chule Bangaliho ahiuvin apaovuchu akehkhat aki mansah cheh  taovin akehkhat sanga lhomjo akikoicheh uvin“L”pan nading jouse a“R”apansah un “R” pan’ nadinga “L”apan sah uvin “T”pan’na  dinga “D”apansah un abungbu avaiphei akaleh akalouvin apaovu achuhsah uvin kum 300 tabang ahung hijou phatna tua kithopahi hungsohdoh bepma ahi. Tua Sekta atiu jongkhu Imphalla konin 10 Km dona adung langa kijui kholen khat uminte. Hiche jongchu Indo Aryan pao ahin nelphai tina ahi. Ithoi, Iril, Ijei, Irang, Ichai tia kisah hojouse jonghi Indo Bangali paova kisah jengseh ahitai.
Chubanin eimiho seidanle kihoulim na’a kijadanin meilheiho khun Bazar paova eikikou piule akihenan amahole amaho Kon’nung paova ahung kihou tenguleh akihethei ji tapoi itiuve. Adih thouve asungthu ihahet loujeh’u ahi. Eihojong Kom, Simte, Khoipu, Chothe  Gangte, Hmar, Thadou ikimuto tenguleh naaljetna ikihou tenguleh amahon jong hepouvinte. Hoijoh ahin asungguh thu aumcheh’e.Hitabang machun Burmiste jongkhu tilla chunggamite hitoh paohi thakhat tabang anahin tun Hindi paotoh akihaltan Manipurgam sangin akhohjoi.  
Tu’a meilheijem ahinpoh doh’u jongkhu akiphasah naopen hinte. Hiche khu kagah gelleh khantouna lekha kisim nasa gama hung kondoh ihi sohkeijuve tichu akilange.Tua American native people ‘ho Red Indian kitiho jongkhu hichegam agalhunukhu Meilheite Manipur gam ahunglhunnu phaatlaihitoh thakhatbep kitohbep dingin akiseije amahochu Kuonga (boat) gakitollut nuvin akiseijin,hitabangma a chu Australiia jongkhu galhungkitnu ahiuvin hicheho jousejonghi Eastern Asia mijengseh ahiuve.Hijehchun Manipur phaicham lengkhang kum 300 tabang geihi BC 200 vellanga patna tua Imphal’la meilhei pao akitho sohkei bangahi chungam mite paohi paolen pena ana kimang ahi. Koi ihiuvin kikhen na phat asotjepma chule ichele ivale jallun chuleh amunpoh jeh in ipaovuhi akimansah aumin midang pao kilalut jong aum sohkeije  2200 BC pao aumin 1500 BC lang paojong aume.Chuleh 500 BC-paojong aumin 33 AD -1000 AD paojong aume. 1000.AD-1700 AD paojong aumin, aban kitnin Pathen hou jong chutabangma ahikitne. 
Tun atamjohi Christian ihigam taovin  chule ihou masah’u Indoi jongchu middle east langa mama ahikitne. Hiche hou jeh’a pumkhat hina jalla  Christian honjong Bible  sunga minho iman’nom bangun melheite jongkhun Hindu ajopjeh un gangetic miho min kisahnomna  hung dohkha ahitai. Ahinlah hichehin Political identity manthahna aso’e ajehchu nampi dinga customle culture neilou ahinachu avetsah ahin, national identity dinga manthahna lentah ahisah thuhi geldoh a haamlepao chule min kisah thu’a hi chihthei angaije khonungding gelpha louva motchuon kitihi imalam jouse’a eima dinga khonunga kipalna bou ahi.
Abrahamhi  Chunggam mite customin kiseileh tahsa thua pendollin sating kingahnapen pachu ahung hipeh’e Hou thudollin. Chubanin leiset mihem hindan ngai mahi ivetleh mihem alhom hohin mihem atamho paohi achama alahjeng ahin Assamiste  jongkhun tillin anahaat jeh uvin ana lengchangu jongle mihem chu lhom chabou anahijeh un kumlelha ahungsot behseh phatnin UP ,Bihar, Bengal, Orisa kiti mitamhon aum kimveljeh uvin amaho pao kitipa mongchu umthei lou ahitai.Nagaland khopi Kohima a jongkhun Nagamis ativangun Assamis le Nepalipao kihal athotaove.Hibangchun tunjong Manipur phaicham naija umho khu   koite hijongle phaicham miho pao khutoh ahalpol betbut gamtaovin hitiho khun kum 1000 jouteng pao kiti neita ponte.I chihthei louvuleh kum ahung chesao tengleh phaicham miho pao ibonuva ihin thosoh diuvin aume. Sadar Hills Manipur gama chunggamite hojong Nepalihotoh achenhal phatnun Nepalipao tampi alataove. 
Manipur sunga lengam hung umpat danjong seithau hite. Pakhangba kitipahi Manipur thusima dingin leng masapenin akiseijin chule lengmun ahinlo kumhi 33 AD ahi. Amahi Poireiton kitipa hitoh leng  chang ding anakichu lhona ahin Pakhang ba in ajophatna lengmun changah ahitai. Lengmun kichuteni hi inkuonkhat ahilhon bouve.Abanin Pakhangba lengpa minhi ahikitleh “apa kihetpa” tina a anakisei ahin ama mindih mongjong koiman ahetapoi tin meilheite thusimchun aseije hinla Guite kiti bangin ama jonghi vaan’na kona penga daanin Thangvan tin amin anasah uve.  Ajehchu ama pendanhi nungah melhoi tahkhat ana umin, aminjong chu Lenghoi anakitin meilhei tenvang Nong maidenga anatiove. Thusim machun amanuhi guulpi khat’toh akideijin midang mudingin guul ahin amanu muding chun gollhang melhoitah ahi tin akiseije. Lenghoi chun nao ahin vopmin chapa hoitah khat ahin neitai. 
Ahung kichepthei phatnin agol’hotoh akichem jiovin ahileh agolhon pabeipa atijiuleh ajahchaji in nikhat anu koma aseileh anuchun hilang dawplanga khun chelechun Guulpi khat ana umintin amachu napa ahi kicha hihbeh’in tin aseipeh in ahileh amajong chu kicha louhellin alollah amanin hepa atijengleh mihem ahung kisoh in hichun achapa chu thu hihen, ipi hileh mihem dinga khoh jousechu ahiltai akiti.Ahung letdoh phatnin apa akona ahetnale  athepnaho chu ahin mangcha pantan hiche dungjui chun chenna munding thu’a ahtui sandin agotai. Amasan Langthabal muna abolleh ahoipon, phaipitol langah ahtui asaankit nin ahileh ahoi phatnin hitichun tua Kangla kiti laijakhun inn ahin satai atillachu Moirang munakhu ana lengchangpan ahibouve.Lengmun ahinlo jouvahin chomkhat sungin phaicham sunga chengho phungpi hochun kisem dohding jengseh aseitaovin ahile amanjong amaho phungpi dungjui cheh in thalhingset nin asem dohtai. 
Hiche phungpi leng inpi akona kisemdoh hochu akhopiole achen’nao Khomin jousechu jongchu abonna kanglei anakiti sohkei juvah ahi. Leng inpia kona kisemdoh cheh phungpi hochu abonin phungpi 9th in asimuvin haamlepao custom & culture jong koima thaneina noija umlou chamlhat tah’a lengamkhat banga umcheh ahitaove.Hijehchun Manipur phaicham sung sese khu Kanglei 9th chen nagam anatiuvin chule amaho kah a gamgi jong ana umcheh ahi. Hijeh achu kangla akiti tengleh leng inpilui hopsung khu kiseina ahin, Kanglei akiti tengleh Manipur lailung phaicham sungsekhu kiseina ahi. Tilchun akisei masa bangchun Lengpa gamhi neochabou anahin Khagemba lengpa khangachun lengneoho gamhochu achanuteu khatcheh akichenpin ol’ollin abonin ama lengam noijah ahinkoi gamtai. Chule   lenggam khatna a’umthei tahjeh chun agam’ min jongchu ahinkhellin Kanglei chu Meitra bak tin ahin minvotan hichu meitei leibak tina’a anasah ahi. Chuleh  lengte khang thusim jongkhun Khagemba lengpahi jihaopa tinjong akiseije’ ajehchu amahin akisei kanglei 9th lengneoho chanute khatcheh chu ahin kichenpin agam muchu abonin ama changseh thaneina lenggamin ahinsem dohtai. Lengtehi 33 AD’a Pakhangba lengpa a kipat lengmun hinlo jousehi abonin 75 ahin achaina penpa minchu Budha Chan-dra chu ahung hitai.Chule lengte chithengsel pachu 1709 AD’a thipa Charairongba chu akichaina ahitai. 
Pakhangba lengpahin  33  AD apat 154 AD gei lengvai anapon ,amahi athivah pon avaihomlou nungin jong phatsotpi ahing ngin insung miho chun atehsiet behseh jehchun atheinom tapouvin ahileh hichu amanjong akihetnin chetange kanoh phahtai atin kuong khatnah akitollin Loktak diil lailungah alhum mangtai  akiti.  Chule thusim asei naovachun  amahi athipoi nga injong aumin paam langah saa injong aumjing nalaije tin aseijuve. Chuleh ama banjom lengho khang  6th  geiho jongchu athinao mun akihepoi lhagao ahiuve tin akiseije, ajehpenchu laltouna munle vaihopna muna bouchu kimuji’a adang tengle kimujilou ahiji jeh uvachu chuti kisei ahiuve.
Chuleh anunglanga iseibanu chu jomkitnu hite. Chapangpa chu gulpi alol’la amatna hepa atileh mihem ahung kiso phatnin thukhoh jousele ijakai aseipehtai akiti. Hiche Pakhangba pendaan thuhi kidangtah anahi. Chunggam mite sunga thuguh thusim machun Lenghoi kitinuhi melhoitah ahin akichenpi dinga kilomlou ama insungmi khatchun avetlel jeh ‘a anaboldoh thilsoh ahin khonunga vaan’na kuon dana aphatna langtah’a aseijuva aminjong Thangvan asah’u ahi anakiti.  Chule Hindustan gangetic miho lah’a Brahminho jongkhun nisale lhathah akona penga kahiove atiukhu chunggam mite lah a “Guite”le Thangvan kiti ahungdoh tabang ahiding tahsan aume. Chuban’na Zaden kitipa chunggam mite lah’a Luseite kuondoh napa jongkhu chutabang ma ahikitne, “Sasan” Sunga kona pengah ahi tin akiseijin asung thuchu apendanhi akisel ahi tina ahijoi. Hitobang pendanthu hohi leiset thusimah atame. Ahinlah asunggil ivetchetna ahileh miching hole thil bolthei ho kichepna jengseh anahiji’e.
Phaicham sunga phungpi 9th hochu : Mangang, Luwang, Khuman, Angom, Khaba, Nganba, Moirang, Chenglei, Heirem ahiuvin, aning akah’a phungbah ijat um jongleh hicheng sunga kondoh cheh ahiuvin hichena konlou jousehi meilhei tahbehho hilou ahiuve.Manipur phaicham sungakhun Chung gam mitejong tampi aume bailampena geldoh theijin Poirei kitiho jongkhu ahiuvin chule meilheiten amaho phungpi khatnin chule abulpio penin simjongleo Moirangte khu Chung gam mite lah’ajong Chongthupa ‘gui  mongmong ahibouve.Aryan holeh Bangali ho khula thinglhanga acheng pouvin, hicheteni tilou Shan hole Burmis jong aumin adangsehi meilheite phungpi 8th sunga jaolou jousehi chunggam mite jengbou ahiuve. Milonghohi AD 1400 langa patnin chunglangah Maogei, solangah Ukhrul gei, lhumlangah twilong vadung’gei bouva hunglut nalai ahiuve. Manipur  phaichamsung  thusim mahin  tuisaanglet  sehle  mihem  tampipi  athi jinge tinjong akiseije.Chule Pakhang ba’le Poireiton  lengchan ding thua anakisaat nalhon  mun jongchu  tua  Kwakta lhangjep chakhat khu ahi.     Tillachu phai cham sekhu tui ana um jeh’a koima anacheng nomlou ahin molchung keoseh’a ana chenguvah ahi.Hitiachu Chothetehi phaichama agachenlhah uleh mijouse chun noilanga chengho anatiuva, noilang-noilang anatiuleh achaina langa  noilang kitichu Moirang hung kitidoh ahitai. Amahokhu Chotheho lah’a Khieng kiti alenpente holoi anahiuvin khonunga khieng kitichu khenge- kenge-Kege ahin tidoh kitnu ahin tunvang Khieng tita louvin Kege akititaove.Khieng hohi Mizoram langakhun  Khiengte atiuvin Parpa ho jongkhu Parte atiuve.
Abankitna meilheija kigel Thangjam kitiho jongkhu Moirangte insung ahin Chothe insunga Khieng ho insungmi ahiuvin thihkheng mi hina’a kuon’na hungki seidohpan ahi amapa minchu Kadeng anakiti. Hiche Manipur lenggam thusim mahin Chothete vaihopna khanghi Pakhangba a kipatnin achapa Khujoi lengpa khangahin akichaitan abanin Khujoi lengpa khanga kipat aban’ napa Taothingmang lengpa’a kipat hin michuom jep thisanin vaai ahinpo kittai. Avellin seikitleohen Taothingmang kiti pahi Muolpipa chapa ahin hiche Muolpi tehi chunggam mite sunga Haokip ahiuvin Haokip lah’a Telngoh’te ahikit nuvin chule Telngohte sunga tukhanga gahmu bailamin KBC sunga natong Rev. Paojangam Haokip’’ te insungkhu ahiuve. Hiche akisei Tao  thingmang lengpa’a kipatna 1709 kumgeija Charairongba lengpa geichu midang thisan beihella hiche Manipur leng inpisungahi vaai ahinpoh’u ahunghi. Taothingmanghi adihtah in Thangtinmang ahibouve. Chule akiseimasa Khujoi lengpahin chapa thum ana neijin amaho anatun tahlou phatnin insung chu kidouna ahung umin Taothingmang jongchu thallin akaapmun agilpi ahungdoh  in hinla akithoidam kitnin akihou vuleh Tao thingmang din munchu adihjoh phat nin adang hochu mun dangah acheu vin lenggam akisem kitnuve.
Chule Taotingmang pen’ napa haosapu Kaikholun jongchu kum 100 vaipo anahi (264--364). Hichelai 264 AD dunga Telngohte sunga abah neokhatnin hichan geija vai anapoh theileh Thadou khanghi alhompena 600BC masang hidin tahsan aume.Chule Aryanho jonghin Burma gama lenggam ana phudoh uhi lenggam masapenin akiseijin aumdanhi amaho alutpat nuhi 900 BC in akiseijin chule amaho hung kipatnahi tua Ganges valley khu anahin hichelai munjong khu amaho hunglhun masanga chunggam mitehi anacheng nguva ahitan aki hethei pen akhomin’nuchu Phoituh akitin hichu  jaangtel kiseina ahin phoilah’a jaangtel tabang hokhu anakehdan ahin tulaija Phoibung, Phoisan,Phoipi tia kisei tabanga ana kiminsah ahin hiche achenao khominchu ahinkipoh uva tua kamchenga Poireiton kitidoh pahi hungsohpeh ahin Chunggam miten Poi @ Poiho,Poite akitikitne. Tua Bangal, Bangali kitijonghi Vagal kitichu Bagal-Bangal-Bangla-Bangladesh geija kitidoh ahunghi.Tun gahseikit leohen chunggam mite Manipur gamsunga abullapat 33 AD- 1709 geija lengvai hinpote chu, alengtenjong asopite hetalou, Telngohte insung geijinjong hephatalou ahi.Itih khang ahin hiche Manipur gam sungahin midangin thaneina anatuh khapoi.Abulla Pakhangba lenga kipatnin kisimle 33 AD--1709AD geichu lengthisan mong’ mongchu chunggam mite thengsel ahi.
Manipur gamsunga gam minhole vadung minhohi medieval khanga lengkhang ahung hatdoh khanga  hung kisahdoh jengseh ahitan hinla gam’min kisahmasa jousehi chunggam  mite paova  ana sahsao jengseh ahikitne, hichu Kongjang phai, Kangla, Kanglasa, Kanglei, Kangleipak, Pallen chule Imphal’ho geihi ahiuvin tun tilla anakisei bangin adihtah in akiseigam tapoi.Chule tukhanga hin Meilheite custom & culture hohi Aryanho custom & culture lin alodim gamtai kinjouse’a puonbang amanhou,thiluong kigawtho, amin kisah’hou,kikounao hole kisahto naho, bunehding tengle kisil, von kisutlha,chan duon maaija kinu, khurum jaba abollu,  chule  chubana a hou geijukhu Aryanho houle custom jengseh ahitai. 
Hindustan kitile Aryan popentah hohi UP’ho,Bihar’ho, Guja rat’ho, Rajas than’ho, Orisa’ ho chule Panjabi hohi ahiuve. Chule India  sunga Aryanho sanga chenglut masa hochu Dravidian hole Chunggam mitehi ahin amaho jousehi mongoloid jengseh ahiuvin akalval’la mongoloid hochu central India sunga  muslim 75% hojonghi ahikitnuve. Chule mongoloid lah’a jonghin alhung masa alhung nukhah a’ume.Chubana sanamahi kiti meilheite hou jongkhu Pakhangba lengpa pohdoh ahi kiti jongkhu Chunggam’mite a ahin Pakhangba chu leng ahiphatna meilhei tenjong ahinjop muleh Pakhangba pohdoh atiubou ahin amachun apohdoh ahipon apu apa khanga ana housajoh  ahin leng ahunghi phatna amahochun ahinjop mu ahijoi.Phaituol sunga khun  milong jong gaalhinga ana kikaijeh in milongjong phabep aumdoh’e, hinla kabui kitiho vangkhu Riang ahiuve akiti. Meilhei tehin tillin paojong atum ananei pouvin chubanin custom and culture jengjong atum ananei chompouve, Chunggam mite’a chu pao, custom,culture geijahi Chunggamite’a hi ana kimang khom ahijenge.
Tukhangin Aryanho Hindu custom & culture ahamantaovin hinla Indoi @ Sanamahi tuhdetloijong atamnalaije. Political khangin Manipur gamhi Britiste khutna aluuttai. Hichethuhi giltah’a ivetleh mihemdinga chithengtah le athenglou kikhetna aume ajehchu tillapat ana lhukhalou gaalhatte anahin mixed blood nin vai ahinpoh phatnin lenggam alhutai.Ajehchu chitheng hohin  birthright hi ahinkho sangin angailun atuhchah in mixed blood hohin ama dudule ama deideibou akhohsah in thina geja dindet kitihi abolnomjipoi.
 SADAR HILLS
British govt. of India chun tillin Sadar kitihi geldoh injong ananei pouvin forest langhi Division anahom khenun North forest division anatiuvin Kangpokpi hi centre anahisah un chule North forest division chun Kohima gei anaphan noilang chu Vaithou geikhu ahikitne, aboncha chu Sadar forest reserve jong anati kommu  ahin Kangpokpi chun apoh sohkei ahi.Hiche Sadar thuchenghi Missionary W.Petigrew chun ahinmandoh ahin ajehchu amanjong mission natohlanga geographical estimate anei ahijehchun hiche dollachu anaseileh  23.12.1919 chun royal proclamation dungjuijin constitution of India act tia ahungkiso dungjuijin 1920 kum chun Manipur gamjong Sub-division ahin homun Tamenglong, Ukhrul, Churachand pur  hi anahiuve.  
Chomkhat jouvin 1930 apat kumthum  Sub-division jouse ahin ladoh taovin Imphallah abonin agomtaovin ahileh hill area ho dingchun ahahsa behsehtan hijeh chun thinglhang miho ahung kiphin taovin  ahileh athah in 1933 kumin ahin homtoh kitnuvin hichun CCPur, Tamenglong, Ukhrul, Sadar ahung kiti.Hiche’a Sadar boundary anapeh uchu chunglanga Mao, Nisolanga Litaan na hunglong suh Thoubal va dung, lhumlanga Twilangle   Ijei gamkai geikhu ahin, anoilangse chu Imphal pama chunglang kaisese le apang chinna kigolsuh molhochu Vaithou gei. Hitiahi anakisem ahin, hinla W.Petigrew   in Sadar anaseipohlo nathule amahon amin ahin pohsah uva agamhop apeh uchu avetnule akilom sesu louhel jehchun Head Quarter jong anasata pouve.Official’la anasodohjeng vangun  HQ.anabolmong tapouve. 
Hichejeh’a hi sub-division danghochu ahung kiphondoh dungjuija HQ.jong umsoh keija ahin sadar kitichu ana umlouva ahi.W.Petigrew in sadar hills minpo dinga gam umdaan anaseichu tu Manipur kanglei phaicham sesehi inner boundary hiding chunglanga Naga hills, lhumlanga Kasar hills,noilanga Lusei hills solanga Kabaw valley hitiahi anasei ahin boundary chu kilhung jenjuna hoija ahin tua amahon limlom louhella anabolluchu chamlah bepma hitia akibol chu angaina aumpoi anatikit nuleh phondohsa ahitah vangachu HQ,ana umdohlou ahi. Senapati HQ kisemding khun Manipur Govt. chun amin ana sahkhum jengu levangchun hijeng thoudingchu ahinai ahinla Manipur govt. jongchun kichentah’a gelkhen na ana neilousao jehchun Senapati tihinjoh ahinsah khataove. Aumsale aki sahsa ahi tin sadar chu  ana mangjeng khaleu ana kichaikit jengding ahin hinla hichejongchu W.Petigrew seibangchu hidehkit louding ahinalaije.Hitabangachu asungthu chu W.Petigrew seipa chuto akilomlou jeh’a anateudoh khapai thu bangchun ahung teudoh pehkittai.Hiche thuchenghi adminitrative confirm hija ahivanga kimang dohlou thucheng ahijeh hin ajemhi koiman ahechen theipon ahi.
  “Sadar”kitihi Parsia paova alailung, alailha tina ahin “Senapati” kiti jonghi “Nagaric”te pao ahin hichu C in C , Chief in Command tina ahi.Tuahi bolneoding hihen bollet ding hihen ahoichi johchu hitajongle govt. chun anabol mantahlou jeh in thu hihen thil hijongle aphatchuom nading jong aumtapoi ajehchu abailam ding hihen ahahsading hijongle asung thuhi thu ahomkeo ahibouvin kisahlel jong angaipoi ajehchu sadar ana kitichu chiilenam hina’a hiche mitedinga kigongle kisem ahi tina ana umdehpoi. Chule hiche mitehi chanloupi akipeh diuleh Sadar kitiding ahi tia thu kikoisa jong umdehjong ahipoi. Chubana ipihamkhat dinga reserve kibol jong ahidehpoi. Kisahlel ding mong ahileh Senapati district minkhu khelding ahilouleh mindang po’a District delmo ahipoi political development lamdol lin.   
Abankitnin kollevai 18th century AD langa patnin chunggam mite lah’a hin khatleni in ahung chenglutnun ahunglhun tilluhin chungam mite  thanei nagam  tilouvin chen nading  mun ana mujou  pouve. Hichelai khanga  chun, Manipur hill area hi chunggam mihohi thaneipenin ana umin hinla gentheile lungdong dinmu na umhohi  chunggam mitehin koi  hijongleh ahin lungsetpeh jingun  hicheto kilhon chun anachensah uvin achung chonin adinguva thilkhoh jouse ajong  anapan piuvin tulanghin agam miho  saangin  atamjo taovin  kisuon’na  len tahjong aneitaovin hijehhin adangho bolbang bangin  chunggam mite hi adiuva ana phatnao  chu suhmil teiding agopan kit’taove.
Hichihi kinahna sohdoh kitkha leh miphaloute tin aseimasaho seibangin seilele kitnunte.Umdan mong dingchu ahile agam mimasaho khankhohi apaltan loudiu (agam neiho right hi apallhah loudiu ahi)ahin ajehchu Manipur Hill areahi Chief Right thaneina noija uma ahin tun amahon agamsunga kichesah louhel revenues alalutnun, panchayat  geijin alalut nuvin agamsung pumpia kimang lou thil tampi ahinman nuva chuonna kavalval ahinman nuhi itijongleh  agam mihon ahinmah teiding alunghan tengule kinah kibao sohteiding ahichu achamalha ahin akinading dinmuna dingsa in akimui.Chunggam miten ngailut tah’a mi anapan pijiu hohi tunigeijin  khonung le amaodinga kipalna  jengseh  asohjingin, ana  mingailut  nao  jousehi   khonungleh adiuvin linglekhao  asohgam jinge.Hijeh a chu tua Kangpokpi MLA  Constituency jonghi manipur hill area lang ahin, atum  beh a unreserve akikoihi asung thu umah ahin, hichehi tunigeijin asunga chenghon adihpoi atikha hihlaije.Tribal gamsunga hitabang akikoitheihi  anabol vaipohochu uichaan sinaat aduchat manna athilbol tabangachu anakibol ahin hinla kibolta jongle adihlou jeh’a complaint  alhinga achenileh kiladohkit teiding ahi.  
Ibolla inchenle khantou nahi min aneitheija eiman kineithei louvaham tihohi geldoh’a holdoh’a neidoh’a manchah angaije.Koi koiham lunggelding dinmuna dingle,lungelding toumuna touvah  mijousen ageltheipon mijousen atong theipoi.Mijousen ngaicha jongle natohhi  talent neilou dingin ahitheipoi.Tunigeijin thil ahung phading hetpah theilou jeh in  vangsetnan eilhunkhum jingun khang masa thuho kisihna’a neijin hinkho akimang jingbep nalaije. 
Ichennao gamhuop sunghi nampi dinga chanvou lentah ahingaal louleh revenues district bephi boinadingbep ahi chunggam mite dinga idaan nutoh kikal louham ? 99% chief right uma ahin revenues district ipohlut nule chief right chu thitalou dingham aleisetchu govt. thaneina noija aumtengle gambeija chu haosat umthei dingham?Chief Right sungachu  revenues alutle Chiefchu ahohkeobou umding ahitai. Chule chutichun revenues chu chesahkit jongleohen Manipurla dingachu mundanga tabang hikit louding 1989 act, chu ahin chesah kitdiu ahin gamdanga sanga vangsetna lenjo hinalai ding ahi.Ahin ipilamchu hitajongle iboldinghi kisihlou nadinga abulle aleh dingvanghi hetchetna bollin aphai. Gamle nam thu hihen,khole vengthu  hihen in chen khosahthu hihen, khantouna dingthu hijongle alamlama lhaijale kisalel ineicheh uvin apanna muna alhaipa amiitle amitlou chu mipihin kinganse’a lung ngahna’a kineicheh ahin hiche panmun’na pangkha hochun khonunga kisihlou nathei aboldoh chehlou vuleh ikisih phatkitdiu  ahinalaije. Hijeh hin imalam jouse’a eima thanop man’na mohbol jenghin imacha gapha amoh sosah theipon talent neidomlouva tohtheile tohding ahitapoi.Sadar kiti abullanga agamhuop daanchu missionar ypa seichu anahin, hichu masanga 1851 kuma Chandrakirti  lengpan Chunggam mite henga ana pehdohsa gamhuop chutoh thakhat chet ahunghi.

 BUNG -III
HAOSA LE AKIVAIPOH      
(Traditional)
Haosa akitile Custom tina ahin Custom akitile mi’Uupa tina ahin hichengsehi pumkhat, kikhen theilou ahi.Akivaipoh hinkho umdanhi 99% tugeija ilah’uva kimang chajing thulah’a akhohpen khatchu ahin hetchet louva thukhoh ahi.Mitinin ahetlou  chu akhohnan hinla Haosale mi Uupa chule mopohna neihohi eihodinga thuguhle thugil chinga ahiuvin hiche dinmun helou sasa’a hiche dinmuna dingajong atamin lhingset hihjongleh akhohlai phabep khat behhi het themding dei aume.Tilla patnin Haosa a kivaipohna ahung umtoupeh’e.Achainan political khangin  19 century langah Britisten Chief Right eihinpeove.Chief Right hi India, Burma chule akimvellah chidang nam dangho akipe aumpoi,Chunggam mite hi akivaipoh naohi anavetnuva amahon pha asah dungjuijuva anapeh’u ahi.Hichu 1811AD kumchun Britiste Chamber of Prince in thulhuhna aneijouva Parliament khutna ahinpeh lhah uva,hichu parlia mentnin passed ahinbolkit nuva chua konachu hiche Chief Right hi hung kipedohpan ahin hiche act minchu “old land act issue” anakiti.Hiche ahung kibolna ajehchu Britiste hin amao thaneina gamjousea asunga agam milui dihtah hochu hichegam mitehi ahiuvin chule a itih’ajong hichegam neite hidinga lom ahiuve tina’a hiche thaneinahi amaova kona ahinsemu ahin khonungteng jongleh ahinaohi midangin suh chatvaina aneikhah jongle hiche Chief Right anape teuhin adoltah’a apanpidiu ahinalaije.Tuhin  Haosa tampin asungthu agildanle aloupina ahetphahlou jeh in sumlepai holna maimaijin agellun amanlutna toh kilomlouvin amangun imacha hilouhel khat tojong alhehjiuve.Ichihthei louvuleh Haosa khohelou khat thilbolkhel jeh’a mipi kipalna umthei ahi.Tua ikhutnuva aumpetna chanloupi ahinahi agelpha umlou banga uma ihiuvin akilhaso ninileh akinung mukit nading umlou ahitai.Tilla Haosa gamchu chamlhat gam anahin anahina bangtah’a Britisten tunigeija hijingjeng theinading thaneina einapeh khah uhi iti phatnapha hitam?ajehchu Haosa gamhi govt. gam ahipoi,tugeija India solkallin eipehjing thei nahlaiju jonghi amasapa banjom ahijeh ahin chubanin chidang namdangho akipepoi.Chihtheilou akhohdan khatchu khohelou Haosa khatleni jeh in Burma gamle mundang phabepmah soi anabollun hijehchun gam aneitahlou phatnun thajong aneita pouve.Chief Right loupi danchu tuhin Chief Right jousehi nampi minin lungkhat tah in kipangkhom henlang kanampi diuvin chanvou khattoh neikhelpeh taovin leng thaneina kadeitapouve kitijongle dinmun khatna dinnathei ahinalaije (District,UT,Full fledged state)hichu aboldanin apohding ahitai.Tujenga jonghi Haosa gama kona kipodoh hohi ipithil hijongleh solkallin tax alahthei louding ahi ajehchu amaho gam ahipoi.Haosahi eipaova akalval ineilou jeh’uva kimang jengabou ahin sapten chief atiuhi Haosa kiti thaneinan aphajou jeppoi. Chief kitihi leng thaneina  toh kinaithim agahitai. Britisten lungsetna lentah a einapeh jengubou ahi. Tun Chunggam miten kichepna changin ineijun inn khatleni aumjongleh Chief ihithei jenguhi vangphat umtah khat vangchu ahi.Hiche Chief kiti minhi leisetna loupina thucheng ahitan Haosa kitivanghi loupina thucheng ahipon ngailutna thuchengjoh ahibouve.Hiche right-hi eiholah’a 19th Century masang jepma issue hung kibolpanah ahitai.Chule hiche right kipehi mikhat dinga kipe ahipon agam mipichu kipe ahin chuleh amipi dingachu mikhat mina kipe ahi.Britishte Chief Right pehna jouse achun demarcation, ana’umpoi. Tua India govt.nin apehho vanghi demarcation beijin apepouve hicheteni kibah lounachu demarcation kipepahi mun choma demarcation khel’langa tha aneitah louding ahin, demarcation beipa vanghin chaolele jongleh aumna jousea tha anei ahi. Tulang nginvang demarcation ikhohsah uvin aumlou hojong ikisem gamtaove.Ahoijoh hijongleh chief right kitipou pou umna gamchu govt. gam ahipoi.Hijeh’a hi revenues thuahi chihtheiten ngaija ahi aneipa akipalkhah ngaal louleh Chief Right hopsunga chu revenues law injong asungle achunga tha aneilou ahin alut khah nasale akisem tasa a’umkhah jongleh tha anei chomlou ahi tihi ikihetnu angaije. A’umsa aum jongleh chief right thanei nachun athu alah phahlou ahi. Ajehchu govt. gam sung hilou gamachu govt. revenues act chun iti tha aneiding ham tichu kichen tah ahi.Lungthim neilouvin thilhi mohbolbol louhel ding ahi ajehchu mikhat ngoljehle mikhat chihthei jeh’a thilkhat chu setheile phathei umji ahi.
Haosa kitihi akisei laisea custom tina ahin haosa hija custom helouchu nitinna themmo changjingding Hiile Gaao apohjingding ahi.Ajehchu thu chengkhat aseichana custom seidinga ahetlouleh ipiba aseiding ham? Haosa dinga qualification khohpen chu custom ahi.Custom helou Haosapu khochu imatih channa kituup louhelding,khosungajong chon phatnale thudih umlou helding chubana thilpha jengjong sohlou helding ahin hichu Haosapu chunga kingamah ahi.Haosahi mi Uupa jong ahi hijeh hin haosan kai anepoi,mi Uupachun iti kai aneh dingham custom anompoi.Khang nunung langin mihem kiloupisah le kiletsah khangin anabollun kai melsetahtah geijin ana neovin ana mangthah gamtaovin chubanin customjong ama deideijin ahinmangun amantamding akichuvin khang nunung hon thubullang geijin akisuhmillo gamtan ahi.Hitabanga chu kichat um ahijeh in customhi adihtahle athengtah manjohding angaije.Tukhangin jong customle adin mun hetlou jeh in Haosa tampihin Pathenle asopi chule akhomite doumah mah in thil abolgamjiuve.Semtilla patna Pathenin mipi thaneina’a kipodinga eina gonnu hilouvin  born leader @ penpia thuneipa thu’a kikivaipoh hinkho mang dinga eina gonsao ahin, ipenpile insung kaija alenpen chu thuneile vaihom namun chu changsa ahin hichu Pathen thilpeh loupichu ahi.Achuti jeh achu  phale seleh amathu jengbou hiteiteija ahipon, mi’Upa ahinato kilhon nachu anaotele akhomite lunglam chu amanjong imalam jouse’a aholjing joh ahijin, hijeh’a hi haosa khosung asengaipoi kiti anahin tua Custom, Haosa chule mi’Upa kitihi thakhat na pum khatna amandan thep tahlou phatna  right holder kitilanga hinchesah ahungtam phatna chaatvainale manthahna jengseh umkha ahi.Avetsahnan pendolla alenjo umna’a neojon vaihop kibolngailou kitihi tuona kipatna hinkinitpeh ahin right holder hijeh in kiboljeng taleh leiset nabou hilouva itihchana vaanin  jong a ‘oilou dingjoh ahi. Khattouvin abol nahnah jongle adampi joupoi.Ajehchu customin aphalpon chonset lentah in alan ahi. Chubanin neojochu haosan panghen lang asopiho ama chungaho thu tantaleh damsot nantem? ajehchu Bible la mikhat nin apaji ji’in aneije atikhu michon valho lah’a athiet-ho ahidan aseina hilouham ? itihkhang hijongle ichungaho  chunga vaihopding kitihi customin phaldeh ponte.Chunggam mite dingin ichunga umna’a thutan vaihop , sapaang khawp, kitihi eihon ideimou ahipon, custom nomloujoh ahi.Born leader, born power @ penpi thuchu semthua khiel’hi Pathen douna ahi.Hitabang thil ahito kilhona haosanjong lunggel giltah’ agella vaipoh jonghi khangguithu ahi hetpuma jaatah’a aboldinghi damtheina ahin akhosunga chengjouse dingajong koiphung koichang umchuom louva mi Uupa ahijong akihet jingding. 
Khang nunung langa thubullang dalhah ahung kipatnapat haosaho thilbol khiel hochu amasa pena Custom  phalaiho ahin kimumosah @ ahindalhah uva kiletsahle hoithona a kona custom ahin semdoh’uva dihlouva ahin manuva “kai”dihloutahle melsetahtah geija hunama ahinneh panu.Chubana gamlego mipiding gellouva nehnathei le munathei jouse achanga akipumlomjiu,Houbung miho kiloikhomna chunga akikumjiule sumle pai jeh ‘a suhletunga akailejiu.Ama insung langa langnei sihnei abol.Leunadinga kilepthem munadinga humpi lungchang ken.Agambou angailutna mipi ngailu lou.Khosung khantou sahding khohsahna neilou guongjong guonglou,agamsung sumholna a neija mundanga goukhol. Khoneite khosunga kinoptaalle haam hoitho.
Haosahi aphatna pha chule ngailut umtah ahi athaneina chonset bolna’a akimanji laipahi aphamoi kiti ahi. Hitabang umdan jehhin haosa khosung ngahin koima  inchen akihol nompon achingthei jep-hojong kinop taalna noija aum nompon aum jongle kikaangse tah in aumin amatah injong khosung asemnomlou jeh in alunggelthei jousen khosung semding akhohsah nompon thilphading angaito nomjipon aumjouse kilungthim bolnan adimin hijehhin khosung ngailu dingchu koimacha aumjilou jeh in Haosa khojou sehi akhang tou  theipoi ajehchu akisei bangachu michingle lekha themho kiman chah theina umloujehhin.
Khochen phatnading le khantou dinghi giltah’a  igelleh Kholeveng Gamlego ngailut chehdinghi ahin hichu asunga chengkhom hochu kingailut ding kithukhat dinghi abulle aleh ahibouvin hichi umtheikit nadingchu haosa chunga kingamkitma ahi.Tunigeija nampi dinmun geija ikibahpi khat phalel gunsetna umjing  nahlai jonghi Haosahon custom adalhah jeh ule ahetlou jeh ‘u ahi.Ajehchu tuona Haosachu mi Uupale ngailut kigom anahin hichilai khangchun koimacha ana phalel kha pouvin,khang nununga custom ahinda lhah uva hoithojengseh ahinboljeh u ahi. Khang nununghin Right holder tihi paomejing chu ahin hinla akhohtengle gamsung huhnathei la ahijipon custom akimanlou jeh in Chief Right hi khochenmo nabepmin akineitai.
Hitabang dinmun ahijehhin  mipijong hi adeh in tukhangahin Haosa khosahna gamah koima akihuolnom tapoi hijeh a hi haosahin achen khompiho chu ijakaija angailutding amajong mi ngailut achanthei nadingchu amadinga khohpen ahi. Chutiachu akiboldohthei kahsea khochen jousehi detlouding khangtou louding ahijinge.Govt.nakona khosungle gamsung phatchuom nathei hole khantouna thiljousejong akimuthei jouse sumang louva pohlut theichanna pohlut johding ahi.Khosung ngailutle ngailutlou thule khochen miitle miitlou dingchu abulle alehchu Haosapu lhuohbu’a kingamah ahi. 
Haosan ikhosung jephoi angaijin mipi lungmonga chencheh nading khohsah angaije chubana khantou theina thilho jonghi khosung ahivanga boldohthei atamin hoilaimun hijongle pohlutna boldoh theichan khantouna thil jousehi pohlutna bolthei chan boldohna dinga lamkaiding ahi.Thinglhang hihen hoilai mun hijongleh institution @ thepjilna poupou hojong  chubana kivah natheile sumlepai munathei lampi hojong holla pohlutna khomijouse chu atohtheidiu lampi cheh a tilkhouva lamkai angaijin chule industry hogeija pohlut-thei khomiho phat chomna theiding atam thouvin hicheho geijachu pohlut theiding angaijin chuban’na farm system ho ahin kivahnathei le sumlepai munathei muchi aphachom theiho geija igamsunga boldoh ding thil phachom dingho amunle aphat dungjuija mihem dinga ngaichatna man chahding thilkhoh jousehi ngaitoa boldoh theichan igamsungto kitoh’a aphadingle ahitheiding lhen’na boldoh ding angaije, ima jousea khantou nale inchen theina dinghochu abona ama mopohna hijinga ahin haosahi hingjingle limjinga umjing ding ahi.Imacha geldohje neilou hella kumkholhonga haosa moh hihijeng chu phat patmaisah ahin hitabang mihochu haosa’a apanchu computer anompoi. 
Mijousen khosung angailut sohkei nadiuhi Haosa bolding lah’a amasapen dingle akhohpen chu ahin hichilaihi abolthemleh akhochen lolhingding ahijenge.Haosahin agam sungahi mipi phatdingle phat louding,thudih lendingle lenlouding, kingailut dingle kihotdingho geija amachunga kingam ahihi hingjinga ageldohje akihet jingding akhomiho hindanchu ama akon ahihi akihet jingding khantouna munho dellele sanga eima khomuna thilphapha joh pohlutna, boldoh johding khantousah johding  ipilam hileh kijumso natheile mihem musit’theija lungputle hinkhoman bollou helding.Haosahi lungthim beija umthei ahipoi achihlou thilkhoh ahin thuguhle thugil chien natheilou chu Bible lin ahinglaija athisa ahi atibouve.Tukhangin haosatjong haosa atamjoh tahvangin  athuhi ahethemle amangthem aumtapoi, hichijeh a chu Custom’s Wisdom holdoh kitna mankit angaije..
Kai  kitihi Haosa khochena sungah akibol ngaipoi,anenom mongmong aumleh Haosa atilouding mindang akisahding ahi abullanga chun akiseitan mi Uupan kai anengaipoi tukhanga haosa tampi in kai’hi ahasei taovin govt.devpt. langtoh alepkah gamun chondan ngai ipi umam tia thubullang donlouvin geltohtho langin akihei gamtai hinla haosa minchu amange.Apipenchu khosunga Salu kikhopna kin jousea haosapuchu kijao sahji ahi ajehchu Salu kikhopna munchu mi Uupa umna ahin amachun mi Uupa’ hochu ahinao agahi khompia asuh chamkim pihji ahi. Salu,Samal,Changseo kitijong akiseinai medieval khanga kiletsahle hoitho kivahchoi khanga hung kiboldoh ahibouvin tillin Uupa lhahsam lounadin natohlangin akithopi jiuvin kai kitihi customin aphallou jeh in akibol poi.Hoitho khangachun ahenasaovin custom hohi amaho lunglam bolding deinachun anadalhauvin ahile thusim kiseidanin Chunggam mite khosungahin kitomona ahung pungin cheh chaonale kikhentelan ahinlouvin hindan khandan jouse kibahlouna ahung khanglenin tunigeijin customjong khatcha kitoh talou phungkaija jong kitohlou khojouse jong kibangtalou geijin kikhen nale chehchaona asohtai.
Tunjong kiletsah hoitho dingle nehding langahin haosajouse lungelhi aumin hijeh hin khosung jousehi mipi  kilungtona himhim khatchajong aumpoi.  Khosung damthei nading jousehi birthright custom ngailutna kolchahhi abulpi ahi.Saluhi aga kithahpoi Haosan ama kinteng seimang pachong hole mi Uupaho toh akhopji ahin,midangin jong kinpi aboltengle ama Salu khopna dingachu ama VIP hole Thempule Haosapu apansading ahi.Haosat-hi pendolla alenpenpa thua kinielna beija kivaipoh  ahin, kagam,kakho chule kainehding hohi  aseingaipoi Uupa dinga kilompilou thil ahi.Abullang thugil hepha louvin tukhangin haosa tampin hunamin thil amoh bolbollun hijeh a hi khosung jousea phatna umtheilou ahin ajehchu customhi Pathenin einapeh’u ahijeh in thildihlou bolhochu pu gaao pa gaaovin amajin ana mangthah jiuvin tugeijin jong thakhat ahijinge.Chief right issue policy le customhi kichiena kihetlou akhoh’e ajehchu boinale manthahna jousehi custom hetloujehle eima right kihetlou jeh in hiile gaao mahthei tampi kiboldohji’a phatnale damna umthei jilou ahi. Michonval chu amasapena customto kidou, asopito kidou, amipito kidou, thudihle daanjouse to kidou,human rights tojong kidou, politics tojong kidou, economic le khantou najouse tojong kidou, achung chon’na Pathen tojong kidouva thudihle loupina jousechu adalhah a amale amageija kidou ahitan hichu itiba phattheina hoija kona amuding ham hijeh achu hiile gaaovin amahteng koima adamtheipoi anakiti ahi.Eiho panmun lah’a haosa panmun banga khoh-hi adang beihel ahi.
Haosa hin ipithu hijongleh ama khosungle gamsung poupouva Saba aneh louhelding ahi.Ane lah ajong jaolouhelding ahi. Ajehchu amachu thujouse kingahna ahin ajaoding chu customin aphalpoi.Chule mijouse dinginjong ipi panmunah pangjong lehen Tuchatna hihen Bechat namun hijongle  isopi  eima saanga  lenjole Uupajo chule chapangjo jongle eima sanga insung hina dolla alenjo umna a Sapaang munah akitou ngaipon amajohchu tunding ahi.Insungkaija eima sanga tahjole lenjo chungthu jong akitan ngaipoi.
Salu hi thugil chennapen ahijeh in phabep seijuhite. Saluhi customa pasal dinga pasal hina degree kisimna ahijeh in  midang achang theipoi inmuna kithat hihenlang gama kithat hijongleh athatpa chanvou ahi. Custom jousehi Salule Jubel kiman chahna ahijeh in neojo khatchun khochom aneinom tengle a’Uupaan asemdoh jin Salule Belpeng pehdohna aneiji ahin hitabanga alahnale akipehna  akiphuna umlouvin koiman kho atung ngaipon customin jong aphalpoi ijemtia khatnin abolnah nah jongle ading theipoi akiti. Uupaan inchen hihen kho hijongle asemdoh masangsen neojon sa ijat thatjongle aluchang akikoi theilouding ,asemdohjou tenglevang akikoithei ahitan hinla akisemdoh jouteng levang Satingjoh apehding ahitai.Custom chu haosan atuh in, Haosachu mi Uupan atuh in, mi Uupachu ngailutnin atuh in, Ngailutchu Pathen ahi.Custom,Haosa,Uupahi pum khat ahin anahsahlou chu Hiile gaaova kingamah ahi.Khosunga Haosachu alung thengpen dingin,akitahpenle thudihpen dingin ngailutna neipen dingin mikhoh sahpen dingin lungsetna neipen dingin custom thempen dingin Pathen giingpen dingin akineosahpen dingin mikaihoi dingin mihil dingin Seingaipen le thunung pen dingin amadingle mipi dingin chule khopi dingin ngaichat aum penne.Kho sungachun phungle chaang chu ijat um jongleh haosachun amaodinga jongchu  a’ Uupao dinmun na umah kahi tia lungput aneisohkei dinghi ama hinading mong ahi. 
 KIHIL  ANGAAI JE
( Life’s experience)
Chunggam mitehi mihemte lah a lungthimle tahsa lama sinmothei mite ahipoi. Alhahsam najeh penhi kihilna le kilamkaina alhahsam hi apipenjoh ahi.  W. Shaw chun hiche mitehin achateu vin thilkhat ahetnoma adoh komuleh chapang kithipmin tin asentong thojiuve atibangin tunigeijin akium nalaije.Chapanghi aneova patna ahetdiuva pha, seipeh dinga pha, chuleh ahetnom jeh uva thu eidoh houhi phatecha lunggil tah a akichin jing thei nadiuva seipeh johding ahi. 2nd world war laichun Japanhon Burma gamsungah chunggam haosaho guh thimin anakouvun ankong ana um khom  piuve. 
Hiche achun Japan gaal lamkai hochun Britishten hitiahi naneh khompi jiuvem tia adoh uleh haosahon hoilama a insunguva jong eilutsah kha pouve tin adonbut nun ahileh Japan lamkai hochun hitihchan umkhom taova chutia nabol luchu nangailut louhel jeh u ahi atiovin ahileh Chunggam haosaho chun phung thu hitin kaheove  chongthu Chongja ucha anahin nanghochu Chongja chilhah ahi tin kaheuve, tia aseijuleh amahonjong chujeh chuba hinte kithietna lungthim gelphalou hella hitia nehkhom ding kahin gon jenguhi tin aseikitnuve akiti. Hichun Japan lamkai hochun meikhet nakisem theijuvem atioleh amahon kasemthei pouve atiphatnun Japan techun nasatah a ipankhomdio Britishte inodoh dio nagam sunguva industry ikhantou sahdio chihnale hetna chule thepna ikhan tousah dio ahi.
Tun nanghon chaa lenaao nanei juleh bu naneh sah uvin ahunglet domteng leh dum nachep sah uvin ahung letjep kitleh ju nadonsah uvin abanin ji naneisah kitnuvin itih hijongleh hitobang chu nahijingu ahin itiba nakhantou dingu ham? keihon Japan gamachun naosen ahung penlhah leh alungthimle atahsa damle phat theina dingin aphatna thei chanin kasin nuvin ahung paotheija patnin lekha kahillun athahaat le ahung khanlet dungjuijin bolthei dinga ngaichat thilho  boljele tohje jouse abaan banin kahil toupeh un thu a nunje, kineo sahje, kamcheng manje,mijaje,phat homthoje, thoh haatje, pot’thoje, hitichun kahil toupeh uvin jinei nading phat anailang tengle jineijapat mihem dinga hetlouva thilkhohho jouse akihetna akibolthei nadingle kiman chahje chuban na hinkho lhumkeija inchending thule mihem jousetoh ahung kivop nading jouse  insunga inchen khankho a tohding jouse chunga alunggel amanchah theina dinga ahetna alhinthei nadingin jineiding ho ”Kihilna in” (Institute) kaneijun hiche “Course” chu ajothengsel tengleh Certificate kapeovin hiche neilouchu koima jineiding kaphal pouve, tin aseipeh un hatah in pangkhom muhite nangho ngailut najalla kahungu ahi tin aseijuvin ahi anatiuve.
Keigeldanin chutia kibolchu kadei lhehjenge, ajehchu leiset chunga politics lah a achungnung penchu Jinei hinkhoa inchensem hinkhohi ahin, hichepentah kihilna neilouva akichepi jinghi “danger” ahidan kamulheh’e.Chutia asei bangun leiset mite chitin namtin thusim hohi kavetleh hichejeh hin,Japan tehi numei chavai pasal chavai kajadoh khapon umjong umloudan hinte. Thuchih khatnin “Tu a ikimanchah naohin  ikhonung dingu asem ahi” atichu gadih jengin akimui Pro. 22:6 chapang chu achonna dingdolla khoukhah in hichu ateh geija alhakaang theilou ding atikhu sohding ahi.
Chunggam mitehi mingolte mongjong  ihipouvin imalam jousea adolla khoukhah louva umchu alhinlel dingchu aumsa ahi. I lah uva vaipoa pangho, houthu hihen, tahsathu hijongleh tunigeija  insunga nulepaho ahin khang thah ho hijongleh  chuon nading dolla hungki khoukhah lou  jengseh ahinalaijin itiba kilhahsam dading dading ham? Icha ngailut tah akhonung dingthu phatah’a gella amahon ahinbol luva hung khohding jousele ahung phading jousehi eiman  alungilluva  akilhen khen theina diole  akichin jinguva hinkho lamjanna a anei theina diova seipeh dingle puihoi dinghi jinei chanei jousen atohdingle khohsah dinga khonung khankho a dinga akhohpenin kagelle. Ajehchu leiset gouthil ho chungahin mihem lungel akingapon ichate chunga bou akiki ngaije.
  Anule apan in adoltah in hinkhou khah henlang ahinkho dingthu achinjing theidingle ahin nitjing theitah dingin seipeh henlang amanjong doile tupmin neileh phatei jintin chubanin ajineiding nailang tengleh Japanho seibangin jineina training institute certificate neitaleh chate ahin nulepate ahin chate jalla kisihnale kikhotona umpontin, chubana ahinkho lhumkeija amachun thilpha adalhah louhel dingin katahsane.Hiche laitah pihi gelphah louhelle donlouva akikoi khah’hi vangset umtah khatnin kamudoh e.Chate vetjuithei malah tahsan theijong  hilou lung gimpi johdinle jumnale jachat nabep  nulepa tampi aumin hicheho jongchu kihilna beija kichenjeh ahung hipeh’e. chatejong puihuoilou ahijeh a hinkho lamvainan aluonvuh’a lunggimna jengseh moh dimlo’a mahthah  atamin  hijeh hin insunga jong umkhom komjongleh  kihomtho tona umtalou jengseh ahitan, insung kitihi mijouse dinga ngai umpena kiseichu kinah kisaonan alodimjon hicheho geijahi kihilna umloujeh ahi.Ajehchu hinkho dihle hinkhopha mandohthei nadingchu kihilna kipuina beija hitheihoi ahipoi.Nulepa dinmuna umhonjong chate kingai natheile lungmonpi thei  hilouchu thilkhoh penchu ahin, chubana chate dingajong nulepa kinep pithei lungmon pithei hilouchu thilkhoh lah’a akhohpen ahidan kihetcheh angaije.Hinkho man lutah khatseh umchu mohseh’a manlhung dingchu pan nabei lah’a pannabei ahi. Hiche thutoh kilhona chu jineijong moh bolla lungdon khoisat thoh a   umlouding ahi.
  Hinkho thudol phabep seijuhite, khangdonlai phat sungahin hinkho lhumkeija haansan dingle meisan dingthu akingame.Hiche khangahin numeiding ahin pasalding ahin numeile pasal kitimatna thuahin lungtupna lentah aneicheh’e hinla hitabang athiltup chu aboldoh nikho apatnin koimacha lung sungah lunglhaina himhim aumtheiji tapon koima hetlouvin lunggil sungah kisihnale jachat jeh a kikhunna jengbou alungah achengtan thilphale thiltheng kiseina jousea alungthim jaojou louding ahitan alungsunga kisontheina aneithei tahlouding ahitah jehchun.
Hitabanga lunggil tongkhajing thil khat ahijehhin lungdon mana kijohho jongkhun phat tinna mihemle Pathen angsunga pachaatle ngailut chandinghi gelphah a aneilou ahitan nitina ahinkho manchu lungsunga lunglhai selna aneilou hellu ahitai.Ipibolla chubanga athanopna thilchu abolla chubanga chu alungsunga pohgih umlo hitam tihi giltah’a kholgil angaije.Ajehchu mihemte dingahi thildang hohi sumle paija lamdohthei khielthei ahin akideipen le amanlupen hinkhole minphat’hi kilamthu theilou khielthei tahlou ahin aminphatna umtalou michu amanlutna umlou ahitai.Hinkhoa dinga pasallin ajidinga adeipenle atup penchu virgin numeihi ahin,numeijin jong hitabangma achu pasal hi atupkit ahi.Numei ahin pasal ahin ajineijouva ajichu virgin ahi ahetdoh nungtengle alungsungah dettah’a ngailut nale lungsetna thengsel chubana tahsan jing theina aneijin,akichenjouva virgin ahi loudan ahet nungteng vangleh alungil sungah lunglhai selna aneitheipon chule tahsan thengsel najong aneitheitapoi ajehpenchu atahsa kituup tah’a ana chintup theilou patah jehchu ahin hiche thuhi numeidingle pasalla dinga thakhat ahi pasal ahin khatveichu akilhasoleh Sanakhang adihle athengsel pachu akimansah ahitai.
Hitabanga aman lutna pentah anaki lhaso khajouse chu aphatna lang langa seilah’a pangtei teiding ahitan hitabang miho jeh achu kitahnale dihna kitupna thuhohi pomdan hungdao jepjep kitding ahitai, hijongchu kihilna,kipuina, umlou jeh ahi.Adeh in tu khang nunung ngahin mihem hinkho lamvai nadinga thil bailam atamtan khangthah lekhasimho kisanjong hitabang hinkho manthahna langahin alunglutnun hichea akisahlel nalama ahinabanga lekhasim jong lunglut theilouvin aumun lamkimah akibosouvin pannabei hinkho akisolo jiuve hichu hillou,thungailou amading kihetlou akhonung ding kihetlouva amadinga aphaat achaang hinaisailouva akisahlel naloudinga akisahleljeh ahi hitabang michu ahinkho lhumkeija gentheile lungdon thoh lhumkei dinga amale ama kibollah ahitai.Ibolla amachu chutiachu umkhaham tia kagelleh kihilnale kipui hoina umlou jehma ahin chatehi eima thisan nakon ahin mingol kisan geijin chule ganhing kisan geijin ngailutle iitpena chule lungset pena aneitheipen chu ahin ahinkho lhumkeija gentheile lungdona muna akiselutkhah jengchu iti hamset uma hitam.Akihille akipuihovang chutin umponte.
Tu eiho dinmunhi mipha dingchu achamin apha langlangin hung kisan tin,aphalou dingchu aphalou langlangin hungkisantin acham chamin hung kihei jintin hichechu kingah’a kinganse jengah ahin ahung phatdingle ahungphat loudingchu kingatho jengji ahi.Loujong ibollun, jinei ibollun politics ibollun, Pathen ihouvun ipilama hinkho mang hijongleo hen kihilna kipuina angaije achuti louleh khangdon laijachu thilphale thilse lhenkhena giltahle thuhtah pihi iti  ahetkhen nuva huipi tabang masangahi iti dinjou diuham? kihilnale kipuina puma hung seilenho ding jengajong hahsakhop ahinalaije. Aboljou ding khatnin jinei ‘Institution’ khat bolleh kadei lheh’e.
Jineihi mihem dinga Pathen thilgon len khatchu ahin gelchen louva moh bolloi louhelding ahi ajehchu ana’mohbol jouse akisihlou aumpoi.Tulaijin Pathen thujoh gelkhoh louvin akichengding teni akinop toleh koiman tha aneipoi hichihi adihpen ahi tihi atamtai. Chutia kichen boldingchu     miheminjong adeipon Pathenin jong adeipoi chutabang chonna neilou hochu ahinlaisung jengajong amang thahsa ahibouve.Khangdong hojong akhangin poloulaija kisalel masaho chu akimang khiel ahitai.Chule jineidinghi kum lhing mo behsehho dingin lungtimle tahsa sukhathei thilphalou giltah aummin chujongleh mipilhingho lungput ahetthem theilou jeh in amadingin jinei hinkho chunga kisuhmona abailame.Chubanin kichenpi ding thudollin  namdang mitoh kichenhi pielmohel ahilouleh bollouvin aphai,ajehchu mixed blood kiti sungahin kitahnale kituupna ngailutna alhasamin alhomjep teije.Numeiding hihen pasalding hijongleh jiding kitihi anule apaan agonpehji ahin chutia nulepa gon’na kon’na jineiho chu inchenjong mohboiboi umlou ahin khangthah hon hinkho thudol imacha het khenthemna neilouhella  amahole amaho kiholla kon’na akichen jenguhi lolhina lhasam dingmong ahi.
Jineihi hinkhoa dinga kalbi lenpen ahijeh in aloupibanga mankhah teidinghi thilpha ahin jinei chungchanga lunglhaina lhingset neiteiding aphai.Jinei hinkhohi tuisohlai kinohbanga leiset hinkho hahsat genthei najouse hinkinoh panding ahi thuhi geljong gelphalou hella ikichen poupoule leiset chungchu nop kiemlouna  hinkho kimangpan jengdinga hilloule puilou hohin ageljiu ahin ahung kichen tengule malaija love songa nangto ihi pouleh tia kisaji tochun kibangji talouhel ahijitai. Hicheho jonghi anu apan ahetding  dolle  anit dingdol phatea ahil loujeh  chule kihilnabei ahijeh  ahin chubana chapangin jong kihilna mongchu umhihjongle anu apa ahinkho dingdol chuleh ahetlou thudol angai chatle amasang ding thuho adohlou jeh ahi. 
Chule minule mipahon ichatehi eima thulouva jinei aumleh ngaidam louhel ding khopma lunghaan umthil ahi. Ajehchu anu, apa achunga akipasah nom loule alunglhai lhonding gelkhohlou chu chidang namdang sohdinga lomtah ahi.Nulepa hetphah louva kichengho khun  avetsah chu ganhing banga hilloule puilou kahin keima lungsunga jonghin Pathenle mihem lunglhaina achengpoi tihi ahi.Amani keochun jumna amulhon ahipon anule apalhon geijachu akhonna beija ajumso lhon ahin chalenao hillou ahilhonle  amitmona lhon jousechu alhingsetna aphondoh pihlhon ahitai.   Dei umtah’a jinei kibolkhah hochu leiset hinkhoa dinga ahamphatah chu ahitai hitabang mihochun jinei jouva kijumso theinaho hinkhoho geija mankhah louhel kitna dinga atai akigah’a lhagao chemjam kichoijing angaije.Hoitah in jineijongle atai kigahloule lhagao chemjam mangchalou hochu ajineinichu kipaman asaan nikho ahibepjin michonsete totnopna achangjin amoh jineiho sangin minuisat achang jitai.Ahinla ipichu hitaleh mijousehi adei achang joupon adeilou chacha jong changtei ahidehpoi mihem lungelhi khat aumnan ahin Pathen thilgon jong aumkitnin hichiteni kah a hin Pathen loupi kiphonan Pathen thilgon johhi alhung ji’e.
Hijehhin deibang tah in jineina kiboltahih jongle Pathenin adeichu mihem akisem phathei hohi ahin deitah’a jinei bolla lamkima kijumsoho sangin suhkhel nukhah neilouhel hochu Pathenle mihemin adeijoi tihi geldoh’a jineisa jousenjong avella kijumso louna dinga itai kigah’a lhagao chemjam kipatjing angaije.Pasallin jong hinkho lhuma lungmonpi dinga eihinjon ijichu ajumna theija bollou dinghi lolhina ahin,numei dingajong hiche munachu kijumso louhel dingchu pachan na ahi.Chubana ijipajong  eima jeh’a jumna mulouva hampha akisahjoh nathei dinga lungguh tah’a panjohding angaije. Jinei khat ihitengle jineihi itabang hinkhoman ngaijam tihi lunggil tah’a gellouva umthei ahipoi. Achuti louleh iji ichate hinkhochu  hung kidong teiding ahi.Chule mihem jouse dingin thilhoi thilpha amantam atuui jousehi ngaichat ahijinge hinla  inehdingle idondinga athenglou akidei lou banghin  inchen semnadingle insung khoukhah nadingin income thenglou dihlou chule hunama kila kimu kinei kitihohi manchah louhelding ahi ajehchu hicheho’a konachu alampi kihelouhella hamsetna hunglhung teiteiding ahi. 
Pathenin nathil bolchu ase hihen apha hijongleh nabol bangbanga nachunga chuteiding ati ahi.Chule nupahi hinkho sunga kingailule  kilungset gunset dinga kicheng ahin chubana hinkho jonghi khatsehbou kineija ahin amanlut banga  manglhung teidinga kigel chehjong angaije.Pathen lekhabun nalet tengle min natai nagah peh’a nanoplou nalang langa nacheding ahitai atikhu jineijou hinkhohi ahitai.Michingchu ngailuttoh acheng khom nomin, mingol vangchu neilegou toh achengkhom nome hinla itih hijongle ngailutle gouthil kibangdeh ponte. 
Semding pen tahchu leiset gouthilho sanga khohjo mihemhi ahin kihilna neikhalou hetnajong aumsa umloute chubana imacha hetdinga phajouse hetna umloulai chu bana nitinna itohjing sahou geija imacha hetthemna jong neilou laijoh ihiuvin hilkiticha a hilding sei kiticha a seipeh dingte joh ihina laijuve. Jinei thuseh hilouvin kihil ingainau tampi aume hinla kidong leohen keimahi koimahil kangai poi kitinte.Achomlamtah in  hetthem puma thil kibollachun boina  aumjipon, hetlou puma kibolna’ahin boinakeo hilouvin lolhinna alhasame. Hijeh’a hi adeh’a jinei chung chaanga hin Japante bangin training bolna kineile aphat chomna lenlheh inte tia kagel khohle kangaichaat to kilhonna miching hole natongthei dingho khattouvin ahin gelkhohding deina’a kahinsut ahi.

BUNG IV 
CHUNGGAM MITE MIN KISAHDOL
(Traditional & custom )
Eimitehi namdang ho banga ingainom le pha isahsah kimoh sahtheite ihipouvin chule ajehle ajem kihelouva  minsah kiti kibolngailou kisah ngailou ahin minkhat @  pumin khatna kona kilason na minluto kicheh tah neite ihiove. Minhi lahdinga pha khatchu akilan, inlelou mollelhang lampile twipi chuleh gam min geija kilasona kikisahtei, chubana phungmin nam min geija kilateija ahi, hijeh’a hi hitabang chonna neilou chiile nam hochun adeideiju bollu jongleh eihovang chutithei ihipouve. Midang hokhun bible la minhole mindang adeideiju akisah jengukhu eihoa tabang custom aneiloujeh ‘u ahin, custom neite chu min kisahna chunga  vulah tettut le eltol tieltuolla kium ngailou chubana umjong ki umtheilou ahi.
Tulaihin namdangho min kisah dinghi kithang atna tah in ilagam taovin lungthim giltah neilouho dingin abailam thouve ahinla gahgel dingin sapte  kolte Germante, Isrealte’ho min ikisah nomten nukhun ipi avetsah em? jaatneo, namneo, nam chagatah, lungneotah, mi nungjong phajoulou chapang banga amule ajah jouse deichale  thangse theibep,  chule ami hinajong  thugille  thupi chenna  behseh hilou achung chuona chihnale hetna nei jongle thil lhenkhen theina  lungthim neilou  ahibana ama jengjong koi ahichu kicheh behseh louho, achungchona phungle chang kichehlou hindan ahina avetsah ahi.English, Germany, France, Isrealte khun eiho minhi kisahdin ngaichatle  gelphah injong neipou vinte chuleh kithang atnan jong neipou vinte. Namdang min kisahji hohin avetsahchu  hiche kaki minsahte namhi kangai sangpen ahi keimala kajaophapon aminu behhi kakisah ahi tia akisahjiu ahi.Hicheho chu  customle thugilto jong cheng khomlou  alungthimle athinkha geija huimut mangthei bep ahijeh achu hitiakhu min asahdoh jiu ahi. Hijeh’a hi namdang min ikisah jiuhi lunggiltah a igelleh jachat umtah umchanjoh ahin lunglutna bolbebe louhellin aphai. Ajehchu ichii’le inamchu itabang chu hitajongle jachatpi sanga  dopsang johhi vannoija chitinle namtin lungtupjoh ahi. Ipi lungthim kineija imin kidalha’a chidang namdangho minchu kingaicha’a kikisahkit monga ahidem...!!!.
Chule phungmin sutdan jonghi phate cha gella sutnin aphai. Min masanga sunloi minjouva sunloi chule anung ama’a phungmin ahal halla hom khenna sunloi jong aume. Hitabangho jonghi ahoipoi, minhi alhingsetna sutding abaana phung minchu alhingsetna sutding ahi. Ajehchu adress jousehi aneo penchu masa pena abana alenjep abankitna alenjepkit kisunji ahin achuti loule kon ahet theiding ham?   chena lhuongpi’a kimang bangahi, amasa pendingchu mipa minchu hiding chule phung kitihi mikhat sanga lenjo ahijeh’a abana phungminchu sutding  chutengle address lah’a chu aneo penchu masapen kitding alenpenchu nukhah pending ahi.Minle phungminhi dalhah theilou ahicheh in amani khella alphabet jong manglouhella kicheh tah’a sutding ahi. 
Hitiachu japi chena lhuongpitoh akitolouleh eima chang kilunggelchu kon eihetpeh dingham minkhellin alphabet kikoihen phungmin khellin alphabet  kikoitaleh.Minle phungmin guntah chu ajeh kihelou hella akhella alphabet kikoichun imachala seidoh thei louva aloupina jouse chu amoh selmanglo ahitai.Hijeh hin minle phungmin khiel keosehjong ahipon khomin kisutnaho geijin akoudohle aseidoh  kihethei  talou  ahijeh in alphabet hohi jemkhat chajong achanga koilouding ahi. Lekha them tahtah hole milun tahtah hojong aminkhella alphabet koija chuban’na namdang min kisahloi aumjihi jum aumlheh’e, hinla angoljeh’u ahipon ajehle ajaalhi gelchetna aneikhahlou jeh’u ahi.
Eimadinga official thillahin kenvang duplicate hole extra maimai thil’hohi kadeipon manjong kaman nompoi, hijong kahi nompoi achung chonin keimale ka phungmin khellin jong alphabet kapansah nompoi. Ajehchu damlaisunga kipoh dingle kahi nadinga um thille thuchu kilep khumding kadeipoi, Kahinajong ka deimopon chubanin midang hinajong kathangset pi nompoi, ahina laitah bouchu ngeile ngeiloule, deileng deihihleng katuhchah nome, kahinahi imachatoh kalhet nompon jachaatpi dinginjong kagelpon achung chonin asaanga ngei jo’a khelding jong kadeipoi, kahina louvajong kahinompoi, kahinading dollajong kada nompoi, huuimuut lonlethei mihemjong kahinom poi.Deidan vanghi kibanglou hinte mi loikhat chu aphungmin jongchu batdingin midang phungmin geijin amangnom thouve. Hitiho thudolhi gelchet angaije mihem khat mindinga akisah ngaalleh lunggel beija mohbol bolthei ahipoi, Hitabanga gelchen louva aminle aphungmin dinga anopnop kisutji tumasang jenga jong mitampi khonunga adihtah ahinhetna adihpa ahin ngaichatna manding ahindei tengleh semphatmo in aumjin aphaatcha anabollou jeh in kisihjongle ageisang jitai koi angoh dingham ?
Minhi kenvang achom lama  kikou jeng jong iman nomlheh vangun agun’ nale amanlutna lhasam kasanalaije, imin lhingsetna kikoujoh hi kadeije. Chubanin tukhanghin nam dangho min hole eiho minpou isah kopmun e.g.George Thangpu Kipgen kititaleh, eiho vangin kithang atna tah’a ikigeldio ahinan, hinla ivetleh Tang-ngol Jucha kisoh dingkon toh kilo kasai.Ajehchu hoilangjoh ahinachu akicheh josang umlou ahi. Chubanin kenjong T. Kipgen kitileng midanghon amakhu amin ipi ahidem tileo ipi kaseithei dingham ?Hinla Thangkholet Kipgen tijeng taleng nuolnabei ahijenge.
Tunjong T.Kipgen tin sunleng kamin chu kon ija ahetphah dingham,chule K.Thangkholet tikitleng K.panmunchu kon ija ahetkit dingham  ajehchu eima personal minchu japi themjilna’a mipi hetding monga akisimna lah’a jaolou, abana abreviation najong jaolou ahijeh ahi. Chubanin khomin kisutna jengho ajong S.Muolnom tin kisun henlang kitahtaleh ”S”chu kon ipimong ahi ija ahetding ham ? hiche sangchun Sadar Muolnom tin kisun jengleh nolnabei hijeng louham?  Akoudoh kihe theilou  achangala ima seidoh theilou, alphabet kikoijihi lolhing louhel ahin, signboard na hihen, mihem minding hijongleh alolhingpoi. Alphabet jonghi imacha thakhella koilou helding manlou helding adihjoi.

BUNG V 
MIN HUNG KIPOH DAAN HO

KAWM : Kitihi malai chun amapahin lukop anakopjing ahin lukopte tina ahin Kop kitichu ‘Kawm’ hung kitidoh ahi. Lukop-kop-kawm. Lenthang insungmi ahiuve.
LUSEI : Hiche jonghi thucheng ahi alung thim dihtah seidohlou lungsel kiti’a kona lungsel chu lusei hung kitidoh ahi. Anal hole Tarao hojong lusei insungmi ahiuve. 
KHONGSAI: Hiche thu chenghi meilheiten 200BC-251AD sunga einakounao ahin amahon khong kitihi anamang pouvin  culture  bolteng jahkah’a khong kichoija avohto alamtoh ana kithoji jeh’a khong choite einatiu ahi. Tukhang hin Khongsai hi phungmina mangloi aumin, asungala phunggui neilou aumpon, phungmin khella khongsai chu akimansot le phung min tahbeh pachu achama mang ding ahi. Khongsai chula guilebah neijong ahipon hitabang minhole nampi minhohi umdan mongin phungminin akimang ngaipoi. 
  CHIRU : Malaija chu sanale dangka sanga chii bouhi ngaichat lah a khohpen anahin mipa khatchun chii anaguh jeh’a  chigupa anatio ahin hichu  Chigu hungkiti chun ‘Chiru’ahin pohden ahi. Amahohi Lotjem sunga kilongte insungmi ahiuve. Garo, Jaintia tejonghi Doungel insungmi ahiuve.
LAMKANG : Lam kitihi lampi tina ahin,  kang kitihi chempong tina ahin, chem ponga lampi vaatpa tina ahi.Lenthangte ahiuve.
KARAN : Tua Burma gama Karan kitiho khu ahiuve. Amin bulluhi chongthu khanga Kolhen kitipakhu ahin kolhen nakona abaan bana hitiakhu hung sohdoh ahi.
KHUPNGAM : Chongthu loipa Khupngam chilhah hohinjong agui kihetphah tahih jongleo Chongthu sungkon hon Chongthu akimoh tijeng tabanga Khupngam jonghi achilhah ten abolkitnu ahi hichu Khuram, Kharam, Kherma  Kherkha, Lakher hohi ahiuvin tuhin sopikhat ahidiujong agelpha tapouve. 
LU : Meilhei tele eimihon luhi thakhat nin akimange, tulaijin samvo akitin tillin lukoh anakiti, ahungsot phatnin luhi adalhauvin  ‘koh’ sehseh atitaove, hichu luchang kivoumui tina ahin Indo Aryanho pao naatna ahitai.Meilhei tehin paohi chung gam mite’a hi anaman jengu ahin meilhei kiti jonghi ‘maitai’ kiti ahi hichun Taai’mi atina ahi. Mai kitichu mi tina ahin “Taai” kitichu agam minnu ahi. 
MONSANG :Thalkapma them tina ahi  Manipur gamma hohi Monsaang akitin Assam langa hokhu Mishing akitiuve. Lotjemte insungmi ahiuve.
ANAL : Athepmona mi ngohkhum tina ahin amaho jonghi Luseite insungmi ahiuve. KHOIPU itiujonghi Manipur lengkhang bul langachun pasal khatnin khoitou kiti leisetna cheng hokhu tampi amu’a tamtah apoh’a lengpa agapehle lengte chun khoi hinpopa atiule khonunga ahinpoh denu ahin,Chothete ahiuve.
MUJON : Mujon @ Bodo kiti thuchenghi thakhat ahin “Buoldung” kitina ahi.Amapa hi asenlaija buolla anu umpetna penga ham ahilouleh buolla asenlaija kimudoh ham ahin athucheng hin buolla kona peng atina ahi.Assam gamah Bodo akiti in Manipur gamahin Muyon akiti ahoichi ahin Buoldung kiseina ahicheh’e. Amaho hi Doungelte ahiuve.
TARAO :Lhaangdang ahilouleh Lhaang chuom tina ahi.Amahohi luseite ahiuve. 
KHUUL : (Leikot) Chunggam mite hung kondoh nahi khuul akitihi  bailam penna kiseichu ahi. Ahinlah asungthuhi nasatah’a ivetleh tua mountain Kailash tinjong akiseijin Kunlun mountain jong akiseije hoijohchu hijongle khuul umna langchu akingohpene agamchu  Tibetle China in hopcheh inte. Muol chiekah lamjimtah le saotah hinte.
DIMAPUR,DIMASA : Hindi paova Dimasate khopi tina ahi.Dimasate jonghi chunggam mite ahiuvin  Diim kitihi Diil ahiloule paat tina ahin Diil chu amasa anukhah uma ahin amasapa umna langachu chenguva ahileh hiche Diim amasapa minchu ahinpoh’u ahi.
HRANGKHOL :Hichehi mihangsan kitina ahi. Amahi gaalhat chule gamleng hat, Sathat hat anahin hiche ahansan minchu kipoh sahden ahi.Lenthangte ahiuvin “KHOL”  hojong thakhat ahiuve.
KULU @ GURU : Burmagam langakhun Budhist monk hokhu eimihon kulu @ kuluho atiove. Hichu Hindi paova “Guru”  kiseina ahi.
JAAM’PIPA : Hiche thuchenghi tua Sitlhoute hin apoh ahi. Apu ahilouleh abulpipa minchu “Elmun” akitin aneolaija a insungu kitollou jeh a  anu in ajampileh ajampina langa mihochun  ahin jampipa atioleh Jampipa apoh paipai ahitai. Sitlhou sunga asatingu kingah napen tekhun pouvinte.
PAI’TE : Mibul pachu aneolaija anuchun  khochom langpeh’a aga chenpileh hichepa minchu achen nalang mihochun  ahin paiteo tia aseinaova kona ‘Paite’ ahin phohden khah u ahin amin tahbeh chu guite ahi. 
Gu’wahati  : Go-hatya kiti anahin hichu  kolpaova buongthana mun tina ahi. Malai Hinduten golnop abolding tenguleh hilai mun nakhu bong anathajiu ahin,hiche minchu ahinpoh khah ahi. Hiche ahinpoh masang 800BC geichun Kamrup anakiti ajehchu hichelai jachu Hindustanho ana  lengchangu  ahi.
Ai’jawl : Aige, Aiphung tamkena muoljol anahijeh’a Aijawl ahin pohkhah ahi.
Mi’zoram : Zouva cheng mihogam tina ahin,thinglhang mite gam tinajong ahi.
Ka’sar : Hichelang gamakhu midangho toh anakisuto uva ana kisatnuva ahin kisat--kasat--kasar,  hitiahi hung kitidoh ahin Chunggam mite pao ahin chule amiho jongkhu chunggam mite ahiuve chule hichelai khang thilsoh a konakhu Garo, Ralte,Jaintia kitihohi hungdohpan ahi.
Ghas’pani : Gancha vahna mun dinga hampale twi kituup namun anatiuleh khomina ahinseipaiju ahitai.
Pat’kai : Chunggam mite achenlai juvachu “Patbo” anaphat lheh jeh a patkaina tina a ana kiseina ahi.
Bur’ma :Bramaha kiti chigui mite ahijeh uvachu amao chenna gam tia akiseileh burmagam tia ahinpoh khah u ahi.
Bra’hmin : Hichehi gamdangle namdang aum lamjong akihepoi India miho lah a hin houjeh’a namtheng mithenga umloi, mihem chiguijakon hilou nisale lhathah chilhah a kiseiloi Hindu mythology thusoh-hi atamin,hicheto kilhonhin amaho brahmin kiti loihin mihem chiguija kona pieng kahipouve atiuvin leiset mihem adang sesehi kitohkhahpi, nehkhompi, donkhompi dingjong anompuvin amaho mi tilouchu akhutnuva athamsao jong anejipouve. Hinla keimu dollin asung thuhi milen milal chule michingho kichepna ahiji e. Midang geldingin vang hitia min eithietbol kitihi mahthei khatvang ahi.Athuchenghi Boun tiloi Bamon tiloi Bramon tiloi aumin adihtah chu ahile Brahmin ahi. Ganges valley achun phat saothim inacheng khomun eimihon amahohi tukhanghin kolte vaite akitin adihtahchu Vaanche anakiti ahi hichu vaan nin ahin chelhah tina ahi ajehchu amahon Nisale Lhathah’a kuona hungpeng kahi anatijeh u ahi.Vaanche kitichu eima deideija hinkiseija tua vaaite,Vaaiho hin kitidohpai ahitai. Hiche Aryanhohi 15th century BC’a Indus river khu hung gaalkai hunglutpan ahiuvin hiche masanga chu chunggam mitehi phat saotah ana chengsa ahitaove.  
Apang Ningthou : Hitobang minhi anakiseije hichu mingol lengpa tina ahipon Pong kitihi  chiilenam minkhat ahin  Pong lengpa tinajoh ahi. Shanho ahi.
Mani’pur : Songmantam khopi tina ahi.
Pal’len : Imphal to Moreh road na umkhu ahin, tun aseitheilou manun Palel atiuvin, hinla Chunggam mite minsahjoh ahin  gaalpal lentah anahijeh’a Pallen kiti ahin chunggam mitehi hichelai munakhu anachu masapennu ahin, hichelaija konakhu mundang dangahi abaan bana hungcheng khenu ahi.Chuleh hichelai chen khanga khun tua Manipur phaicham sung jongkhu diil ahinalaijin chulai khanga anacheng jouse jongchu thing lhang hole molchunghoa khu anacheng ahiuve.
Ni’ngol ChaAk’kouba : Meilheiten  kumseh’a khatvei amanjiu insung numeiho an nehkhom pinakin khat ahin, hiche jonghi chunggamite toh chenkhom khanga ana kibolchu ahin manpai paiju ahin,hichu khang saotah ahungche phatna lengin ama thaneina a kumseh a boldinga ahin bolkhah ahin hichu eihon numei satha ibolluva kona kiladoh ahi.
Chei’raoba : Malaijin mipihin kumlelha anahepon hijeh’a chu kum kichaini tengleh leng natonghon thing abah mal’louva achoijuva abahlah a chu thilgingthei tamtah akhaijuva lamthuom aphah tenguleh aloging jiuva min jatante ati tenguleh Chahi loikhare tia asapjiu ahi. Kumkichai phondohna ahin, Chei Laaoba anakiti ahin ahungsot phatna Cheiraoba Hindi lutna ahitai.  
Chiin hills : Chin thuchenghi ahung kipatdan mong mongchu amasa penchun Qin akiti, hichu great wall of China hinsempanpa Qin-Sehuangdi  mina kona hungchepai ahin hiche Qin kitichu Chil ahungkitin abanin Chin ahungkiti. Hiche Chin kitia konachu China hung kitidohpai ahi.Chinhills kitichu Chin miho chenna thinglhang gam tina a kisah ahi. Chindwin vadung jongkhun chutabangma akona ahinpohkit ahi. 
Imphal : Thinglhangle phaicham kisei khenna kamcheng ahin inn kiti chenna inhi thinglhanga inn phaichama inn tina ahijenge. 
KANGPOKPI : Malaichun Manipur lengpa hin gamhonbit nadingin Chunglang sanga ahungtouvin tua Kangpokpi muna khun anapansaan agamsung huhnan kum Phabep ana umin hiche sungachun achapa khat anapengin aminchu Kangba anahin khonunga hichelai munkhu Kangba pen namun tia Kangpokpi  anatio ahi.
Kabaw  @ KABO valley : Kapo kitihi eipaova athi, ahatmo, dalhah tiho’ a hin akimange. Malaijachu tua Kabo Valley kitilaija khu Chunggam mitehi ana chenguvah ahin gaal lentah  in ahin buluva mi tamtah jong thia agamjong ahin dalhah u ahi. Hijeh achu“Thina mun, Dalhahna mun”tina a Kapo anakiti chu meilhei tenjong ahinjom kitnuva meilheite kamchenga konna sapten ahinsut nule amaho kasoto kitoh’achu kabaw hung kitidoh ahitai.Jaamcheh petna Burma sunglang anajonho eimiho chun  kaale maona phai anatiuvin phat ahungsot phatnin Kaangmang phai ahintitaove. Hichu tua kabaw valley khu kiseina ahi. Chunggam mitehi tamthim ahunghi nungun gaaljeh in ana chehchao khaovin burmiste lah ajong phabep khat analut khaove hiche thudol lahin amaho kaso danin Tado tiuvinte amaho sekhu chung gam mite Thadou kitihi ahiuve.
 SIndu river : Tillin Sindus river anatiuvin tun INDUS river akititai hiche minhi India’te dinga thului tamtah minpo ahung hidoh’e, tun Pakistan gamin ahuoptan, Hindu kiti thucheng jonghi Sindu’a kona hung kitidoh ahin, India jonghi sindu akona Indus chubana Indus chu India hung kitidoh kitna ahin Sindu vadunga kona Hindu, Hindustan hunghidoh ahin hiche vella anachen laijuvachu paojong khatbou anahin hichu tua sanskrit kitikhu ahi.Hiche Sindu vadung ahunglhun nukhu 1500 BC ahitai. Chuleh amahohi mitampi ahiuvin chule khangtou tasa mijong ahiuvin abaan banin ahung kithe khenun tun haamle pao chiile nam tampi asohtaove.Indiate dinga Indus riverhi ipilamin kiseijongle birthright ahin tu khonung hijongleh anunglahkit teitei nadiu thulu chenga ahi.Ajehchu anampiule ahouvu, apaovu, agam mu aboncha hiche vadung mina konakhu kisahdoh’a ahinpoh toupeh’u ahin hiche vadung khutoh akikhen diuchu iti kiseijongleh dihlou ahi.
Hiche anasem khen chu Britiste anahin amahonjong hitabang historical right langhi anagel phahlouvu ahin Indiami lamkaiho jongchu khanggui le khankho geldohjong ana umpouvin athuhpena Hindule Muslim geichu anahetnu ahibepmin Britiste bolbolchu ananitjengu ahin hinla hititante tia alimsahnom louvu jongle kon ipi aseiding ham,ahin tun kikhenu jongle tillachu abonuva chikhat namkhat anahiuvin hou jeh abou kikhen ahiuvin kikhending mongchu ahijongleh Indus River chu India minpo langjoh chu changding ahi.
Kang’la--kANG’LEI--Kanglei’pak  :
Malaichun phaicham sungkhu tuijin anachup  ahin  tua kangla kitilai khu  tuikan na munkhat anahijeh’a akanglai anakiti nachu kangla hung kitidoh ahi.Chubana kanglei kitikit khu ahileh, hiche Manipur phaicham sungsekhu dill anahin tui ahungkan phatna kanglei (dry soil) anakitichu ahinpohden ahi.Chule tua kanglatongbi kiti jongkhu kangla achung nungpa tina ahin abanna tua Lavang sangkon itiu jongkhu malaijin kangla tongbi langkhu  Luwangte  gam anahijeh a Luwangte ana chenguva ahin achenlai juvachu bong koina, bong vahna munna ananeiju ahijeh a hiche minchu ahinpoh sah u ahi.Chule peh depdopjeng ahijeh achu kanglei-peh kangleipheng anakiti chu tua kangleipak atiu ahibouve.   
Haao : Chunggam mitehi meilheiten haao eitiuhi asungthu hetchet angaije. Eihohi haosa a kivaipoh ihung hipeh uvin amaho ahung lhunuchun haosa haosa einatiuchu  tua alhinga asuh milluva haao sehseh eitiu ahitai. Hichu haosate tinachu ahipeh e. Tun thului ahetlou jeh’un milongho kisan haao atithaove.
Kangla’sa : Imphal khopi sunga  rupma hal  theatre  maaikoh  laitah a  khom thuma sangtah a kitung chunga  kikoi, kitahkhu  meilhei  paovin  kanglasa  akiti. Hichekhu lengpa Pakhangba khanga ana umah ahitan a Pathenin lengpa kithopi dingachu anakoipeh ahi akiti.Anatohchu ahileh thil khoh hung sohding aumleh hunghaamji, hung pengji ahi. Ahung haam tengleh leng inna  thiempuho  chun  agadohjio ahin, aga dohji tenguleh  Kanglasa chun  itabang thil ahungsoding chu  ahin seipehji  ahi. Chutia  ahin seipeh tengu chuleh lengpale asei mang  pachong hochu  aumdan  dungjui jachu  kigotna aneijiu  ahi. 
General Thangal : Major Sogaijam  Singsit, Subedar Kaamdem Kipgen, Gen.Thangal hohi khangkhat ana hiuvin 1850 kuma Manipur gaalla leng Chandra Kirti sepailah a ana lamkai hochu ahiuvin Kaamdem Kipgen subedar hi keima pusawn mongmong  ahi. Major Thangal kitipa vanghi ama mintahbeh mong hilouva aphung minjoh anaman daan ahi. Thangal kitipahi Lhanghal  kitichu Thangal hung kitidoh ho ahibouve. Major  Sogaijam kitipa jonghi Sokhojam ahin singsit-ho ahibouve. 
Taj’mahal  : Shahjahan nin Taj Mahal  anasahchu 1632 apat 1654 gei ahin kum 22 luutna anasah ahi ajinuhi Parsian lengchanu ahin amin lhingsetchu Mumtajmahal ahin, phat saotah damlou jeh a jaalkhuna aluplaitah a ajipan ana ngailut behseh jeh’a alunglhai natah akiseija athinung hijongleh abolpeh teitei dinga ana lhensah petnachu aman kathinungleh keimellin innhoi tahkhat neihin sahpeh lechun  hiche kalvalla chu lunglhai nading adang kaneipoi anati ahin, ana kitepnasa ahin,building  design khu Parsian  architecture ho bol ahin aminchu  Isakhan akiti. 
Hicheto kilhonachu building minkhu ajinumin  apohsah peh ahunghi. Kahinkho sunga nupa kingailu hole pasallin aji numei haatmo thalhom ahi ahet themto kilhonna aji lungsetho kamuchanin Shah jhan lengpa  ajinu athinung geija angailut jeh’a kum tamtahle sum tamtah lutna anasah hiche Tajmahal building khu kageldohji’e.Chule leisetchunga mitmu thei mihemte khutnung kidanglah ajong hiche building khu nupa kilungsetle kingailut vetsahna building ahina   muthei tah in vaan noi pumpi mudin tugeijin aume.Damsunga nupahi kilungset tah a umma thinung geijajong kisuhmil louding thuhi mijousen ajuicheh nadinga temna buildingin a umdohtai. Ajehchu hiche building khun keima lungsunga jong nasatah ngailutna langah tha eipei.
NINGTHOU KHOMBA chu 1443 AD  chun Shan khopi Akla chu aga saatnin agajou tai. Ahung kilekah in Tangkun milonghon lengkhopi chu lonkhuma suhmang ding ana ngaito taovin ahileh lengnu Linthoi ngambi chu anaching theijin ajipa leng vonin akivonin aloimi phabep jong avonin asottol  lehochu thu agapeh sah in ibolla kagalkon neivailhun louvu ham tin lungthimin alhemlhau vin ahentuptai. Ajipa ahung vailhun phatnin kipana leng inpi sungchu adimtai akiti.
Simle maal: Pao angeina’a kiseile  lapao aumin Solangle lhumlang kitina ahi.
Maai’lang Kuong : Lim @ lae, chu kilangdoh tina ahi.(Image) Kimuthei kilangthei kuong tina ahi. Malaija thinga kisem Kuonga bu ananehjiu ahin,bu nehna kuong  sum enga kisem amupat niovachu ivetleh ilimchu kilangjeng kimujeng ahijeh achu Maailang kuong atipai jengu ahi.
pope : Latin paova papa akona kiladoh ahin “pa” (father) tina ahi.
Thal vamitnei: Hiche thusima ana kiseichu meithal kiseina ahi, ajehchu mitna  kivetoh a adoina aumjeh achu vamitnei kiti ahi. Chuleh anasemdoh pahi Manei Thangja ahi tin akiseije. 504 BC don hinte amahi amin tahbehchu Thado Thangja Maharaja lengpa chu agahi. Chule tua gahkisei Thado Thangja Maharaja kitipahi Hindus tan brahminho ahin Budhism hinpodohpa Gautama Budha kitipa teho chiguisung ahiuve. Gautama Budha pamin jongchu king Sudhodana chief of the Sakya clan akiti. Hiche Sakya kitihohi  nisa chilhah kahiuve ti brahmin kiti hochu ahiuve. Chule hiche Thado Thangja kitipahi  Tagaung gama 504 BC kuma alengchan masangin jong Mali gamah ana umin hichelai jongchun amahin Mali Thangja kiti minhi anapoi. Ami hinahi michingle thilbol theitah ana hijingin eiho thusimin Maneithangja itiuve. Hinla van-noi thusimachun meiloule meithal kitihi 900 AD langin Chinate hinpohdoh in akiseije.
LA’SHA : Tibet khopikhu Lasha akiti. 
Genesis 10:19 na a Noah chilhah ho achen nao gam kihopdan aseina a Lasha kitikhu ahunghi peh e. Tilchun Lasha kitikhu ana hijengin abana Tibet kitikhu agamhuop mindinga hungkisahbe ahin amikhu thakhat ahi. Hichu Japhet chilhah ho ahiuve.Amaho chen’na jongkhu Chung gam mite khulkon khangtoh thakhat hidingin tahsan aume. Paocheh khanglaija chu mijouse ahon hona anachen nahou chu  khonunga ahin vetnule Japhet chilhahte lah a Sinim  techun tua south east Asia langhi  ana chenphao ahi. 
PAWI @POI : Chunggam mite sungahin minpoh jatchuom chuom aumin Poi tia minpoloijong i’umun itilam dan’na hinki  podoh khaham ti thudol seijinge. Malai  6th century BC khang donin tua UP le Bihar gamkhun delpha intin khopilen khat ana umin Hindustan kingdom chu khang toutah anahitai amaho lenggam thusima konin Chunggam mite khopi minkhat umchu akihedoh in khopi minchu Phoituh akiti hinla thaneijoulou ahijeh uchun chunga kisei Hindustan kingdom noija chun ana umin hichegam lengpahi atupao khatchu amao sanga lenglenjole haatjo khat ana umkhan amachu ana thietbol khahjeh uvin khonungin ahin kihetdoh  athangtom behseh in leng ahunghi phatnin apute chu gallin anokhumin ajochanin agathatnin hampa vaatnin agavaat tai. Hiche anabol lengpa minchu Vitatupa akiti.Ahinla hiche lengam sunga Phoituh mihochu apute jatle nam kibahpi ahilou jeh uvin analimsah pouve hinla gaalchu hilaimun nachu nasapena akibolna mun ahi. Hiche Phoituh muna chengho chun hiche khopi minchu ahin pohkhah’u ahi.Mikih kitichu khonunga Mikir ahungkitile amaho paova mengcha (cat) kitina ahungso kitleh amao mama in angaida kitnu ahitabanghi thu tampi aume. Tunjong Chunggam mite lah’a Phoituh hinpodoh hochun Huumpi jongkhu Pote atiuvin lungel kichi’ah thei dingin aume.Burmiste lengkhopi minchu Alva kiti ahin aphunggui minukhu Bramaha kiti ahin hinla mi atamjon amao jaatle namkhu Alva akitijoi khonunga Britishten mithusei kichehtah’a aseitheilou manuva Alva kitichu Ava ahintiule adang honjong meilheite geijin Alva tisa ahi vangun Ava atitaove.  
Hitabangachu chunggam mite jonghin minpoh hohi kinung hetmoleu tampi kineidoh ahi. Hitabanga chu phoituh kiti chenna minchu ahin pojeploi umkha chu ihiuve. Hitabang thusimlui umjeh’a hi Thadou chapa Thalhun dinga aji thum chananu Japhal man dingchun Paigen khatle Dahthihbu khat anapeuve akitin hinla tukhangin Paigen chu ipi kiseina ahichu koima ahe aumtapoi hinla Aryante toh ana kicheng khom ahijeh’a amaho paova kisei thucheng chu anahin, hichu amahon tugeija lukop, dielkop khu pagari ati nahlaiju ahin, hiche kamcheng chu kho nunga kiseikhel jepma Paigen kitichu sohdoh ahi, chubana Hindustan’ho thu simlui kisei tampi jong Chunggam mite sungah aume, hicheho chu amahon hare krishna atijiukhu eimihon halikasina  harikasana anatijiuvin chule Aryanho jonghi eimiho kaso achu AAL-AWN @ aal-on tin akiseiji’e. Chubana thusim kiseina jousea Pathente chanu chapa kitijouse jongkhu Hindustan @ Aryanho thusim kila ahi.Tua iseiju poi kiti jongchu iseiju khopi minchu hungki popeh chule ahin pojep loile ahin chingjeploi kiumah ahi.Chule chunggam mite lah’a Thadoute hitoh Poi hinpo hohi sopitah ahilhone akinai hohi power kichujeh in akiboi nomten jiuvin amani jonghi power jeh in khang tinin muntinah aboijing lhone. 
Thadoule Poi hi  groupma akiseitah vangin kinai behseh sating kipedingbep ahinalai lhone sopikhat ahilhon jeh’a hi ana kidoujing talengkei lhonah ahiji. Hitabang suhmil kitiho jousehi record beija hinkho manjeh ahi. Tunjong eimiho lah’a chothete noilanga ana chenlhah jeh uva atilla noilang kitichu khonunga Moirang ahung kitidoh nungin asopihou vinjong hetalou chule asunga chengho kisan geijinjong  hetalou khatchanjong koite ahiu chajong kihetphah talou, hitichu anahi bangin Kipgen sunga Gollut ho khokhat jongchu achen’nao khomun chu agah niemlhah jeh in amaochu gamnemte tin anakiseijin ahileh midang jep’hon akhouchu aniem jehchun kholhang anatiuvin, khonungin Kipgen ho matahto gaallin nasatah in aki saatnuve.
Kipgenho chun midanghon kholhang atihouchu tilla amao gamnemte chu ahilam ahetapouvin kholhangin ahetaovin tun Kipgen hon Kholhang gaallin atijiuve, hinla Kipgen sunga Gollut te guinu kihopkhen na’achun akhomin kipohsah dollin alen penpa bantah’a pachu Lhengoh akitin Gamnempa akiti thouve, tukumlang 2008 jonghin Belgium gamale US gama umho akihedoh kit nalaijin hitichu ahibouve chunggam’mite insung thujouse chu.Hitia gamtinna chehchaole kithethaang thuhi medieval khangin atamme. Tillin kihettopi phah mihem ana umpon,chule khangche dolle hinkho umdollin midangle midang aki  gamlatjep hohi anakisaat, ana kina ngampon thaneina kibang ulenao hina’a jong imachom umlou hobou hiti’ a chu ana kibolngam jiuva ahibouve.Tua Arakanis ho jongkhu ei insungmi joh ahibouve abahsung ninglekah chu akihol joujaipon hinla akiseiji hohi insung kibang jengseh ahichu aki hechen thouve. Tuhin kiveiho tuikhanglen lampi bailam ahijeh in Bengal mihotoh kihalthim taovinte.Tua NEIndia sung jonghi Vaanche jaatle namhon mitin acheng masaho lahhi alosoh gamdiu ahikittai.

BUNG-VI
LUNGCHIN CHAANG
322 BC : Maurya & Gupta dynasty kipat. 
India thusim machun“ Gupta age is the golden age of the Indian history“ tin akiseijin, hicheto kilhonchun India freedom hinboldoh jongchu Gupta’te mama lamkaina akon ahung hikitne, hichu MK Gandhi chu ahi. 
*  Lekhajem kitihi ahung kipat tilchun mijousen chele vaale nading chule inung kihetto theina dingin alimle amellin anasemtho un hichu min amuteng ipi kibolna,ipi kiseina ahichu ahedthei nading ahi.Tulaija road sign tabang ahi, chua konin ahung machaallin 3500 BC langin  Igypten anapandoh masapenun hijongchu suong pheng anamanu ahin leiset chunga lekhajem ahung machaal hi anahahsai, Chinate lekhajemhi vaanoija atampen ahin jem 40000-60000 alhinge jemkhat chun thucheng khatcheh aseidoh jeh ahi.Jihtho lekhajem mong monghi apandoh masapen tehi Sumerianho ahiuvin amahochu Canan mitekhu ahiuve. Hebrew, Arabic, Hindi, Greek hohin Phoenicianho jem analaove tin akiseije hinla Phoenician kitiho jongchu  Canan miho mama ahikitnuve.
Rometen Greekte jem alakitnun western European hon Rome tejem alakitnuve. Cyrillic te (Cyprus) jemjong Greekte akon ahin hichehi Russia gamle eastern European hohin amanguve.Greekte hin Phoenicianho jem alaovin hichea konchun vowel akoibeuve. Canan mite hohi Noah chate lah a alenpen pa Shem chilhah ahiuvin Sumerian kitiho jonghi Canan mihochu ahunghiuve chule Isreal hojonghi ahiuvin Phoenician ho jonghi Canan miho mama ahiuve. Phoenician kitihi Greekten anasah u ahi ajehchu kiveina lamachu  lousan, ponsan ahin hapohjiu jeh achu Greekte chun Phoeno anatijiu ahi.Hichi phoeno kitichu asan tina ahin hiche thu chenga konachu hung kisahdohpai ahi. Lekhajem kisimthei masapen chu “ Semitic “script anakitin Canan miho-a ahin Mediterranaen solanga aum laiju ahin Mesopotamia miho tinjong ana kiseijun amaho’a konahi abaan banna hungchaalla  ahin hichu tuhin agomin kum 5500 hita dingin akiseije.
* 1347-1380 :Sunghin Black death kiti natkhat ana umin Asia apat Europe geijin hiche nat jehchun 75 million mihem anathi. Black death akiti lonahi atahsa chunguchu  abeh  beh’a vomah ahin hiche natchu nat thoh hahtah hia michu  achaina langleh thiji  anahi.
*  1618--1648 : 30th years war anakiti.Hichu  Catholic tele protestante  kisatna ahi. 
*  1500--1900 : Avaihomnao gamchu nisa alhum tapoi anakitin Britiste vaihomna noija anaum gamhochu; S.Africa, Kenya, Egypt, HongKong, India, Nepal, Iraq, Isreal, Singapore, Malta, Australia, New Zealand, Canada hicheng hi ahiuve.
 * 13 August 1891 Thangal General Tikendrajit akhailihnio. 
*   10th century  AD chun Irengba lengpa chu  athinungin  ajinun dangka in  alim  anasemin hichehi Manipur  thusima limle mel dangka a kisem  amasapen hidin akiseije.
*  KCSI  : Britishten Manipur lengho KCSI title anapeh uchu Knight Commander  of  the  Star of India tina ahin leng tina ahipon Britishte Knight chu kiseina ahibouve.  
*  3.2.1997  KCC tilou Houbung danghi Christa dou ahiuve.11 Jan 2004 nihin  1917--1919  Anglo Kuki war chu Chahsat rebellion tin ahung kiso’e.Hichite nihi “Sum Kawn daily”a hungkiso ahi.Hitabang thil kibol hohi Jesu leija analen laijin angongah Sumheisong gihtah kikhaai henlang Tuikhanglen thuhtah sungah kilehlut leh hichu ama dingin aphajoi anati.
*  18.1.1994  Jaangnuoi khoa numei 7 Milongte nampi sipaihon kichepnan aneijun Meichang guup cheh in akaap mun,chule anikhovang achom chom ahin Muoltuh,Parbung,Lungthulen chule Khalong khoho ajong chutabang machun numei tampipi chungah abolkitkit nuve. Chunggam mite vanghi khang saotah sunga jonghin khatvei jengjong thalto kivople gaalkon sunga hitabanga chuonhi akijakhapoi.Ajehchu pomdan ngaina ahipon chutiho malah in pasalho gamlelai kisanin ajitojong alumkhom jipoi. Chuban nin itabangmi hijongleh Chunggam mitehin mihem koi hijongleh thaneina neilouhel dinmuna umhole umpet ‘ho chubana jotho miho chunga engset,giitlou bolle kipasalsah kitihohi agaalmiho chung geijin abolkha pouve.Chidang namdang honvang hitabang dinmunhi atokhah uleh hampha akisalheh jiuve. 
 *  Kyam’ba kitipa jonghin “Shan” ho leng khat agajo jeh’a kisah ahin Shan leng chu“Kyang”akitin Manipur lengpa minhi Mutua Jhulon Singh ahi.Kyang lengpa gajoupa tina a ana  kisah ahi.
*   Jun (Urine) Jingkah thodoh sehleh eima jun amasapen khu kamkhat donjing jenghi lou phatah ahi. Diabetis, Kamnat, Mitnat, Leinat, Haninat hojouse hoidohna phatah ahin nule patehon Chatehohi aneova patna tanglouva bolsah jingding Bongnoi achep nao sunga jongkhu halpihding acham muva abolthei tenguleh taanglou hella aboldiuva hilding ahi ajehchu thilphatah  ahi.
*  Chunggam mite thusima hin Gaidiliu, Dakei, Jadonang holoi hin Guul anavah jeh-un amaho vahnading chun mihem thisan angaijin  mi anahol lelejiuvin, hijehhin chapangho suunleh gamlah’a ana chedohji louna diuvin hilnan anamang jiuve.
* Dog Title : Thadou Lekhabul kiti achun malaijin Uichahin kii ananei ahin alawp jeh in Sii kisuhna anaatkhat chu aduchaat jeh in agahkoitadin ahileh akimansah lotai.  Kii kitihi jem ahiloule gun tina ahin. Avetsahchu ama hiinatoh kitohlouva kisuneoho chu Uicha tabang nahi tina ahi. 
 TIME LINE
(encyclopedia)

BC 60000 People first arrive in Australia.
BC 8350 Founding of Jericho, the  
first walled town in the 
world.
BC 7000     Farming of root crops 
begin in New Guinea
BC 6000   Rice cultivation begins 
in Thailand
BC 5000 The Chines civilization 
begins, Group farmers
begin. Irregation in 
Mesopotomia.
BC 4500 Scratch plough first in             Mesopotamea
BC 3500 Early writing develops in Mesopotamia
BC 1600 -1270   Isreal’te Egyptma 
alutle ahungdoh. 
BC 1000 King David unites 
Israel and  Judah
BC 776   First Olympic games 
in Greece
BC 650   Iron technology intro      
duced in China.
BC 480 Gupta Empire in India.
00 Christian Calender starts
AD 79   Hindu Calender starts.
AD 1450 -1600     Pepriod in Western
     Europe known as 
Renaisance.
AD 1453       Constantinopol 
changed into Istanbul. 
AD 900     Chines invented gun 
powder.
* Manipur sunga mihem analut masapen hi, Dravidianho akitin tua Tamil, Kerala mihokhu ahiovin, amaho bantah a’hi Chunggam mite  ahi.
* Tua Assam gam (NEI) muntina suong kitung luitah tah le lentahtah-ho khule Manipur gamsunga jouse jongkhu chunga kisei Dravidianho boldoh jengseh ahin akum langhi 800 BC apat hung kitungpan ahin chubanin Burmiste khutnung jong aumin  achung chonin Chunggam mite lah ajong doithiem anataminBC langdonna Galngam khutnung jong tampi aum kitne  galngam ahin, Pongs ho ahin tha guma ana bollu khatcha ana’ umpoi, doithua akoijuleh atun’nu keoseh ahibouve amahohi doithem tah anahiu vin suongpi lentah tahjong  doija asem tup theiju va theibong neocha sung khatna jong tamthim tahtah akipoh theiju anahi.
* Fundamental  rights of India 
(1) Right to Equality 
(2) Right to Freedom 
(3) Right against exploitation 
(4) Right to freedom of Religion 
(5) Right to Cultural and 
Educational 
(6) Right to Constitutional
Remedies.
*   24th Oct.1946  :KNA kiphuni(Political)
*    Leiset khanghi Bible seidanin Kum 6000 velbepmin akiseijin ahinlah Scientist ho seidanin leiset-hi kum 6 billion ahitai.
* 20.6.1756 :   AD Black hole tragedy.
*   23.6.1757   : Battle of Plassy chu 
Siras Ud Daula  v/s  Robert Clive anahi.
*  10.5.1857   Indiate chamlhat delpatchu Meerut khopia apatnu ahin 15.8.1947 kumin chamlhat amuvin kum 90th analutne.
* 1858; East Indian company natoh jouse British govt. nin ahin lahpat.
*   Awapuren :  Minister on Burmis affairs tina ahi.
*   Cheirap court kitichu criminal court tina anahi.
*   Wangu kiti thuchenghi Shanho paova  guul tina ahi.
* 28.2.1966 : Aizawl khopia bomb kise.  30.6.1986 : Mizo accord signed 
* 15.10.1949 : Manipur lengpan India union jopna Signed apeh
* 25.4.1891 :  Manipur lenggam beini.                     21.1.1972 : Manipur state hood muni.
* Zoroaster 1800BC 
* 33 AD  Catholic church . 1517 AD 
Martin luther nails the 95 theses to the door of the castle church in Witten berg, marking the bigining of the reformation.
* 1529 AD. Protestant Church.  
* 1613 AD : East India companyten factory Surat khopia aboldiu anaphal pehchu Mughal emperor Jhangir anahi.
* 1483-1530 AD : Babar lin Mughal dynasty ahinphudoh muslim houthu ajop    Babri Masjit jongkhu amamin apohsah u ahi.
* 563-483 BC : Gautama Budha in Budhism ahin pohdoh.
* 273-232 BC : Asoka the great Budhist  machalsah.
*   Rome tekhu malaija Troy kitite khu ahiuve.Alenggamu kisuhmang jouva leng chapate khatchu amitetoh hiche Italy gamsunga tiber vadung pangakhu hungcheng khaova ahi.
*    1929  W. Shaw in The Thadou Kukis anajih.
* 548-488 BC : Darius. 516 BC  kumapat India gam anatoupha in 330 BC geijin Parsia ten Indiagam anavai hopmuve, hijeh a’hi masanga chu lengho lah a jong Parsia paohi kivaipohna jousea ana kimang ahi.
* 13.4.1919 : Jallianwala bagh Tragedy (Amritsar) athi 379 akisukha 1208.
* 1937 : Burma le india kikhen.
* 98-117 : Kaniska lengpahi hindu houthu machalsah ahi.
* 261 BC  :  Kalinga war.
* Isrealte German gama gas a anatam thana penu munchu ‘Awswitch’ akiti.  Chuleh tua Nepal gam’ma movement bol’ho kiloi khomna min “Maoist” kiti khu Chines centre committee  Chairman ’pu Mao Tse Tung chu tun Maozedong atitauvin Mao lungput  lungdei lam’ma chena tina ahi.
*     800 A.D: Emperror Charliemagne lal’lu khuh akhuh peh’u.(724--814)
*  251AD (Cheitharol kumbaba): Chung-gam miten twitobin thumchan na a kihe hichu Manipur sung chenlai, Kholkip kholjang kiseinapa.( Frazer: Folklore of the old testaments sunpa khun tuikuol gamhole Asia gam mihohin tuisaanglet kitile thimjiin tia aseijuhi  akibang thouve tin anaseije. Tunjong customle culture’ho thuahin chunggam mitele Thailand, Burmis,Laos hohi kum saao lheh tajongle atamjo kibahna uminte pao ahin custom culture inchen. Chule Chule Vaan’noija Island miho @ oceanic mihojouse jonghi adeh’a eastern Asia miho jengseh ahiuve. 

* 2000 BC: Abraham, Hebrew, Judaism kipat, Chuleh Sodom khopi kisuhmang. Hebrew kitihi galkai, kallhah tina ahin, chule Eber khanggui mi hijeh’a kisei hidin akilang ahin Galkai kitipahi dihpenin akiseije.

*   Dangka : Sanskrit paovin roupya, Indo Aryan manipur hon ruppa, meilheiten luppa ahintiuve.
*   Muot : Indo Aryan manipur hon rambhu atiuvin chuche a konin meilheiten laphu, laphoi ahin tidoh taove.

*   Kolchu :  Sanskrit paovin ikchu, Aryan paovin ichu,meilheiten chu, ahintiuvin chua konin eimihon kolho akonna kila ahijeh in kolchu akiti.
*   Sana  :  Sanskrit paovin suvarna, Aryan le Pakhrit paovin suana, hiche a konhin eimihole meilheiten Sana ahin kitidoh e.

* 79 AD : Pompeii khopi chu Visuvius  kiti muolchu hung pohkeh’a khopi chu alonvuh khum kum.
* 12.12.1939 : Nupi laal of Manipur.
* 18.11.1988 : K.N.T (Kuki Nampi Taona) masapen Tolphei Farm, Thangjing CCpur.

* 776 AD : Greece te khopi Athen na Olympic masapen kibol.Himalaya moulsang tah jongkhu moulthah ahi akiti. Atil chun diil anahin volcano akona hitiakhu hung umdoh in akiseijin keima ginchat dollin 2500 BC langchu hidin katah sanne.

* 25.1.1825: Manipur lengpa le British govt. kabaw Valley chung changa agreement Signed abollu. Kumkhatna Rs 6000/- British Govt. nin apehding hichu Rs 500/-per month dinga simtohding lengpan kakilah kitding ahitai ati nikholeh Rs 500/- per month chu Britishten apeh tahloudio tihi ahin ahinla 1947 Independent Kumchun Britishten donlouvin akoijun Burmiste gamdin anapetaove.

* Leiset khanghi Scientist ho thusei aumin Pathenthu dolla kiseijong aume. Noah twisanglet-hin leiset pumpihi achupsohpoi tiloi aumin hinla achup soh danin aume. Tukhangin songmilim le mihem khutsem tampi gamtina leiset noija kilaidoh akimudoh chule tui khanglen sunggeija kimudoh atame. India thusima Mohenjodaro le Harrappa Khopi khangtoutah University geija aumnasa jongchu 1920-1922 AD sungah akilaidoh’e. Chule Indus valley civilisa tion kitijonghi  2500-1700 BC.in akisei je.Thusim suut hon ana manthah kumtah hi aseithei pouvin hinla keima tahsan daninvang 2349 BC Noah tuisanglet kumchu hinte kati ajehchu kum apeh danuhi akilome.

*   Malai Hindute daan nachu nuupa hohi ajipa athitengleh ajinuchu nople dathu seithei louva ajipa kigona meilhum sunga alelutjio ahi.Chubana thempu in lhathah sehle kithensona dinga naosen uh-hoilai chu vadunga alelutji anahin, Dr, William Carey in Delhi governor pa Lord William Bentinct koma Pathenla hevah pouvintin Pathen tahbeh natohla ahipon govt. daan dungjuijin khaamin agatileh 1829 AD kumahi ahinkha ahin adeh in Hindu numeihon hethem muleh abonuva Christian hinom diovin katah sanne.

* 913 Rabindranath Tagore  hin Geetanjali Lekhabu asut nakona nobel prize amu ahi.
* Leiset khang thudolla kumle phat  kisim danhi akiseidanin Lunar 
account,aumin Solar account, aume.  

* Meilheite thusima chahi taret khunta kpa kitikhu alvaten (Burmes) gaalla anajouva kumsagi lhingset ana touphao ahi. 1819AD -1826 AD anahi.Tua Burma gama meilhei tampi achenge kitihokhu hiche chahi taret khun takpa  sunga Burmisten numei pasal tampi akhut nuva tiingkhao ahiloule thihkhao athilluva hon tamtah tah’a anakaiju ahin, hiche hochu tuakhu tampi hung pungdoh ahiuve.
*  1912 AD  kuma Titanic konga mithi chu 1513 ahi.
*   Hitler lekhajih “Mein Kempf” kitichu “My Struggle” tina ahi.

* 1942 Japanes captured Rangoon, Singapore. Quite India movement. Jews in the Nazi’s gas chamber.
*   1951 First asian games  new Delhi.8.8.2008 Beijing Olympic.

*   1600-East India Company India a akipat 
* 1927  Simon commission  : (John Simon) Hiche commission hin kohima ahin phan, aman anadoichu, gamsung khat na thaneina ni umthei louding tihi ahin, hichu 1929 kumachu anahung ahi.

*   1874 Kumin Viceroy Lord North brook Cachar ahung jinnin Manipur lengpa Chandrakirti chu akimupi din anache’e Hiche achun Sepai 1000 akipuijin record na chun 500 troops of irrgular Kuki and 500 Manipuri troops led by Major sougaijam and major Thanggal akiti. 500 troops chule Major tenihi Chunggammi ahiove.

*  1900-2006 Kumsunga liing kihot lah a anasapen chu India sunga dinga Assam gam 15/8/1950 nia kihotchu achung nung penin major  earth quakes  tin India record nachun aume (8.5 ahi)

*   Min sabelle  chabel eima hongsunga atunlut kalleh khutlhah kiti akibolngai tapoi. Hichea boltei teichu hii le gaovin themo achanding ahi.
*   India sunga missionary masapen chu seijuiho lah a Thomas ahin 48 to 52 AD.   Second missionary chu  18th Century a  Willam Carey chu ahi. (11.11.1793 -- 9.6.1834) India sunga Baptize chang masapenchu Krishnapal akitin W.Carey khutna abol ahi.  

*     Chunggam mite lah’ a adeh’a Sadar Hills sunga Houbung ana kiphut doh masa penchu Tujang Vaichong ahin, Hou bung ana phutdoh chu missionary U.M. Fox  ahin hichu  12-12-1914 ahi.

* Numei hihen pasal hileh jiilecha neijouvahi phunggui thule custom hetteiding aphai achuti louleh kisahdol chonnadol akihet theipoi .

* Vascoda Gamale Columbus hin leiset chung muntina muchi anapoh jalle lhon anahi.Centre America le  Europe muchiho leh Asia gam muchi hohi anapohmatle lhon ahi. Pumton, lengthei, Kolchu, Ankam, Dumchep (Tobacco) Kolbu, Malchapawm chule adang dangjong ahin chubanin Vascoda Gama akona Burmisten meithal ahin neidoh jeh uva Manipur jong anajo khah danu ahi tin akiseije.

*     AngloBurmisWara kiti vangin Burmisten anasaat pouve. Campbel lamkainan11.5.1824 nihin akonun Rangoonah Burmisten anadou pouvin hitichun alatoupeh uvin 24-2-1826 nihin Jandabo munah treaty signed abolluve. 
* Nupa chingtah hochu kum asot chanin akingailu chehcheh in akingai lhondan chu atehset langteng khatjoh joh ahung thinung teng  jongleh anukhahjo jongchu adamsot joujipoi.Nupa  ngolho vanghu atehset langleh acheng khenji nalaije.

* Horoscope hi Chunggam thuso boljou sen ajaosah sohkeijin Pathen houlou honvang ama deideichu abolthei ahinai,Pathen hou hijongleh adang honvang abolmopon Judaismle Christianho dingin  Chonset jouse lah’a alenpenin akoijin hitabang mangcha hochu Judaismle Chritian na kisimtalou ahitai.Mijuong itiukhu aji hilou midangtoh kitimat hokhu aseina ahin,hitabanga chu ama Pathen hilou pathen adangtoh kitimat ahijeh achu Pathenin apaiji ahitai hicihi chonsetnin akisimpon ama’a hitalou ahitan ajuonjeh’achu Pathenin apai ahitai. 

* Chindwin vadungkhu meilheiten Ningthi turen  atio ahin Britishten gamgi semkhen ding atiovachu meilhei te umlouna  muna kisei ahijeh in Britishten meilheite gamchu ningthi turen gei ahi atioleh Burmes techun tua Moreh moljol chinna vadung hung longlha hokhu aseinao ahi atiovin ahileh hiche Moreh moldung chinna khu gamgi asemlo-u ahi. Meilheiten khonungin ningthi turen katiuchu Burmisten Chindwin atio ahin vadung chu thakhat ahibouve ativangun ahithei tapoi.

* Chunggam mite ingan hochu : Uicha , Ahcha, Vohcha, Siel, Kielcha ahiuve. Uichale kelchahi , Uichahi Chongthu khanga kivoppi gancha ahitan, Ahcha hi Molkoija kimu ahin, Vohchahi buon’nolla kimu ahin, chuleh Sielhi siisepma kimu ahin, chidang nam dangin aneilouhel tina ahipon akichoh tho, midanga kona kilason hilouva ikhang sunguva hinkivop dohpile kilamdoh ahijeh’a kisei ahi.
*   Chunggam mite khomin hohi ahung kisahji danhohi muolmin, thingmin, hampamin,tuimin,gomin akimanji. Hitihohi avetsahnan thingminho aki mangsa hochu, Tuu, Khieng, Thien, Gel, Gangpi,Hieng,Haai,Sie,Gaang, Muawng, chule Guo,Aai, Khao, Suong, Muol, Sii,Phai, Lhaang, Juol,Kot,Bung, Mun, Buawl,chukitle Sim,Maal,
   bung-vii
Manipur gam Nepali ho thusim
16-3-2001 nihin Immanuel Lamchok Bap
tist Church Silver Jubilee song chu  thensona akineitai. Hiche Jubilee chunga Chairman chu missionary Jeeten Gajmer ahin, Secretary chu Dol Bhadur Magar ahi. Chuleh Jubilee Speaker chu Madav Prashad Upadaya ahi. Chukitleh hiche Houbung thusim hung kisimpat nahi Pairas Magar lakon ahi. Hiche Hou bunghi Manipur Nepali ho dinga Hou bung thusim masapen ahin, khonu ngteng jong leh hiche  Houbung thuhi taanglouva hung kisei pehding ahitai.Tun ngailut Pairas Magarhi Nepal gama Pokhra muna aumin ahinlah kipana thupha kinhi tanglouvin atongjing nalaije.Atumbeh chakhatnin Rev.Shanti Kumar Paudyel insung thuhi gahseiju hite. Manipurgam Nepaliho chendan hinkho thusima akingap napen ahijeh in gah hetchet ngaijepmin kagelle. Apu Taranidhi  Poudyel le anaopa  Kuber Poudyelhi  1800 AD. kumlangin Bom village Kalimpong Dist.nga konin ahung lhonin chubanin Darjeeling abanin Maram ah hitichun abaan banin Bongle Baangkawl pumin ahung kitollun hiche amao ahung kitollu kamchenga konhin tua kisei Ghas pani kiti mun jongkhun khomin khat ahinpohdoh khah ahung hipeh e. 
Ajehchu amahochun hampale tui ganchaho dinga kituptah mun tia anasei juleh amahon adalhah nunguva chu midanghon hichelai munchu GHASPANI tia ahinsei denu ahin,  chule  mi ahungchen pat phatnajong khomina ahin sei paipaiju ahunghi peh e. Hitachu gancha vahpuma ahungsuh peh uleh phaitolsung geijakhu hung kithonlut khaovah anahi. Iseimasah bangun 1944 langin Manipur lengpa Budhachandra chun Nepal lengchanu ahin kichenpin ahileh tua Rev. Shantikumar dinga apute agahitan Sudarsan Poudyel le Vedanidhi Poudyelhi hiche phaat donahin ana penglhonin, Sudarsan Poudyelhi phat ahungche dungjuijin lengte inah natongin ahungpange.
Lengpa jinuchu Nepali ahung hi khah a konhin ajinuchu buhondin ahungpang khatai. Lengpan amanchah mi ahitahjeh uvin lungset nachu ahung changtan  bongle bangkol tampi  avuljeh chun phai tol sungchu phailei tamnalah ahijeh a ahung nohphah dingjeh in phatsaotah lung mongtah a agancha achenpi theinadin aseipehtan ahileh abaan banin ahungche in tua tuilaang gam sungakhun ahung chukha taove. Hitichun Bongle Baangkol jeh in agam mihotoh ahung kiboi khataove.
Hichelai khangchu Rev. Shanti kumar Pu.Dhurbalal Poudyelchu mi kiheithei tah anahipet ahijeh in nasatah in asopile aloi agolho apuikhomin anapangun peinathei chanin ana kipeijin “grazing”  kiti right power khat Britist govt.na konin ahin neidoh taove. Hiche gamsunghi Manipur gamsung Nepaliho dinga thusimlui ho tilouva political khang bepma dinga chen nagam thusim dolla pansatna bulpipen chu ahi.Chubanin Nepali tia mitinin ihet houhi asungthu umdol phabep seibeote. Tua Nepal kiti gam jongkhu 800 AD geijin Tibet ‘te thaneina noija ana umnalaije, chule hiche gama anacheng hochu mongo loid lah a  Nevar kitihokhu majority anahiove. 
Tibet gama kona amunkhu galhang lha ahijeh a Tibet paova Napala anakiti ahi. Hiche thucheng meaning mong mongchu eipaova galenglha, galenlhah tina ahi.  Ajehchu tibet gama kona dinga tua Nepal gamkhu nasatah a ganiemlha ahi. Chuban nin Nepali akiti sohkei vangin Aryan loi aumin chule Tibetan loi aume. Tua anahkui saangho loikhu Aryan holoi ahiove. Medieval khanga  mongolia lengho lah a Kublaikhan kitipa in gaal ahinbol khanga  tua UP state sunga Gorak pur muna kona Nepal gamsunga gajamlut nuva  chengden kha ahiove. Gorkha kiti khu Gorakpur’la kona Nepal gama  galut ahinao jalla apoh khah u ahi akitin chubanin amahokhu Garwarho ahijeh uva kiti ahijong akitikitne.Anahkui niemho khu Tibetan ho original Nepaliho ahiove.Hitabanga Nepali kitijongleh anahkui sangjep hokhu pasallin adamlaise a “ji”aneijeng ahijeh in apung theilheh uve, tunjong agam miho sangin atamjo taove. Amaho namsunga jaatlen hole jaatneoho kikah thudol lakhun alungput daanu khu jaatlen hokhun kitahna aneijep muve.Jaat alen aneo umhokhu anahsangho boukhu ahiuve.
          
BUNG VIII
CHUNG GAM MITE KHANG’GUI CHON’NA
  (Traditional Custom)
Adam khanga kipatnin mihem khangguihi atanpoi,tuisang alet vangin Noah jongchu Adam chigui ahi.Noah Chilhah hochu Shem,Ham,Japhet  ahiuvin tuisanglet kichaijin Noah in maicham asemin Pathen ahouve.Noahle Abraham khang kikah achun “hou”kitihi  tampi aumtai  hinla Noahle Abraham kikah’a Hou holah’a “Indoi” anakitichu Pathen thua kona hundoh ahipeh’e.Hou adangho vangchu thilha kinbolna jengseh ahiuve.Khonunga khang ahungsot phatnin thempuhon chonset pumin ahinmangun ahileh thilha thaneina jaoloi ahung umpanin achaina langin thilha houna tabang loijong ahung umdoh in hinla adihtah’a hinmangloi chu aumkitnin hicheho lah achun thilha apang kitpoi.Hiche khangmasa laija kipat tukhang geijin Indoi kitihin thilha amangpon thilha johchu athietbol jinge.Tua chunggam mite custom jonghi hichelai khangachu alhinga ana kimangah ahitan tunigeijin akimange hichu semtilla Pathenin einapeh’u ahipehtai.Hijehhin Indoihin chonsetle kiletsah adeipon,ijakai chunga ngailutle lungsetna umdanto kitohlou jouse ahotbol ahi.Chunggam mite Customhi ivetleh Pathen mite chonnato kitohtah chonna danhoitah khatchu ahi.Chule customle culture kitihi alampi ni aume “Hou”jeh’a kibolho chu Khangguija chonna hijongle acuom ahileh Hou dungjuija kiboljouse chu kikhelding ahitan khanggui chonapa vangchu kiboljing dingchu ahi. 
Insung  Lhacha: Customa inchen kin’ kiman chahna dollin khosunga tong khomding kilhenghi angaijin hitihin akilhenge tucha, becha, nulam  ahiuvin chubanin sachanjong neicheh ahiuve. 
     (1) Tuchahi tohtho jouse chunga mopo ahin asung thuhi thisana chohsa tina ahijeh in tuchahin thupemle thaset akibol ngaipoi.Tucha hijongle kihouna muna dohle tunna ummo ahideh poi.Chubana seidingle chenading thua tuchachu afeljo ahikhah jongle amajoh chu kimangmo ahidehpoi.Thunun nale nun nemna chubanna kineosahna dinmun ahi.
    (2) Bechahi insung kindolla seiding kitijousea seija pangding,chubana vaihopna jouse atuhding ahi hichu thuseile vaihop tina ahijengin tohtho langhi atohnading khat touchu umnante.  Abanin inn neiten koichung hijongleh thil pehding hihen kipathu seipehding hihen lunghan nathu hihen lhaset nathu hijongleh pasal pan nadinga bechapu pangding numei panna dinga  bechanu pangding ahi. Kin neiten aboldio jouseo chunga amandio ahin  boldingle seiding ho chunga inneite akikumle becha chu ajumso ahi. Kin neipachun aseinom aumleh atum behle achombeh a abola asei dingbou ahi. Hiti ahijeh a hi kinbol akichai tengleh inneiten atum beh’a insung lhachaho chunga aneopena chatwi beh a kipathu aseiji ahi(ajehchu koima moh in akimang ngaipoi) 
    (3)Nulam dinmunhi pasalho dinga isopi pasalho banga ijinu dingajong asopi numeiho ahiuvin pasaljong ipilam hijongle asopi hotoh apankhom banga numei langa jong hitima achu pankhomna umkit ahi.Adeh in insung lhacha lah a dingin kitho khompi dingin umcheh jonguleh khatpen chu nulam panmun monga tongkhomdin akilheng ji’e. Chule nulam kiti thucheng mong monghi numei insungkhat lakhom pasal hochu numei jalla sopikhat hikhom ahitaovin hiche numeiho  jalla sopi khatna aum khomnao ahikhom naochu nulam kiti ahin ajiteo pasalho kiseina ahin mipa dingachu hiche pasal hochu Chanute kiti ahiuvin amahohi insungmi @ chanu panbanga pangding ahiuve. 
Sakin le Sachan : Chunggam mite khangsunga chonna thudollah sapum chungahin  thupijem custom jem jouse  akingame. Hijehhin achungcheh uva dingin sachan akiseme.
Salu : Hichehin min ni apoi, ankonga ahitengleh sapang akitin amasangin salu akiti.Chule thupijouse kingahna ahin ahinlah chanthu dollah athatpa chan ahi. Abanin inchen dolla neojo honjong aupan asemdoh leh aki inchonsah kahsen inchoma chengjongle saluchu aupa ina alhut jingding aUupan inchen asemdoh jouteng levang apeh tahlouding satingjoh apehding ahitai.Chuleh saluhi haosa hihenlang chaga hijongle kinpile thupi kibolna a mopo jouse nehkhomdin sapang din akisemin ane khom jiuve, hichun  kinpichu asuh bulhit ahin chule thupi, thulu, kinpi ahina alolhinsah ahi.Haosa chule thiempu jaoteiding ahi.Hichu achamkim pena kisimah ahitai. Nehkhom le kin thudollahi sa kihonjongleh alubei chu thupi in akisimpoi. 
Sa’ngawng :  Pute chan ahin tuchaan apute sangong agathah theihi tucha hina lolhina chule mai atna ahi.
Sa’ting : Pendolleh inchen dolla mi Uupa chan ahin apeng khomhole akijop’piho aban bana a’Uu, anao kihetkhen theinale khanggui kihet theina dinga abaan bana kipetou touva ahin, atingpokhu eima chunga’ patah akipen, atingsung khu   achung jepma pakhu akipei. Ngai lutjallin jollegol hojong akipeji’e.
Sa-awm:  Becha chan ahi.  
Sa’kawng : Tucha chan ahi. 
Sa’mal : Hichehi athupi penin naopui tengle naocha sa dingin akimangin,hichu nao khodel akiti hichu nao khonungdel tina ahin nao nungjui tina ahi.Chule midang thal akimanleh thalsa injong akimange.
Sa’ haap : Hiche sahi atumbeh’a numei jinei chunga kisem numeisa ahi. Numei satha tengle  numei  nungjuijin akipoh sah in athinung jongle  chapa aneileh sahaap hi aga kithah peh in aman chaina akilaji’e, hichea kilakhu siel ahijenge ajehchu man kiseipet nachu ana kikhensa ahitai hetbai lamin damlousiel akiti. Numei chu aman kituhhen kituh hihjongle sa thapehding chule sahaap pohsah dinghi akibolda thei dehpoi, ajehchu ngailutna jalla eima chan dingchu kingaidam theibou ahin langkhat ho chanding chu eima thuthu hitalou ahi.
Saba: Milhom hihen mitam hijongleh kitepna, kigahna, kihah selna, kihaanlhona chunga sachu kamkhatbep kisema akineh nading thudolchu kiseija kine ahi.Aneding hochun adeilouva anoplouleh anehdathei ahin, ahivangin nopleda umlouva nehna ding thujong aume. 
Saphuh : Nulamsa in akimange.
Sachan : Sachu themcha cha hijongle kinloupi, kinthupi, kinlen kibolteng ipilam kin hijongleh kinchunga gelkhoh jep dinga lhahole lomho dinga sachan kisema ankonga chu kipeji ahi.Chule Sa thaa khomna chunga michangcheh dinga adoldolla chancheh dinga kisem jongkhu ahi.
Kinei lah : Chunggam miten akisei kineilah kitihi inu ahilouleh ipi insungkon numei toh kichen tina ahin, hichu Khangguija  ilah dingdol kila chule ijondingdol kijong tina ahi. Chule ineite mong mongchu ipi insung mite ahi. Alah dingdol alah louva, ajon dingdol ajon louleh aputen atutechu “Neichaan man” kiti Siel khatna agapding ahin  apehnom louleh aputen “aluong man” adel loudio ahitai. Kineilah hi aphai. Chule imalam jouseah ahoimona aumpoi. 
Nao-juneh: Naosen pen kipana jalla nehkhomle donkhom tina ahi. Naosen khatchu damsella ahungpen lhahle “Naojuneh” tiloi aumin “Naodop an” tiloi aume,” Kipana jallachu naodom hotoh thempu toh insung dolla mopo hotoh neijou, neilel dungjuija kibolneo, kibollen  ahitan hiche “naodop-an” chu kibolla anneh jouteng ju kidonkitna hiche judon sungachu hiche naosen minding chu kigelkhoma kisahji ahi.Hichu naosenin aminchu adampi aphatpi nadinga thempun phatthei athum pehding ahi. 
Min-Kilodan: Chunggam mitehi amang louloi aumthounan hinlah Khuulkon thusim ivetleh min kilodanhi abullanga hungkipan ahitai.Mihemkhat ahungpen tengleh amindinghi giltah’a gelkhomna akineijin lahdinga lhasa aumin deichomle ngailutna jalla kila aumin ipichu hileh mikhat mina kona kilasona kisahtei ahin hichehi akila maimai ahipon mihem khatchu anule apa chule asopitoh kikhen theilou ahibanga min kilateni jonghi hinlai damsunga kikhen theilou ahilhone.
Chule insunga alah dingdol umsa hohi min kilah thudollin amasapen ding chu ahin akichai tengle deichuom miho pehjihi umdan ahi. Abolla atamnan hinla bollouding khatchu eima insungkaija insungmi pulepi atithei louding hohi min akilosah ngaipoi,ajehchu amachun aminlopa, aminlo nuchu Pule Pi asahtei teiding ahi ajehchu asahdinga lhajengle asah dinga kisempeh ahi. Aman pile pu asahdinga lhatheilou miho minchu akila ngaipoi.Amadinga apadol, anudol, anidol, a’udol, a’gangdol, atutedol ama dinga hitabang dinmuna umhohi alah louding ahi. Akibolsa tampi aumnai hinla hetthem loujeh ahibouve ajehchu chapang chu ahunglet tengle asah jedingchu anu apa adohjongle aseije adonbutje umlou ahitan aminlopa, aminlonu chu akouje helouvin aumlojitai.Hitabang dinmuna umhon asah nadiu minjong angailou thil ahijeh’a anakisemlou ahi.                  
Sum-tansa :Keptensa tiloi Sumtansa tiloi aki’ume, hiche achu manlemol thu hihen ipithu hijongleh kichending chunga seidinga lomjouse aseijuva saba aneh khumu ahi. Hiche kitepna chu alanglanga Tucha,Becha chule mi Uupacheh pangintin sapang aumkhom muva sabajong aneh dio ahin alah uvachu Thempu  jaoteiding. Hiche saba chungahi numeite chun pasalte chunga chu thu aseiding jouse aseiding, hichu athugahna ahi.Hiche ankonghi numeiten abolding ahi.Pasalten asuh khelleh sielkhatna leodiu ahi. Mi ankuong, mi chabel mi jubellah thu kiseija kigahhi  angai ahipoi.Akimoh chenho ahitengle boldinga lha abulla kipatna achai nageija boldingdol kibolji hochu kinung bolji ahibouve.Alhing setnin numei jinei chungahin satha kinhi thumvei aume amasapenhi sumtansa ahin, aninahi lhahna satha ahin  sahaap kipohsah nihi ahitan, athumnahi athinunga luongman dinga sahaap dinga kithat khu ahi.  
Man : Numei chunga man kituh-hi tukhangin abullang hetloujehle  kiletsah kihoisah jeh in thulim thulaitoh akilou gamtapoi hitabanga customle umchan avaal vaalla ahungkibol khanghi !400-AD langa hungkipan ahin mihemjong aman lhomte aman tamte geija hungkisemdoh ahitai chukal valla Haosanjong Kai ahin neh’a Vohcha kai,Ahcha kai,Sukai geija ahin nehpan ahin hitabang chona gilouhi ahin khantoupi phaatnun Cunggam mite khang sungahin Hamsetnan ahinlo panne.Ajehchu Chunggam mite Customhi Thilha’a kona ahipon Pathenna konjoh anahijeh in kingailutle kilungsetna thuto kitohlou akimanteng Hamsetna ana umjingpeh’e.Numei chunga man kitihi alhingsetnin Siel-khat, Dah-khat, Khii-khat,Lutuom laisui khat ahin Damlou-Siel kitipa vanghi athini lebou kila ahin lah nomlheh jonglehen numeinu thimasanga kilathei dehlou aphaat alhinteng lebou kilatheibep ding ahi.
Mankituh na’a Siel kitikhu Sielpi ahijengin khatvei chapotsa ahi, akii suisa kiti vangkhu adihpoi customin adoichu numeinu jotna langjong punghenlang  chule  Sielpi jotna langjong  punghen alangton punghen tina ahin aki Suisa kitikhu tehse chabaangsa ahitan achii pungtalou louding ahian akimang ngaipoi   ideideichu lahmo ahipon adolchu Siel jonghi achal kimang ngailou ahi chubana anu hijongle anou chapot theidingle pot thei louding kihelouho jonghi manlou ding doltah ahi.Keiju phungin, keiju kho in, hitin kabolluve tia seiji hohin hichan geihin custom kaki mansahtai,custom langah kagam mangtai atinau ahi.Man kitihi chunga kisei kalvalkhu aumpon boljong kibolpoi. Kiletsahle hoitho khanghin keijuman siel 10-40 geija seiloi,chule Siel meija kikhai tiloi,chanu lenpenin anuman apohding tiloi aumin Siel meijajong imacha akikhai khapon, Anu manjong anu kipuiten bou apehding ahin,achanu kipuiten achanu manbou akipehdiu ahibouve.
Sielhi ni aluutne akiti vangin numei chunga manhi chunga kisei bangakhun Sielhi khatkal ahipoi khatkitpa chula anumeinu athijou lebou Sahaap kithah peh’a gakila ahibou vin,man kituhnile mankikhum sungin Siel’hi Khatvaal aumpoi.Numeihin chii akhaithei laisen amanhi alhomle atam aum chompoi,chanei taloudingho vang chu daanin @ customin amao inni in amaho phatsah dungjuija akisemuchu aphalpeh jengin hinla khonunga boina ahungsoleh  haosa Inna kikaai loudiu ahi.Khang banjomding aumlou jeh in chutin kibol jongleh nupa’a kisim ahijeh in thina dihlou aumkhahle custom dungjuijin thu akitan kitne. Chujongle phung kaija amaole keijuhi numei manin kakibang pouvin amao phung hijat ahin keijuphung manhi hijat ahi tia kisei jongkhu lamkimma kisemthu custom ahin customin koima amantamjo aum sahpoi.    
Athiho luongman  hi Siel-khat, Dah-khat, Khii-khat chule Puondum khat ahin, mithatte leuna thudollahin Hiem khaam dinga kithat hihen Kihouna dinga kithat hijongleh amaovin asahtei dingchu ahijeh in Ankong masa aumin Ankong anina aume hichu Luongman apehniu leh Ankuonga apehdiu ahi hichu akosana ahilouleh avuina,alhepna akiti.Chule man kitihi luongman hihen numei man hijongleh nehdingle nehlou ding chungahin custom dungjuija anedingpa chungachu kingamah ahi alungsetna amoh ngaidam jongle amathu ahin hinla numei man chung changapa’a vanghin ama lahdingpachu angai damthei vangin alangkhatte chandingho le akinhou aboldpeh dinghochu aboldathei dehpoi. Chubanin  muntina chu Sielle loi chule thildang dang custom dolla kimang  hochu mulou umthei ahi hitabang dinmunchu ahitengleh akhohna dungjuija geltoh’a simtohthole lieptohthoa bolhi angaina ahi.
Numeile pasal kikah’a chon na daanho jousehi pasal chungabou kisimji ahin, hijehhin jineikhalou numei khatchu jineisa hihen jineilou hijongle pasal khatchun ahin-gai khahleh akichenpi ding ahitai, ijemtia akichenpileh amanchu itilang hijongle custom dungjuija aboldiu ahitan akichenpi louleh numei manchu customa umsa dungjuija alhingsetna apehding, akichenpi louleh customakisei numei manchu alhingsetna apehding chubanna jumman Sielkhat leobeding ahin achachu asotengle Sielkhatna akilah kitding ahi.Custom dungjuijin anule achahi anilhonin akipai theipoi,anuchu alahda thei apaithei ahin acha vanghi alahda theipoi ajehchu ama thisan ahi alahman apehlou vangachu amapa chanule chapa a chu kisimding ahi.Pasalle numeihi hoijoh hilhon  jongleh minsetna thule midangto jawnbol thu dollin ajichu akikhenpi chehlhon theije hitabang thudol chung changahin numei chungajong imacha seibeding aumpoi.
(a)Guchachu akimatdohle athil guhjat manchu aleding “Siet Luutna” ankong abolding Guhlei Sielkhatna leuding ahi.(b)Mi khatnin thilkhatchu amansah, asuhkhel,abolkhel,asuhset,asuhmang aumkhah’a hiti monghen tia abol hilouva ahetlouhel thiljeh ahikhahle aman chu (value) aleding kigapna umlouding.
Luong’manho :
(I) Manlemol hi akisei dohsa cheng-sehi akila lhingset ngaipoi tia akisei dohsa lah a chu  Sielkhat khentei ding hichu numei nuchu athinungle achen nate insunga sa haap gaki thahpeh’a man kikhum petna sielkhat ana kikhenchu gakilaji ahitai. Hichu sahaap kikhaija luongman kidel kitipahi atumbeh a numei luongman kiti ahi.Luongman kitihin adoichu ahileh numei chun chapa Khanggui kisimthei neitei hen tina  chule hiche numeihi ajotna insungah ahinkho lhumkeijin mang henlang chule a inchen  lolhinghen tina ahi. Longman agakilah nihi numeinu manchu akilah lhingni ahitan chule amajong alolhinni ahitai achung chona ama kinjong kibolchaini ahitai. (II) Tucha luongman aume tucha kitichu numeile pasal tinathu aumpon  eima sielpi sungkon poupou chu ahijenge. Athitengu leh aluongman pethei chalenao umpou pouchu aluongman delding ahi hichu itu hinajalla kibol ahin itu hina’a luongman akidel teng Sachu alule asung  kiladoh’a apuma kikhai ahi. Sahaap-hi numei jineichunga manchaina ahibouvin Sapum pahi itute isielpi sungkon hina’a kibol ahin hoijoh ahilhonin Sielkhat lahding ahi chieh’e.Hinla luongman deltheilou aumin custom dollin kidelthei hihjongleh sa gatha a gavuiding, galhep ding, ga lhamonding  aume hiche hochu suonlepah neilouho sesechu ahijenge hitabang kinnahi ankong aki umkhomin seiding dolle boldingdol akiseijin akibolle.Sakengkhai tahbeh invang amao inmuna anneh akibol ngaipoi.Longman thudollin tutawp tia atumbehle achom beh’a seiloijong aume hichu imachom ahideh pon mitahlelte chu atute ijat thijongle imacha anaboljouji louhon atute thichaini achaina beh’a abolteiji khu kiseina ahi.Aboljoute chun atutechu athi jouse chunga abolji ahin chule boljong aboljouji jeh’a chu ima kisei theilou ahin tutop kitihi tahlelte akonna hung kiseidoh thudol ahi.
  (IV)Thina chunga luongman kiti aumkitne. Hichehi koi thaneina gam hihen koite lah hijongleh mihem khat luongman hijat tia semtheile seithei aumpoi, hinla hoilaimun hijongleh chondan khatle pomdan khat-hi mijousen aneicheh kitma ahi.Hiche dungjui chun chunggam mitehin thina thua luongman hi hitihin anakibolle.(a) Tuosawi, Hetkhiel, Vangset jeh’a kibolkha,Henasa hijongle vangset jeh’a hitabang thilsoh khahole akibahpiho chungahin, Siel-khat, Dah-khat,Khii-khat, Puon’dum khat ahi.(b) Lung tupma kona Kibolmong ahileh ama hinkhole ama insung mite Hinkho vangchu akihoipih in aneile agou jouse vangchu mihem hinkho man-nachu kilahpih ding @ apehding ahi. Chule amihem @ mithatpa dinmun chu Haosa Uupahon avetnuva boldinga alomna aumleh hichegamchu adalhah sahdiu ahi. Mit khella mit, Ha khella Ha kitihi leiset chunga dinga kinelnabei ahin hinla Chunggam mite customin vang mihem khella mihem suhmanghi amang poi. Ijemtia khat touvin phulah abol khah’a mihem hinkhochu asuhmang khah jenglevang akigaam theipon tuolthieh abolding ahi.Hinla ipithu chu sohhenlang ipithu chu umjongleh thina tohte chunga chun akingame,thinachu tohjong leo lungsetna aneijuva angaidam jouvu jongleh custom min ngailutna chungahin tha aneipoi.
(V)Thina thudol lahin insunggeija thilsohhi aumdapoi hijehhin mipakhat lamkaina’a chengkhom insung khatsunga jonghi kithii sona ajiile ama kikah hihen achatele anule apa kikah hijongle hitabang thilhi  alah’uva abolkha aum khahleh custom dungjuija midang bolbang bangakhu abolding ahi.Hiche aleona thiljouse chu amao insungkaija alenjote khutna lutding ahi.Chule hitabanga akhutna thisansohsa mihohi koi hijongleh itabangin minphat nale lolhinna boldoh jongleh “Chawn le Ai” kitihi abolthei louding ahi.
(VI)Chule mihem khatchu midang khat chungachu jouthu asei jehle mi a’uotna, alungthima kuona michun vangsetna, hamsetna,manthaaina atoleh hiche athilto dungjuija chu amachunga kisimding ahi.
(VII) Uunu dalhah man kitihi ponsil ahiloule ponve akimange. Hichehi Uunu dalhah poupou chunga kimang ahipoi Uunuchu pienvangse, apiengsol ho ahilebou kibol ahi, chule pehding ahijong leh ajineidingnu chu anule apan agonpih lhona aseisahle apehsahji lhon ahi.A Uunuchu thangset jeh’a lhasethei ahijeh achu kajineiding thuahin vaang neibuoh in atisahjiuva apehsahjiu ahi.
Lutom-laisui: Hichehi malai miho pasalho dinga nitinna ana kivoppi jingu deljang saothim khat-hi ahi.Aluchanga aveija  akikoptho nomleh akikopma, ataija aveija taigah a aman nomleh amana, thil pohding bailam aumjongleh apohnajeng gamlen na hihen louva chena hihen, khuolla chena hijongleh anakivoppi jingu dieljang khat ahi. Chule numei naonei jouteng jongleh bailamtah a atai agahpeh vahchel nao ahijinge. Lutom le laisui ahipon, Luttom laisui kitijoh ahibouvin, ponchu khatbou ahi. Hichehi malaichun paigen anakiti. 
Malai miho pasalho dinga manchah khohpen khat ahijeh achu man kituh nalah a amasa pena anapan sahjiu ahi. Tuajong hiche mellachu kibol ahijeh in ponhi khatkal lahlou dingdol ahin,tun anule apading tin numei pon khatle pasal ponkhat ilagam taovin hinla hiche thudolla dingin ima adihmona aumpoi. Malai mihochun a inchenglel behseh-ho chungajong hiche lutom laisuihi ana lajiuvin ana ngansejeng jiuve. Numei hi  vangsetjeh in ijatvei jinei jongleh Lutom laisuihi man masapen hijingding ahi. Chule numei vangse avelvella jinei aumleh aman Sielkhat lhading kitijonghi Dahle Khii vangchu lhathei ahin Siel niile Lutuom laisui vangchu ajinei laisea beitheilou ahi, katchu amanding ahin khatchu luongman ding ahijinge.Chunga kisei bangin manhi ijatchu umjongle aladingten alungsetna alahda jongleh customah asedeh poi hinla alahlou mana khankho thua ama tohdingho chunga apaome theiding ahidehpoi.
Thil’ken : Numei thilken chunga hin tillin jong teptena mong anaumpoi hinlah bollou hitheilou khat ahijeh in numei dinga aman chahjing thil benglenam, bel,ponkhon na thilbu hohi anakipohsah jiuve, ama nihlepon changval thilho vangchu thuchom ahi. Kuondohna nei ahi hetnan Sumken ham Sielken ham khatvang chu akibolji’e. Thilken jousehi numei bouchu kipe ahin chenmona hinkho aneileh akenjouse chu kinung lahkit teiteiding ahin, hijeh achu  numei hinkho dingchu seithei ahilou jeh in thilkenhi thillen ana bolnomji pouve.
Avang aphatna chalenaao goulothei aneitengle naopuija ahungteng sa kithapeh a itutechu numei hihen pasal hijongle ingailut jeh achun ichan-gei hijongle ijo chana pehthei ahi, ajehchu amachu bou kipe ahin chule kilekit nading thuchu umlou ahitai.Numei thilken thudollahin lahdaanle pomdaan  thil ana’ume. Numei thil tampi kikenpeh hin khonung teng kavanga incheng tia seithei nading ahijeh in numeiho thil tampi hinkenho khu mi kiletsahle mi letdel tin koima alunglhai jipoi. Numei jinei chunga man kila le kipehi tamhen lhom jongleh man ahibouvin, man kilahjehle kilahlou jeh hin thilkenle kenlou thu atong khapoi. Chule man  kituhle kituhlou thujeh hin thilkenle kenlouding thu atongkha chompoi.Tuhin Ningol Chakkouba khu gihsa asataove ajehchu tilla sangin amang kheljep taovin kipana kinding chu kikho tona kinin asoh dohtai, hijongchu gouthil ngailut nale gelkhoh johna asaantah jeh ahi.Hijeh hin thil kibolhohi customin angaichat kalval bollouhi aphai. 
Tunjong numei kintengleh kipa manin tin alang langin ponsil tamtah tah akisilpeh un hinla customla ahipon manlemolla apha bepmin akiseitan apan’nale akisimna chubana ajemjong  umlouvin moh leogep nabep min puon akisilpeh to jiuve. Custom kitup tah a kimana chungah alang langa puon kisilpehto aumpoi, khantouna jeh injong custom asaojeple achomjep bolnading aumpoi ahinvang Sielle Loi, Dah,Khii kitiho umlouna mun ahile akibah theina thilla semtoh dingchu chondan ngai ahi.
Na’opui : Numeijin chalenao aneitengleh apa inlanga apuija khat anei  chana apuiding ahi. Naohi akipuilouleh  vangset hihen vangphat hihen ipichu tohhen neijongleh aputen kahephapoi koicha koinao ham atitheiju ahin, hijeh achu naopuihi kinkhoh tahkhat ahi.Akipui louchu custom dungjuija athiteng jongleh aputen aluongman adelloudiu ahi.Akipui tengleh aputen ankong abolpeh a akam chenguva jong phatthei abohdio chubana thempun  jong phatthei athum pehdio ahin hiche kibolhi tahsa hinkho dingajong damthei nale hamphat theina ahi.
Kimohchen : Kichen chungahin  kiphon, kituineh, ki innlut, numei sathapeh, kilei chule kisuul’le kitijong aume. Hicheho jonghi hetkhen chitchet aphai. Kiphonhi  akitambol pene.Hichu numeile pasal kijam mangho aumteng pasalten numeite insunga agan nathei chana kiphon na aganei diukhu ahi.Ajehchu numeichu itobang dinmuna umaham? chu akihet vahloule gaalle tol sonathei ahin hijeh achu gangtah a numeite inn’na gaki phonloi ngaija ahi. Agache hohin amasatah a jubel @ chabel akidopdiu ahi. Jubel @ chabel kitihi thuseinale kihouna tina ahi. Hiche agache hohin athudolla aseidiu jouseo aseidiu a insungu guinu geija aseijuva chubana a inchen danu geija aseidiu   ahetpeh diuva khohle phajouse geija joulenal beihella asei thadiu ahi.Chubana ngaidam achanuva kichendan ajuisah nadiuva taona aneidiu ahi. Aban’na kitui neh kitihi ahile, numei chu phalna beija ajineileh sahap apoh masanga ainlang aphah ngailou ahin hiche sahaap apoh masanga chu anungsang langchu ajehpen kisei theilou ama  apan louleh khohtah, chule ngaichat umtah umkhaji ahin, hinla ama kinchu kibolthei loulai hochu thilkhoh aumjeh achu akibolpeh masang hijongleh apa insung langa alhat theina dinga chubanna  insungteni geijajong akhoh dungjuija alhat khom theina diuva jubel @ chabella  seitohna kihou tohna aneijiu ahin hiche kin kibolkhu kituineh kiti ahi. 
  Ki-inluut :kitihi numeinu chen’natele anung sangtehi hiche ki-inluut kibol masanga jaan geh a kiviltole nehkhom donkhom lhatkhom lhingsetna kibol ngailou ahin apaan sa atha a khatvei sahaap apohjou tenglebou lhingsetna insung tenichu kiloikhom theibou ahijeh achu insung teni hopma lhatkhom nathei kinbol tina ahin, hichu numei satha kitikhun ahuop ahin akibol tenglechun insung tenichu pumkhat ahitai tia kisimji ahijeh a chu hiche vetsahna achu sa pum khatkhu kikehso’a akibanga kikihomji ahin inni chu inkhatna  chule insung khat banga ijakaija kipum khatna kithokhom ding ahitai ti vetsahna a hichekhu kibolji ahi.Chule numeihi apaan angai damin akoutai tina ahi.
Chubanna kisuul’le kitikit hi ahileh ChongMouvin anakila jongle joule naalla kibolthu ana umji ahijeh a numei chun achen natechu kichentah a ahetchet joutengleh apa inlanga a insungmi tetoh gachejiuva ahin, hiteng chule amatah inn adihnai jouthu aumpoi tithuchu apa koma alhutji ahin, ijemtia adihlou abolkhah uleh apachun amadei dungjuija  abolding ahi. Hiche thuhi malaija patna joulenal kibolla numei kichenpiho  ginna a kibolji thuchu ahin, kisuulle chu bolteiding chu ahin ahinla hoipou chu joule naal aumjipoi chonna khatle akibolkha thil ahitah jeh achu dihle dihloule bolteitei dinga gellajong umthei ahi.Hiche numei ki suulle tengle hin apan  achanule ainsung mi techu ankong abolpehjin ijem tia abollel  behseh jongle daan ahi tia kigambol behseh nading aumpoi. Chubana abolpeh jongle sahaap apopoi, hinla aboljouleh ankuong hihen  sa hijongle abolmopoi. Numei satha,  ki inn luut, kilei kitihohi aseidan akibah lou vangin thakhat ahi.   
Ko’sa : Athipa chunga mopohna nei penin abolding ahi.Sumlesel neiman na  midangin  abolthei ahipon neilou mana kilepma midangjoh pansah theijong ahipoi.Chuleh hiche Kosa kibolnajeh penchu hiche thiluonghi keima mopohna ahimonge tina ahin chule insunga thinale gentheina chunga  ngailutna jalla kagim nadinga eigimpi, katohding eitohpih  kalung hesohna a eilhem, nahinao chunga keijong nachunguvah kakipah’e tia ankonga kipathu kiseija chule phat theijong kibohji ahi.Hitiahi akibol louleh Hiile Gaao thu adamtheipoi akiti.  
Ngailutjalla ulenaojong ankong hungbol aumtheije, ahinla midang jouse bolhochu lhamon akitin chule” vui “akiti.  Kakosa  ahi atitheipon ahungkosa e akiti theipoi, chule hiche Kosa kinbol kilahdan hi koimongchu kihiham ti kiphon dohna chule ka-insung kinhi kaboljouve, mihemkhat hinale incheng khatnin ka umnaije tinajong ahin, chule eima insungmi athipa athinu chungachu hitiachu akibolleh amajong alunglhai jeh in ama hiile gaaova konnajong damthei nale hamphat theina ahijeh a kibolji ahi. Athi in ipi ahetding ham tia nahsah louva koithei ahipoi.Mihem kiti jousehi chon’na daan  beija umtheitih  umlou  ahin alah’a chunggam mite custom hi leiset chunga mihemte chonna daanho lah a ahoipentah ahin Christianity, Govt.daan ahin akitomo pi umlou, mibul hochu  hiche chonna daan hoitahhi   Pathenin anapeh ’u ahi.
Dum dip man :Kiphatsah nalouva anakicheng khaho chungah akimange.  Numeichu sahaap apoh masanga hinkho beina aneikhah leh, ankuong puma Sielkhat agakhum diukhu kiseina ahi. Ankuong alelbeh seh uva chule akilungset nule chabella jong bolthei ahi.
Hiem’khaam : Atamjon thilong kilihna chunga akimangin, chule kinahna gaal sonathei, kithato nathei thu aum tengleh akimange.Hitabang bolna dinga lomchu a’um khahleh agam haosapun khosunga vohcha khatchu akholih jenga, athajenga chule thuphon aneiloiding hichu, thisanin kakhahtai koiman thisan paltanthei ponte apaltan aumleh thisanin athu atanding tia aphonjah ding ahi.Chule hiche sa chu haosan thunei vaihom hotoh cham nading thuseina achu amandiu ahin hiche nunga gamsunga tolthieh, salam thuho kisei talou ding ahitai. Thujouse akichaiteng thumun na  athem mopaan akisulut jousechu aditding ahi.Akho haosan akhoh dungjuija achama aboljeng tilouchu hemkhaam tin akisim ngaipoi.Asukhel’ho athiemo dungjuija thupeh noija kiboljong hiem khaamin akisim theipoi. Hichethuhi Haosan athu ahetchet jouteng koimacha donglouva aboljeng dingthu ahi. Hitiachu akibol  louleh mihemkah’achu thilse tampi sohthei ahijeh’a chutia kibolji ahi. Hitabang thu ahijeh in akibolgang loujongle kithaato nageija sohmanji ahijeh in gangtah in akibolji’e.
ANKUONG THUDOL :Kosa, Hiemkhaam, Luong mandel,Kepten Satha,tia minpoh neija ankong kibol tamthim chu aumnai hinla seithalou khat aumbe in hichu (a)Leona (b)Lawpna tiuhite.Leuna a hi gahnale teptena akinei theije.Vohchal or Vohpi tuh-4,5,6, mongmong nathading akititheije athu in apoh dungjuijin. Lawpna langhi eiman kipana kin michunga kibolpih langhi ahijeh in ibolding chun apojenge.Leonale Lawpna lang Ankuong tenihi ankuong ahina dollin hitabang mihon ane ngaipoi ti thudol aumpoi.
Thi’se thudol : Amale  ama kithat vanghi thise ahijenge.Thinga thi, Tuija thi, Gaalla thi, chule ipiham khatna  konna thina tohkha jousechu thise in anakilai. Hicheho jousechu  indoijin thise a analah jeh a kila anahin, ahinla asung thuhi lhasietna thudol ahibouvin thietbol mongmong thu ana hipon asunggil thu akisuhmil phatnin aki thietboltai.Adihtah chu ahileh ngailut behsehjeh ahibouve.Deibanga thina angaibanga athilou jeh achu khosungle insunga alimle amel jengjong koilutding angap chatlou jeh’a pojong polut louva avuidoh paijuleh hung chesaokha ahi.
Sel’nit : Thiluong akivuidohjou  nungteng jongle insungmite  chu  puldou jeh a thanema umji pet-hi kiseina khat ahin abana athutoh akilomna dinga kinit aume. Hitabang insunga chu angailu akhohsah chengin chaa kidom henlang khutgoh keovin kiche jongle amao insung puldou huna a gakicheji a gakiumpiji ahi. Mihem athi-vanghi kibanglou ahin ngai umtahle umloutah chu akibangpon puldou nan jong  aphah daan kibang kitlou ahi. Nit kitihi malaijin ana kitambolle, Tuganit, Vaamnit, sah’nit chuleh adang phabep pihi aume hinla akimang kitdingle apha chomding aumtapoi. Chule akinitlona hojong semthule kilhepna jengseh ahibouve. Khanggui chuon’na lah a hin Chon,Ai,chule Kuut kitijong  aume hicheng hi  khang sunga golnop kimang hochu ahiove. Tua kiseiho lah a “ Kuut “ kitipahi mipi kinle mipi a ahin, nehding dondingle kimanchah nadinga alutding jouse mipin haosa upa vaihomho thupeh nanoija agondohdiu atodohdio chule hiche nikhohi nehna, don’na lasahna, lam’na, chule golseh kitetna a amanjiova haosa upa hochun  seidinga lom aseiju ahin chuban’na  haosa hon kum kivaipoh nadingjong aphon dohjiu ahi.Abanin kuut minhi phabep aumin anikhole aphaat jong kikhe chitchet ninte ahinla ahoichi chu hitaleh mipi golnopchu ahicheh e. 
Ai :  “Ai” kiti thucheng hi lolhinna kinbol kitileh hetbaipen ninte. Hiche “ai” kiti hi lampini aume numeija aumin, pasalla aume. Pasalla hi “Sa- ai” ahin numeija hi “Chaang- ai” ahi. Sa -ai kitihin satha lamah lolhin’na  tina ahin,“Chaang-ai”hi numeijin loubollin, muchi bollin kalolhinge, tina ahi. Atohdoh chunga lolhinjeh a kipana kinbol ahin hiche kinna dinga nehding donding jousechu amaan akipoh dohding, akithopi nomchanin akithopi ding ahi. Chuleh anikhohi laamle lasah golnop anop nathei channa kimang ahi. Hitia kibolchu “ai” chunga numei le  pasal “Sa- ai” le “Chaang- ai”chu thakhat cheh ahi  aboldan vang them khat kikhe chitchet ahi. Pasaldingin sai, humpi, keipi kitihohi khat athajongleh ai aboltheije. 
Chon @ CHAWN: Hichehi pasalla bou ahitai chule chawn kitihi boldoh theina dinga pasalchu alolhin nading chu akimkah sea hitheilou ahin bailamtah a gahsei dingin Salu akisim jouse somcheh atha jouteng lebou chongding ahi.“Chonbol”kiti hin ipi adoiham chule ipi kiseina ajehchu minphat deinale loupi deina ahi.Chon boldoh nathei boljoupa chu achondingle nehding donding amaan apoh dohding, akithopi nomchanin akithopi  ding nikho ijat chan-gei mi avah jouvam aman ajochan abolthei ahi. Chon ahin Ai ahin asotboljou chan nachu loupia kisimjeng ahin, chule chon hihen ai hijongle hitabang kinloupi hohi mikhatchun abolding tengleh custom dungjuija pute, tute, nulamte, utele naote,jollegolte, haosa, thempu, pate, tucha, becha chule apang ding le ajaodinga ngaichat ho jousechu ama ama hina dolcheh a kouding chule pangcheh ding ahiuve.Chule hiche sungahi golnop golseh nehledon lhasam louding laamle lasahjong lhasam louding, achongpa jongchu aloupi nikhole alholhin nikho ahijeh a pachat changding, choiat najong changding chubana amanjong alolhin nathu aseithei, kivah choithei thu asei nomle aseija la asem nomle asemma  asahnom jongle  asahdoh  thei ahi. Sa -ai Chang -ai hihen chon hijong leh lolhin nale pachan najeh a kibol golnople golvah kikop ahiove, achungnung penchu “Chon”hi ahi.
Masangchun chunga kiseihohi ana kibollin tukhanghin akimukha tapon khanggui chuawn-nachu tukhanga manle mol kituh na-a Siel,Dah,Khi, akiti vanga sumle paile akibahpi hotoh isemkhel lelethei banguva Chawnle ai, kiti hojonghi boltheijin kagel doh e.Aumdanchu doctorate achai jouleh “ai”kitihi boltheijin kagelle chubana solkal natoh akimuteng jong leh“ai”bol theijinte. Abanin UPSC hinjih doh honjong, State commission muhonjong “ai” bolthei jinte,Chule anatoh alolhin na angah tengleh(pension)“Chawn” boltheijin te tin Kagelle. IAS muho pension taleh “Chon” bolthei jinte. Achung nungpen sehseh ahipon anatoh atoh lhungkeija pension ahigeija ama adam nahlaileh alolhin nachu asangpen ahitan“Chon”hi bolthei jinte tin kagellin, Chule MLA, MP, MDC, kaidoh hon hitabang golla hi sima “ai”-Chon” kitihohi  leptohle le ‘a tukhanga jong bolthei dingin kagelle. 
Chubanin “Mister @ Miss”contest a pachanna neihole olympic nga champion lahole award chubanna medal muhon jong aboldin akilome. Chubanin Reverend, ordain kaihojong hitiahi vetgolla akilompi totuoh a “ai chule chon” hi bolthei dingin kagelle. Ajehchu khanggui chonajong chun aneo hina lama alolhina dungjuija aphahjou nachan chana “aile  chon” abol ahithou ve.  Pasal hijonglehen sa umlouna gama satha dingthu umthei talou ahin khanggui chuon nachu ijuinom leh vettoh tho johding akitopile akilompi dungjuija chu boljohding ahitai hichu ahimonajong aumpoi.
Chubanin malaichun “Chonle-Ai” akibol tengleh“Shawlkho” kiti khat aumin achongpa tohdoh, asatha jouse dingchun shawl kiti khomkhat aki phutji in thinghal jelutnathei akisemin hichelai ho achun thinghal khat akijep ji’e. Hiche thinghal hochu halkhat chun asatha khatchu avet sah ahin hichu khonunga amapa anachon chu mihon ahetjing theina diuva kibol ahin, record tobanga kibol ahin, tulaija memorial stone sema thu chenga, lekhajema jihtho a malaijaho sanga kichentah a asungthu geija tamtah jihtho a koithei ahitai. 
Ki’semdoh : Khanggui chonna lamdollin lampini in ana kimange. Khatchu khochen langa ahin anina pachu ucha kikah’a kisemdoh ahi. Khochen dolla kisemdoh pahi ahileh mihem khangchu pusoh kitilang ahung geitengleh twikhuh lailhaatna anasem dohjio ahi. Hichu kikhonei doh kisemdoh chubana salu belpeng pehdoh kitichu ahi.
Belpeng kitihi haosa insunga semang pachong ho  kikhoptengle  adonjiu juchih koina leibel neochakhat ana-umin hichu kiseina ahi. Mi u’paan anaote asemdoh vanghi ki-inn chuondoh akitin hiteng chuleh lolhing setna aseipeh dingdol jouse aseipehding tucha becha geija asempeh a chule chontul geija akenpehding chule insung gouthil-ho jengjong apeh jouchan apehding ahi. Adoltah in chapa pasal aneijou tenglebou anasemjiuve hinlah tulaijin koipou vin angahtapoi. Neojo hochu a’upa akuawn’na semdohna a’umlouleh aneijouse chu a’upa neija kisimjing nalaiding asemdoh jouvapat sating thu tilou tohding aumtapoi. Kho asemdoh khah’a khonunga a’upa ahung chenlut khahlevaang a’otding ahi,ajeh chu haosat-hi thuchuom ahin neojo tuhdingdol ahipoi.   
Man-kaang : Mipa khatchu achanu ajinei  tengleh aman lah a’chu sielkhat alah doh a ajol agol ngaitah khat ahilou jong leh numei nudinga apate lah a khat apehji ahi. Chule hiche  sielkhat changpa chun achanu bangbanga akinchu abolpeh kitding ahi. Hiche a sielkhat michom peh dinga kiladoh chu man kaang kiti ahin, mi incheng domho thilbol ahi.   
Mi’pah :Hichehi tunigeihin achejingin tunungajong chejing theiding khat khanggui chona lah ahoiloi  tahkhat chu ahi. Mipah a chehochu jaan- geh ngailou ahin, gamlalheh jongleh amun behchu adalhah teidio ahi. 
Sa-ngong-thah :  Sa itha tengleh ipute  inna  angong gakithahji ahin sangong kithah-hi tucha @ tupa hina a lolhinna ahin pute dinga kipana ahi.Aputen aboljoule sa athapehding adeideijong abol pehding vaangjong aboh ding ahitai.  
Hum-hape : Themlemo kidatkhen nadinga humpi ha penading aumleh langkhat nin apelouding alangkhat johjoh inbou apeding ahi.Ipithu penchu hitaleh aki ngohna thu achu ahiloudan aseija hum piha chu ape’a kihah sielding aphaat bih jong atepding ahi.Pathen houho dingin hitabang thilhi akibol ngaipoi. 
Nit-dol :1.Numei jumleja gellouva kholhangsam, jana neilou chu vohpi jubellin akigaame. 
1. Custom dungjuijin Pasal hihen numei hijongleh paa khat chilhah apengkhom hochu haosa inn ahilouleh thumun pou pouva kikaito akibol ngaipoi. Ajineidoh nungu hihen ajinei masangu hijongleh. Ahe phalou khatnin boltajongleh haosan ala ngaipoi.
 2. Itute ivohleh chabellin akilhem min, ipute ivohle ankongin akiluut nin, itute insung kin’na nehtho langin akipangin, ipute insung langah dontho langin akipange.
3.   Kichen thuseina chunga vaikon dinghi chondaanle thuseidan hethem domtah bou cheding kiman chahding ahi ajehchu thu lah’a thupipen ahin custom helou thuseije helou chun thu asuhset johthei ahi.Chule custom mahin thuseidin numei akimang poi.
4. Min eima chunga suhkhel tohkhel aneikhahle ngaidam thum dingin akikou ngaipoi.Chule suhkhel, chuon khelna chungahin jubel, chabel hihen ankuong bolding hijongleh ichena dingte phalna akithum ngaipoi.Chule ichan geija suh khel  thinagei chungajong gancha akipoh lut jenga amao huong sunga akitha khum jeng tengle haosan  hiem khaam  abol bangin  akilai.
5. Sahaap-poh hihen samal poh  ki’inn-luutle naopui chunga kho- sungle insung lhuntengleh ankonga dinga suhmil theilou hochu  tehse, haosa, thempu, tute, pute, nulam, le inheng gaalvengle meitai pagong  hicheng ahiuve.
6. Midang thil khatchu vangset jeh’a suhlih, suhmang, aumkhahleh vangset kibang  ti’in  amanjat  chu akivetoh in akeh khatnin akipan akipangto’e.
7. Ngaidam thumdinga  hungchu koihileh akinodoh ngaipoi chubanin numei chunga man kikhum chu ijat hitaleh akilekit ngai poi.
8. Pasal gamlenga chun sapi samaang akaapteng amale ama akichoi sang nomleh haosa inna alhutna hichu khosung nupiho lamkaina’a nehkhomna haosan aboljin chule sakap pachun aluchang jongchu Inpite baanga atah nomle atahthei ahin  hitiachu abolleh Haosan jong ankong abolpih dingham ahiloule puon asilpih dingham khatchu abolpihding ahi.Ahin asakap  chu ating  vangchu asuh mangthei louding ahi. 
9. Custom dungjuija itute insunga an’neh akibol ngaipoi kitile  thise ki-um sah hohi bollouding kiboljoh ahin abul langa konjong ahipoi. 
 10. Chule kinbol chung chaanga jonghin chihthei angaije. Tucha Becha jonghi ahinadinga hisahding, atun nading dolla tun angaije. Kouna lekha chungahi eima minle eima insungmiho min chonsah louding kikumle louding bechapu min achonleh hichu ijakaija alolhingpen ahi. Eimamin kichonsah khu custom pomdol lin hichehi thupi lhingset vang ahipoi tina anahin  bechamin achonleh kinpi, thupi mongmong gellhuhna akon ahin chule moh chonlele thei ahitapoi tina ahi. Inneitele tuchalang hi kouna thudolla akikum nadiu aumpoi. Chule athu in apoh dungjuijin  committee, board, chule organisation mopohna a kounajong aumtheijin hicheho chu thuchom ahitai. 
Chubanna koichung hijongleh kipa thilpeh ipehnom hihen iseinom hijongleh athupi laisechu bechapule bechanu khutle kamsung chu manding ahin akalvalla seinomle bolnom hochu achombeh a’umdan chom jepma deichom thilla bolding bou ahin athupi laihole akhohlai hoa eimale eima insungmi kikum louding ahi akikum hochun becha panmun  chu ajumso chule ija aselouva kilaji ahin chujongle custom jong apalkeh ahi. Ajeh chu custom dungjuija koima moh a kimang ngailou ahijeh achu damtheina dingachu kinchai tengle insung lhachaho chunga chu kipa thuseina kineijia kipa thilpehjong iboljoule kibol ngaiji ahi. Chule chondan ngaijin eima inmun hihenlang midang inmun hijongleh ankong bolna,Sathana ineileh Inndel kitihi  (sachu phabepkhat inneite kihon kham  koipih ding) akisumil ngaipoi.

11. “Salam”le “Tolthieh” Thisan kisona, Zoule Zawn sona thua asuhthengna a kithat Sa khu kiseina ahi.Akithat ding Vohcha  jongchu neocha bou kimang ding ahi noichep kinga bep-ho. Hiche sachu thisana thenso vetsahna a kibol ahin, asa jongchu Haosa hihen koi hijongleh chachoi laijin aneh ngailou ahi. Hiche saneding chu tehse hijongleh pasallin ane ngaipoi ajehchu pasalhin ahinlaisea chalenao ahinthei ahijeh in numei tehse vangchu  chalenao aneikit louhelding ahijeh in  amahohin anehjiu ahi.Adangvang chu ganhing jengjong kineh khahsah louhel leiset kilaija kivuimang ji ahitai.Khotina thilsoh hoimole kilungto mona ahung punjalhi custom adih’a imanlou jeh’u ahi.Custom akimot bolla jaalou tah’a kibolna khosungah khosung atheng theipon thujong adam theipoi,Ahina bangtah’a akibollou dingle boldajoh chu phajo ahi chonset punna dingbep. 
12. Kida thudolhi lampini aume Pasal ahin numei ahin aji adanathei aum cheh e. Koijoh hijongleh danathei thudih aumleh adajengthei ahicheh’e.Daman jongchu kikhe chitchet kitna ahi. Ahinla danathei thu customto kitoh umlouva numei hihen pasal hijongle amaan adanom jeh a adahochu pasallin adaleh daman sielkhat ahin, numeijin adaleh aman anaki khumse chu aleding ahi. Hichethu lah a’hin hoijoh chu hijongleh ajin ajonkhumleh danathei tha aneicheh lhonne, hiche thudol lahin Pathenin jong aphasah ahi eiho customkeo hilouvin. 
13. Pasallin miji asuhboh khahleh vohpi jubel athoding chule sielkhatna leoding ahi.Ajipan numeichu alekhum @ apaileh aman kihumse jongchu alekitding ajipan numei chu angaidama apailouleh akisei masapa bangchu hiding ahi. Numei chu midangin asuhboh khahleh custom dungjuija Daatei teiding ledohtei teiding ahidehpon ajipa khutna kingamjo ahi. Aji kisuhboh thua leona manhi sum hihen Siel hihen ipichu hijongleh ajipan ane ngaipon ama sanga lenjo Uupadol khutna lutding ahi.
14. Numei chaneisa ama inlanga kile dohkit loulaiho chule achenna inna achato chengnalaiho kichenpi chun anumeinu manchu achennatechu aleding chukal valla achachu neonalai ahileh noitwi chaan man Sielkhat apehbeding ahi. Anule acha kipuikopma chengho vangchu umdan chuom ahi.Chujouleh numeinu inlanga chu innlut kindol abolkitding ahi.
15. Tosoi, hetkhel, hetphah louvakona kisuh khah, thisan kisokha chujongleh thina chan-gei hilou chungah  adam kah in asukha chun ajending  adam tengle ankuong khatna  alhalhoding.  Ipilangchu hitaleh henasa kibolmong chu chunga kiseibanga khu abolding achungchonna sielkhatna leoding. Vangset hamset nathuho a vang lunghan akibol ngaipoi.
16. Nulepa kichenhi vannoija hinkhoa ding nga thilloupi pentah ahin custom beija kijongtoho lah akhun kichenle kikhenhi thupi louhel ahin, daan kuultah neihochu akimoh chenloijin akimoh khenloi theipon umjong amoh umloi theipoi. Hijeh hin kichen chunga custom guntah a kiman na gamah mihem nulepa hinkho manthah na alhomin,bailam lama kimoh bolbolna gamah nulepa chule numei le pasal hinkho mongmong lamvaina atame.
17. Kichen chunga man kituhle man  kikhum hin sumlesel seh hilouva thupi lentah namluitahle dettah chule nampi guntah khat chubaana khang saotah mite hina  avetsah ahi. Man kituh hin numei nuhi achung thu seiding chule achunga thunei dettah aume tina ahin abanin hiche numei nuhi insung kichehtah phunggui kichehtah ahina vetsahna ahibana akhang akhanga khanggui chonna dettah neitele chonna ngailute tuhdet jingte insung ahi vetsahna ahi. Man khumte dinmun hin itihchan hijongleh hiche kijontona khanggui aum laisea demna douna letdelna neilouhelleh thunun na lhingset nopna vetsahna  ahi.
18. Kinpi kibolteng seidingle boldingdol ho thudolla hin ahimonahel aumlouleh numeijin thupile thukhohlai hohi akisei ngaipoi. Chuleh ipute inupate letdel, dem, chule achunguva thutan akibol ngaipoi. Abanin itutele numei insung aki thietbol ngaipon kin neina jouse a ipute, itute, nulam, hohi akisumil ngaipoi. 
19. Mipa, mi-Uupale mopohna a kibollha chu ipi hileh akipalkeh ngaipoi. Mibulule guchachu min amalep khah’a ahileh athisan long henlang ahinkho chaanlo jongleh along manleh achungthu akisei ngaipoi.
20. Haosahin agam  sungah ijakai chunga tha aneivangin custom chungah tha aneipon custominjoh ama chungah tha aneijoi.
21. Custom dungjuijin moudon’na hole ngaidam thumna dingho’a hi inneite jaoteiding ahin,kisuh khahna thule kinahset, kisetsona thuho a’hin inneipale amao insungmiho apang ngaipoi. Kichenna thu hihen ipithu hijongle ankong chung hihen chabel chung hijongleh agamkon langhon aseijou aboljou lebou adonbut ding langchu kihou khoma chule donbutding ahi.Min iti aseiding hetma sanga kihoutoh masahhi  kipalna bailam tah chule kisuhmona ahi.
22. Gamngah kiti thuchengle a’umdanhi tulaijin hietkhiel baijinte, athuhin aseinachu mipa khatchu ama chiguichu beitaleh a’Uupa chunga kingam ding a’Uupaan ama nungsanga achanu hihen aneiho hijongleh ijakai chunga mopoding ahina pakhu kiseina ahi.Khanggui neihih jongle chanu khat hihen tampi hijongle umthei ahi hichiho jousechu achungthu le ahinkho jouseo ama chunga kingamding ahitai.Hitabang hochu Chemle thal vang aman akilahding gouthil umchengse chu amanjong akilahding thilchu ahivangin chanute chu ahoppih johding ahi. Kigam nga thu ahijeh in kisemdohle kisemdohlou thu akiseitapoi insung gouthilho thudolla hin.Hiche insunga chu ajinu hihen achanu hijongleh aumthei laisea hinkho dollin lamkaipihna neijongleh ama gouthil hochu athamloh louhelding ahi. Ajinun vang inle louhole gouthilho chu jineina’a aneikhuma achenkhum theilou ahin achanuten vang Jineinale chenna’a aneithei ahi.
Lut-hen   Lhiem-hen : Isanga lenjo insung kaija hole ipute chunga ithemmona auma ahileh chabel hihen lang ankong hijongleh akibol poupouchu ‘’luut’’ akitin“Luut-hen”akiti. Isa anga neojole tuchaho chunga ibol dingleh “Lhep” akitin Lhiem-hen ti akimange custom dollin hitihin thu cheng akimang ngaije.
Haosa insung  : Amasapen na haosapu bangtah’a thuseileh vaihom chuleh avaipopen pahi seimang akiti. Seimang kitihi chinghen ngol jongleh haosapu bepa chu hijengding ahi. Pachong kitihi saap paovin council of ministers ahiuvin khosunga achingthei domcheh kilhengji ahiuve. Haosahin  ipilampi hijongleh ama cham chamin  achangin thu aseilha ngaipoi khodingle mipi dinga seigaalkai ding jouse seimangin aseiding ahi. Chule gellhah dingle seilhahding tohlhahding jouse seimang pachong jouse nopna a kibolding ahi. Thusam phonga kimang pahi lhangvah akitin chule lhangvah kitihi ni ana umme khatchu haosalanga ahin khatchu lawmho a ahi.
Kuut : Kuut kitihi achom lamtah’a seiding in Thilkhat,Thukhat,Minkhat,Ajehkhat  chu kimin kuutna @ pansatna kineija ,kimoso’a hiche jallachu japiin kipa golnop kinloupitah kibol tina ahin,hichehi anikho jong teptena aumpon nikho alhomle atam dingchu ideideija ijo dungjuija kigongji ahin,hiche sungahi khosung gamsung vaipo honjong thupi thumaang jouse seijapha aseijuva phuonapha aphuonjiu ahi.Chule khanggui chawn daan (Culture) pohdoh nikho ahi.Adeh’a Kuut kitihi kumhei @ golnop nikho’a dinga khanggui chawn na lah’a aloupipen kumkhatna khatvei kimangchu ahi.Kuut kiti minpohi atame hinla kumkhatna chu  khatveikal kimang joujilou ahijeh  a  khatmin penchu kimangji’a ahin hiche dingteng hileh haosa seimang pachonghole lawm upahon imalam jouse alamkaijiu ahi.Golnop golseh kitijouse jong akibolthei jouse kibolsohkei ahi. Chonle Ai kitihi changval la ahin Kuut kitihi Khopi, Nampile Mipi’a ding ahin khanggui golnop,kumhei kimang lah’a achung nungpen ahi.
Tukhangin kipa umtah Chavang  Kuut hi Chavang mina Kuut loupitah’a manthei na ineidoh khatheijun khang nununga dinga chan loupitah, hamphatna lentah  khatchu ahung hikhai, chule nampidinga analamkai hole thil anaboldoh’ho lah’a Kuut anaboldoh hohi nampi dinga natongdoh phapen ahinalaijuve.Hinla hiche nikhohi amang hohin themkhat akimangkhel jepme“Kuut”hi cultural loupina penna mandingdol ahin, cultural chu ajao vangin aloupi penin akimangpon traditional culture sangin  miss kut lhendinghi committee a pangjouse thilgon lenpenin aumjitai ,hicheho  eiho culture naat phahlou napena ikisahlel jiuhi adihpoi.Hichehi khantou to kilhonna boldinga aphatjongle organise body khatnin phatchu adang khatna aboldinga lom thilchu ahibouvin chule athu jonghi khangthah hoding ahibouve mipi lhingsetna kikhopna khoppi lenpen sunga boldingdol ahipoi.Khanggui chonna golseh hole laamho bolna chubana khanggui thusimle khanggui chon naho seinale kihilna’a manding ahibouve. Akhangto kitoh’a  custom langa kisei banga ,nampi minphatna boldoh’ho, japi dinga miphachom, lekhathem, minphatna mu,hitabang hohi alampito kitoh’a kipa man pehtheiho peh’a, seiphatna phaho seiphatna,phondoh’a phaho phondohna neija certificate pehtheiho peh’a award pehtheiho pehding chubana thilpeh bolpeh’a phahojong pehding hitiachu kibol hileh custom & culture tojong kitohsa ahi.1.11.1979 kuma kibolpan ahitan 2008 hin kum 30 lhingmai ahitan Chavang Kuut traditional’la amanding danto kitoh’a (according to its culture) mandoh malah in culture la konin igam mang checheh taove.Kuut nikholehin khantou thilbol deinadollin ichanin kisalel jongleohen koima thangset nadingle pachaat chan nading aum chompoi, achondan kisuh milte hikhahding joh’hi kijumsona lenjoh ahi.Tunjong chikhat namkhatna kigella culture neilouva namdang culture mangah atamin hiche hochu  nam lhavaai  khanggui neilou thusim neilou lhumna lhahna neilou akitin nam gam’mang ahiuvin thupi muna pangthei lou ahitai.Khanggui chon nahi geldaokhah louhelding ahi.
LAWM UPA : Khosung kivaikpoh lah’a hiche lawm upa kitihi khochen lolhinle lolhin louding thuhi lom upa khutnahi kingamah ahijenge. Amahin khosunga tohding jouse chunga vaipohna anei ahin, custom jong atamjo amachunga kingamji ahi. Chaangle miim  muchi chivo chule thinglam, twilam, chule loulam economic lampi jousea amahi vaipo ahijenge.
LHAAN’SADEL: Mi athi nungteng gamsa  kidella kikapma athipa dinga chu Sakin kilahpeh’a hichu ama minna alhutna dingdol jousea kilhutna akilhut najousen jong damlaija boldingdol hojouse abolji ahi.
SEI’MAANG : Aseilhah jouse niellouding nit-thoding jengbou ahijeh a seimaang kiti ahi.
PA’CHONG :(dohletun) Khosung vaipo dinga khosunga achingcheh lunggel dinga kilheng hokhu ahiuve.
LHAANG’VAH  : Sap phong dinga umjouse lhaang tinna asapji jeh a lhaangvah kiti ahin lhaanga vah’a thusam phong tina ahi.
Mi’insunga thi : thinathei thinatheilou kiti aume.Numei hihen pasal hijongleh eima insungle ikijoppi insung hilouva ithi khahle salamsat akibolle.Hichijonghi kilheplhah khanga customho ahi.
Cus’tom koibe : (1) Kihetkhen  nadin numei ajineile  aji’um kitipou pouhin akhut jet lamin “sum-eng chaao”thangnang jemin kisemhenlang kibuleh hichu ajidingten akichen niuva patnin bupeh uleh aji um  ahi kihet nadingin.Vangsetna aji aumlouna khat aumleh kisutlhah kit-hen, hinla aji umhih jongle acha anao jalla achen jongleh kibu denhen ajehchu keimahi kaji umta hih jongle jineikit loudinga um kahitai tia aumchu akihet nadingin.
2. Kin chunga chondan jemhoi dingin  numei thumding hihenlang ngaidam thumding hijongleh custom dungjuija vaikon’na poupouvah acheho lah a pasal pilhing jousen delkop abangleh (snow white) cheh kikopleh hoijinte.
3.  Mijouse dingin ipi dinmunah umtajong lehen amasang hihen anungsang hijongleh  anu dingin acha, apa dingin acha ti tabangin ipi ipu, inu ipa, isopi ipenpi, itu icha, ini igang, pendolla khaogui banga kijoppina umho chungahin gentheina hihen natna hihen thina hijongleh ilungsetle ingailut dungjuija pantheina birth right hi mijousen aneije.
Achung nungpen : Mihem dinghin custom hi alenpen’ne,custom dingin jong mihemhi alenpen ahikitne, mihem dingin thaneina neihi alenpen kitne, thaneina lah’a mi’Uupa achung nungpen’ne.Hitichun custom, haosa, mi’upa kitihi pumkhat ahiuvin, khanggui chuon’na sunga amaho chunga a’umtapoi, hinla akisei athanei chungnungho chungahin ‘’ ngailut ‘’ hin tha aneijin custom ahin haosa ahin mi’Uupa ahin khatchanjong ngailut chungahin tha anei pouve.Ngailut-hin munjouseah tha aneijin chule joleljong aneipoi. Mihemchu koihileh koipu customin ajolel aumpon,kidangtah’a customin ajoulouhel aumjongleh ngailutnin ajouve, ngailoutnin ajolouchu “Satan” ahi.Custom, Haosa,Uupa, Ngailut lah’a hin ngailuthi athanei achungnungpen ahi.
“CUSTOM” KITICHU IPI KISEINAHAM AKITILEH “CULTURE” TINA AHIN, “CULTURE” CHU IPI KITINA HAM AKITILEH “LIFE” TINA AHI.MIHEMTEHI AKIBANG SOHKEIPON AKIBAHLOU DUNGJUIJA AMA AMA CHIILE NAMIN AKHANG GUIJA POMDAN CHONDAN ANGAIJA ABULLANGA ANAKIBOL DUNGJUIJA KIKHENPI LOUHELLA AHIN CHEPI JINGU CHON NALE KIMAN CHAH NGAINA HOHI KISEINA AHI.

BUNG - IX
MIZO NATIONAL FRONT 
MNFahung kisemdoh hi Maotam thucheng gin umtah’a hung kipan anahin tohding lentah chunga kiloikhom nale natoh khom na a kona ahinman’nuva kiheidoh pai ahi. Hichu Mizo Famine Front 22nd Oct. 1961 kuma anakiphut dohchu alung sunguva chengjing thilkhat ahijalla chu 12 Oct. 1962 kuma chu Mizo National Front’tia ahin semdoh kitnu ahin chubana District Council tetnan jong ahin neidoh un ahung machal tan ahi. Ahinvang Mizo kiti thucheng mong monghi 1930 langa kam chenga ana kimang peh ahitai.
Chule Mizo kiti chuchenghi mipi lah a vailonale kivaipohna monga ana umloulai vangin Mizo kiti ana umnahi hiche masang jepchu ahitai. Hiche Mizo Union kitijonghi Political langa Lusei hills sungahi ama sapen anahi. Mc Donal Britishte Lusei hills a dia superintendent achainapa panpihat na konchun, hichu 9.4.1945 ma pu Pachhunga President hina anahi. Chule sap pahin Luseitehi kumsom sunga Political langa lunggelna phaat aneina diuva anaseipeh ahin, atuma a’um nomu jongle hitheiding India te lhuhna langlang ajuidio jongle hithei ding tihi anahi.  (aumdan chu Lusei hills langa hojong Manipur langaho banga ana umthou danu ahin khatjoh sanghi imachom inaumdeh lou danu ahi).
A.O Hume chun INC @ Indian National Congress ahin semdoh phatchun Mc Donalchun Mizo Union asemdoh anahi. Hichu govt. nin mipito kikah a thujouse chunga ahin manchah pan ahitai. INC 1885 deidan chutoh kilhonin Sailo haosaho in sele’kai chule thunei chungnung aboljou seu nona in ahin neitauve. Achung chonin Khawtin khuma MA masapen pachun ahin tosot be-in Sailote seh in gamsunga tha aneiju thule haosat suhmang nadingchun, hichu ahinjou tauve,hitichun mipi deichu ahung hiphatnin compensation jong adellun Lusei hills sunga hochun agamu 8000 square miles chu India khutnah Rs.Lakh phabepmin akilhehdoh taove. Khonungin pu Laldengale  India kihouna achun ipi naseiham nagam umtalou kichochai tachu atiove. (They finaly agreed to do away with the Sailo Chief ship by paying some compensation and there by sold away the entired 8000 Sq miles to India at the price of some Lakhs of Rupees. T. Gougin: Discovery of Zoland page 86).
  Hiche laichu India Politics chu Mk Gandhi mopoh nale athuhat lai anahin, hijehchun Britishte jongchun hiche lung agelkhen dinguchu anagelkhoh pentah u ahi.Ajehchu amaho Mizo mipi dei bolthei pet chule amaho thuneipet ahijeh chun iti kibolleh aphadem atilai tah u ahin, hiche pet nachu lusei Mizo Partyho seisei ana hitheiding chule Manipur gama jongchu Pu T.Kipgen teho seisei chu ana hitheiding petcha ahi. Hiche kikhopna achun inam sunguva lamkai masaho mundang danga jong anajaovun ahi. Gah’het theidin, Pu Vumkhohao, Thong chinthang, Lunpum chule adang pha bepjong chinhills langa kon ahiuve, ahinla amaho chun ana lunglutpi nomta pouvin ajehchu Lusei hills sunga chenghohin thule’la gelsaona um louvin “Mizo tibou akisahlel pijeh un. 
Hiche bangjom chun MNF movement thu achun Konpui  Chura-chandpur munah  Laldenga in kihopna lentah ahin bollin ahileh hiche a’ jongchun Chin Hills langa hojong ahung jaokitnun Manipur la hojong, hitichun kikhopna achun ajao dinga phajouse chu ajao kim soh’e. Abanin khatpa 1945 chu gahseikit leuhen lunggel khatna achekhom theilou dio phatchun Chin Hills langa hochu ana kikangse taove.Hinla kipumkhat tah’a ana tongkhomho jalchun lolhinna khatchu aumthou nai.India in aginmo chu Manipur langa hojong ajaova Chin hills langa hojong ajaova ahetjeh un ahahsat nale akhohna khatchu Lusei hills sehseh chu panga hileh Laldenga ahounao thudolla chu seibeding umlou ahitai. Ipichu hitaleh tua kisei chengchu anapang sohkeija anahijeh in  govt. chun 8000 Square miles thuseh sehchu pansatnan aneithei tapouvin daanpi khatto kitoh’a hungki semdoh khathei ahitai. (1971 NE re-orgn.act).
Abankhat gahjomkit leohen Konpuija chun meeting chu 1965 kumin nampi lamkai  cheng ana kikhomun Pu Bawi chhuaka le Pu Haokhalal Thangjom chu Chairman le Secretaryin ana panglhonin anikho chu 15,16,18, January 1965 Friday, Saturday, Monday anahin Hiche a kihouna a anajao ho chu Paite National council, Vaiphei National organisation, Simte National organi sation, Zomi National organisation,Mizo Union (Mizo-ram) Mizo National Front, Chin National Union, Mizo National Union, Hmar National Union, Kuki National Assembly, Gangte Trible Union, Kom National Union, Bete Convention council ahiuve.
(Phungkhat paokhat kiloikhom na’a National  akimanhi lolhinglou thu ahi) 
       Hiche kihouna a hi Chin hills langho lunggella hin amihemla kikhel chuomlou  tua jonghi kilungto lhungkeina hidinga atahsan lou danu anahin, ahinla 1945 langchu Mani pur langa hochun anaha hetphahlou jeh un ahunglunglut jepmun ahung hapanjep taove. Chule Manipur langa hiche kikhopna a nampi thalhenga ana panghochu hiche 1965 kumsunga KNA  (Kuki National Assembly) anapoho sese le VIP phabep anahio ve. Hiche chunga subjectchu thisan khat kikhen thei hilouchu kipumkhat ding,  chenjong chenkhom ding, hiche nadingachu tohkhom ding tihi ahin, chuleh ichen namun dungjuija juvachu Mizoram sunga chengho Mizo ikitidio Burma sunga chengse Chiin ikitidio Mizoram tilou India sung mundanga Kuki ikitidiu tihi ahi. Ahinlah tua Mizoramten Mizo tong hrelochu mi a ani atiovin  Chin hills te experience chu adihlheh’e.Ahivangin kapute Gangte hovang alung lenun tribe organise ahungbol kitnuvin jong ajop peh kitnun ahinlah abon chaova Mizopao athosoh louvuleh mi “a”chu hidiu ahitai tribe khat sunga chun kisimkhom jongu leh.
Mizo National Front te natoh danhi lungthim le lunggel lungput danchu achuomin gah kikoileh anatoh danuhi hoi kanasalheh’in kana lunglut pi lheh’e.. Tohkhiel chunga ki engbolna sangtah jongchu aumnan ahinla kivai poh na’a akigelkhoh pentah chu Pathen thu ahi. Asunga atongle alhaija pang jousen jong damtheina lolhinna anei nadiova phat tina taona aneijingu, chule amipi jonghin lolhin nikhohi Pathen khutna um ahi aticheh in lamkaile mopo apat chapangle meithai geijin Pathen henga lunggiltah in ataovun, keijong nasah tah a taokhat kanahi. 
Chule Military sungajong Pastor khatle MO khat umtei ahin Pastor pahin thidinga kiphal jingthei dinmuna umcheh jing dingdol thu asei jingin chule lungput phalou mihema dingle movement nading bollou helding, mipi natong akihi jeh’a mipi ngailutding chule mipin jong ei ngailut natheija ichangcheh ajong umding atong khom le akiloikhom cheng jong kingailutto jingding chubana inatoh naoleh ihin khou Pathena kingai jingding tin phatseh in suhmillou nadin  asei jingin, Movement jeh in meithal kichoi jongleh itabang lamkai hijongleh akitong ding chu Pathen houtoh akito louleh Pastor pan  ajahda khahleh mijouse jongchun jachat umtah  a kikilah jenga kibolda jeng  ahi.
Hichejeh hin movement douva VVF anala  a mihem hinkho chung geija chon valna nei ilah uva ana um vangin MNF chena lhongpi chun mi chonval naho chunga phulahle changvalla deichom thilbolho chu doiletup chena lhongpito kitohlou ana bolngai jilouvu ahi. Hijeh hin insungle khosunga theida umtahtah hojong MNA sepai lah a agalutnuva chomkhat aum joutengle  ikimu toteng sadhu ho abang jengun ngailut nale chonphat nain adimji taove. MNF army sunga galut hochu itobang mihuhel hijongleh aphadoh joulou kana hekhapoi. Ajehchu meithal choija natong ahivangun Pathen thuchu akivaipoh nao khohpen le lenpen ahijeh ahi.
Hichejeh hin Pathenin MNF army hochu aumpiuve tichu akimujeng theije. Avetsah nan Makui Firinga chu amaho gahchuti bolthei ahinai saipoi ahinlah firing ahiuvapat amaho langah meivom akaijin langkhat hon ima abolthei pouve  Chule Mizoram lang Torbung gama chutabanga kisong army post “Come with Your God Jesus” tah ngamho jong chu a bulu uchun meivomin atomin imacha mumasah malah in akulsunguva alhailut jengun jong mi anamuthei pouve. Pathen thuchu akivaipoh naova achung nung penna akoijeh uchun anatohnao chanachun Pathenin apanpi jinguve. 
MNF army hohin hichan geilom ma pathenin ahin panpijiohi agelphajou jipouve  firingachun meivom ahung kaijin keihodin aphalheh e ipi le ipi hungkitoh kha aham atijiovin ahi. Amahon agelphah lou vanguva Pathen thuchu achunung penna thaneija akoijuva nitin kivaipoh najouse jong Pathen khutna angapjing jeh u ahi. Hichelai chun amahotoh i-um khom komleh akihoulim najouseu le alunggel aseinadiu chanin “Pathen phasah ahileh” tihi kamcheng masa ahijinge.
1972 langchun MNF techun alung gellu  banga ahithei tahloujeh in Arakan Communist gamachun akichon lut nuvin aumtaove. Phat chomkhat aumjeh chun Pathen thua kihetchet le hangsan tah a lungngam pella umthei nading ti in Crusade nasatah khat abollun ahileh hiche Crusade chu aloupilheh jengin alah uva D. gangte jongchu hiche chunga chun apengthah in ama testimony jong aseijin mitam tah apengthah e.P.Kipgen seidanin mini lethum kaumun ima chom’ma kikhel dehlouchu, adangho chun damun che dingho tahchu lungset na ummuve, eitiovin ahivanga chu keihose chu akitahcheh kahiu ahi ati. Hitichun keihonjong hasei behseh hih un itabang dinmuna iumdiu ikihehih laijuve katiove. Chujou chomkhat jouvin mi 50 China jonin kache taovin lamkah twikah hahsat nale gentheina chule lungdonna sangtahtah katoh un taonatoh kikhen louhellin kaumun Pathen puihoi najallin China kaga lhung taove. Hi achun eilungset  beh seh un Julesa chu aneng behseh jengin kapa ina ninglhing setna kiti abang jengtan judonlou aum tapouvin keichun kadon louhel jeh in Pastor panjong adonda haam haamin mini kalhing nahnah lhone  anatin ahi.
1965 Konpuija kihou jouvachun  Laldenga chu muntamtah a achele in Pakistan geijin chule Silchar la jong jail ana lutkhan . Hitichun tanglouvin abollin atoh khompi dingjong hitihin ahin lhengdoh in ahi. Amachu President ahin Lalhnun-mawia Vice President, Lalkho-lian Finance Secretary, R.Za-mawia  Defence Secretary, Sai ngaka Home Secratary, Ex Subedar Thangjuala C -in-C MNA. Hitichun ahung machal lun 28 feb. 1966 jankim chun Aijawl, Lunglei, Dimagri, Champhai chuleh Kolasib abullu uvin Govt. treasury ho achomun 48 hrs MNF flag akhaidoh un Mizoram pumpi chu amaho khutnoijah akoitauve.Hichun thuchu akithang tan ahileh Indian Armyten Jet fighter ahin mangun Aijawl khopichu bomb ahung sepmun machine gunin akapmun MNF flag jouse aloilhaovin Indian flag ngin akhelkit taove.  Maozedong le SC Bose in thisana chohding thisan lutding ahi anati lhon thuchu ahung chepantai.
Atumbeh in MNA ho jail sunga aumdanu gahseijing kate. Pu Jangkai Kipgen hi Aizawl jaila kumli ana umin mihat tahkhat Lenlhuuma kiti  khatjong aumin Theologian jong chule mi mantam tah tahle chihna thepna sangtah tah neijong ka umun keihochu jailsung ahivangin phat sehle Christmas New Year, Good Friday hohi guntah in kamangjiovin thupijong phatah in kaseijiuvin hiche ka umnaovahin army Capt. khatnin eichintupmu ahin phatseh in kiche pnan eineijun lhakhai boh’in phalbi jingkahle sangkhol eilahdoh peh uvin eijepjiovin avaal vallin eibollun sepaiho jengjong chun a oimolheh jiuvin ahi. Agitlou behseh jehchun hichepa chu achoma aum theibeh jongle tin taona kaneijiuvin ahileh phat chomkhat sunghin amahi roomsung among langtah a special tah a gehji lumji ahin jaankhat adumchep chu petrol  kikoi chun alamatnin ama umna inchu phel mit joulouvin akavamtai amajong chu them chakhat bou ana umtai. Keiho chula kakipah theilheh uvin tukal imukit loudio ahitai kakitiove anati . Hitobang genthei hahsat nachu ahung kipantai.1965 Konpui kihouna a anajao jouse chun inamsungu mun pha bepma (Organise) nampi dia natoh loutheilou ahidanle ngailutle khohsah louthei ahi loudan ahinseile taovin ahi. Chule asunga natong dingchu aphading cheh analheng doh un aminu anajih lutnun koichu ipi panmuna pangleh phading ham tihojouse anasemtoh gamtaove. Hicheto kilhonchun apanmun dinga pangloijong aumtaovin chubanin Mizoram geija army dinginjong mi som leget jong ana chetaovin  Pu Lalkholun tehochu anahi pantaove.
Hitichun Govt. nin ajaoho jouse ahin holpan taovin ahileh Konpuija kona thu hinpandoh ho mamachu akileheiloi ana umkhan VVF ahinlaovin operation lamkaijin ahunglepan taovin ahileh, mi ahol tenguleh aumna kahepoi itileh ken kahenai atijiovin khomi hochu lungdong tahle gimnale gentheina chu ahin thoh pan taove bu akihonun mi avo nilhum lhumun jail’lajong akoinom nomu akoipan taove. Hicheto kilhon chun amaho gonsa hija amahon kihet phah loulai chu mi somlegup (16) DRI case in amanun jaila akoitaove. Chu banin kho kihalnale mithi nageijin na ahin tong taove. Mihemjong tamtah athi in khojong tamtah acheh in khojong tampi akihaal lhai. Amaho keo hilouvin kah lah’a mihem gen theina sansah cheh nadingin bukalo ding ahung pungjalkit nalaijin genthei nachu ana sanglheh e.
Abanin MNF te E.Pakistan gama aumdanu themkhat gah sekitnu hite. Bangladesh a ana’umuva hin MNF lamkai phabep pichun Indiale Pakistan gaalla ahung kisat dingchu kigin angaije thilkhoh behseh ahung um khahle tin munchom jepmah ration stock abollun ahileh lunggel ahinseikhom naovachun President pute loilang chun kigin naneija natong lamkai hochu jail’la ahinkoi taovin hiche jail’la umho lah a hin D. Gangte jong anajaove. Ajeh pentah chu ahileh President pule aloiho tahsanle geldan nachun Indiale Pakistan ahung kidou leh Pakistan panpidin Americate  seven fleet hungintin Indiachu pang jou louding Pakistan jona changin tin eiho injong lungmong tah a umtheina inei jengdio ahi tihi ahi.
Alangkhat-ho lunggel kitchu ahileh kidouna tahmong aumleh India in Pakistan ipi asah dingham pangjong pangman ponte hijeh a chu kigin nading achom ineilou vuleh ihahsatdio ahi tihi ahikitnin war declare ahung hiphatnin India in avallhum paitai. Hitichun khatlangho lunggel johchu adihjotai, hitichun genthei hahsatle lung kham nachu seitheilou khopmin asangtan ahi. Ahahsat behseh phatchun President ninjong nunao chapang holeh  ahat mo jouse surrender boltaovin atin hijehchun ahat domse  tilouvin surrender abol taove.Chule lam kaiho jail’la ana umho chun nasatah in lunggel khomna aneijun lunggelchu lampini in aseijun hichu overpower bolla movement chu amaho khutna koijengding ahiloule surrender kibolding tihi ahitai. Nasatah in agellun movement khat chutia uma chule abulla lamkaisa khatjong chutia bolsang ‘in surrender boldingjoh agellha taove. Ajehchu thil aphalam chu tuhchah poupou leohen Pathenin pha asahleh lolhin nakhat um nante atiuvin hitihin jih uhitin pelutnu hitin surrender boltaohite atiovin hitihin ajih un apetaove. Pu President kitahsan tona aumtah loujeh in itihchan hijongleh aphat dungjuija tahsan na kaumdeh tahloudiu ahitah jeh in natoh khom ding ahahsatai pontho tah in hung pangin lang Pathen lungsetna nahung lolhinleh lungnem tahle kipah tah in nangma noija umkit taovinge i-um khom theitah loudiu jeh in keiho Govt. khutnah kipelut taovinge akiti.
Pakistan chu permanent HQ dinga anagonnu ahijeh in Hou in jong khut themtah’a asah u ahin chule akisei banga chu insungmi lhingsetna jaoloijong tama dan ahi. Hijehchun  P.K in firing laitah khatnah puonloi khatnin pasalni in mikhat ahin juonglhonin kavetleh athisan akai chetchut jengin ahileh kenjong gangtah in kadellin ahoilai kikapkha ham katileh akikapkha ahipoi naosoh ahibouve atilhonne.15 Dec.1971 nia Pakistan Govt. nin surrender aboltah jeh in Ranga mati khopia konin twipi chungah steamer aum jouse Driver  pumin amat thaovin ajam taove. Hiche a hin amaho battalion chu gunboat khatna chun ama sataove. 1:30 P.M min phalva kiti khokom Pakistan army leh Bangla desh Mukti fauj 500 vel ana umun MNF hochu ahin kap taove. Hiche achun  P.K hi Commander ahin akikap touvin pung thum akikap mun atamjo hochun surrender abolun sepai 180 lang aman taovin athijong tamdan ahin akisukhaho neikijen sah un ahungtiu vin ahileh kenjong kahousen kaplih gamdinga lomtah nahiuve agreement kineija nahithei nau mun nah khatveicha nahekha pouve katijou phatnin  kijenun katitai atin ahi. 
Hitichun akitolngai bangun akitol kitnun jankhang ahi jehchun gamlah mun khatnah agehtaovin ahi. Hiche a hin Presidentpun amimoho Govt. khutna kipelut dinga asei thuchu hichelai munhi ahin akikhendiu jalla lunghella akikato laitah uvahin army hon ahinkap kitnun jaan 7 pm jougeijin akikaptovin adalhah phat nun farlong khatbep achebeovin ageh kitnuve. Chule hiche chungahin akisukha atamlheh uve. Chubanin  hiche akonchun nikhat lhingset achekitnun chuin ajingin akihou khomun loikhatnin India army phalva camp ajonun loikhat nin Sunsong kiti Bawmho khopi khat ajontaove. 
Hichemun na konhin special duty injong Mizoram langa cheloi aumtaove. Amaholoi chu Samang gam maang ageijun dam mona lentah ahinnei phat nin  Paominthang Chongloi toh aum lhonin E.Pakistan gam alejotkit lhontai. Theikheng khopama mithum aumun hiche aumpet nuhin ngalchang tuhgup khat akapmin army hojeh in aumhah in Arakan gamlang ajonkit taove. Hiche achesungu vahin sagu vadung pangah Saichal alentah khat akapme. Arakan gam koladyn luipi naijah aumun, Akyab seaport naijah aumkitnun hiche gam mihohi Communist revolution ahiove.
Hiche gamsungahin kumkhat aumun 27 Nov. 1972 hin Capital’la konin sepai 50toh D.Gangte lamkai nan China gamadin Akipat doh uve. Achenao lampi umdanchu Arakan to E,Pakistan Pakistan to Burma. Burma to Chinhills, Chinhills to Manipur, Manipur to Burma, hiti chun Homa len Sub-Division sunga lhakhat achaamun  P.K le mini Chindwin luipi galkai nading veding chun ache lhonin, Jana Kiti khokhatna aumun chua chun aloiteni adalhan agam mikhat toh akivopmin security jouse agavetoh’in eimi phalouho report jeh in Burma army hon operation abolpan taove. 28-5-1973 hin Chindwin agalkaijun  Namphali vadung atoulhah peh un ninga (5) lang channan Burma army ho ambush khatna alut khaove. Hiche jeh hin an neh ding somlekhat vei nehding ngawl’lin aumtaove. Hahsatah in “Namchan”kho agalhunguve. Hiche’a hin eimi nga (5) anacheng khaove. Hiche apat hin Kachin langhon apuitaove. Hitichun KIA  2nd Bde. HQ lah apuilut taove.
Hiche munahin lha’nga (5) aumun relation asemjouvun KIA ho puihoina noijachun Mythna le Magong kikah railway agalkaijun 27-10-1973. AM min Irawadi luipi agalkaijun chule Bhamo motor road apalkitnun 3rd Bde.HQ alhungun chua konchun Phulumjang kho alhung taove.Phu lhumjang ngahin twisa aputnin hiche mun nahin lhathum aumun 22-12-73 nin Christmas amangun 23 nin China jonin achetaove. 29-12-73 2AM donin KIA hon PLA ho komah athah lutnun hiche apat chun PLA hon apuipankit taove.  Sakol guple sepai somnga in Post anaipen 9th.AM donin alhungun PLA pumpi tahlhengin Maj. Gen. khatnin Manlung Post a ahung lamtouvin gari in acheuvin Pingjang Bn. HQ alhungun  ngailuttah in ankuong umkhomna einei piuve anatiuve. Chuleh Kutung army training centre lachun training lhanile akeh abollun visit dingin apuile taove. Kutunga konin 350Km gari in alhaijun Paosen airfield alhungun ajingin 1:30PM min vanglengin acheovin Kunming khopi alhunguve. Chule thihsemna tampi aveovin, Foreign Hotel thupitah khatnah alhungun, Chu a konchun ahungun vanlengah ahungleng kitnun vanleng kimumang geijin rumallin kakijap touve anatiuve.
17th April 1974 nihin ahung kipat doh un army somnga le Sakol somni in eihung thah un gamgi luipi geijin eihung thahpeh uvin mitlhi longleovin kaki lhaaovin kakikhen nuve anatiuve.Chua konin KIA’hon ahunglaovin Mythna alhunguve. HQ lachun “Shan” revolutionary lamkai A.Shongli chu akimu piuvin Pistol khatle Binocular khat kithopinan Shongli chu apeove. Chule amanjong vohchal tuhnga khat athatnin relation asemuve. Chubanin KIA’hon namchan kho geijah agathah uvin chuapat niko (9) jouvin Chindwin gam ahin phataove. Burma sepaihon ahetjeh un Sainoulen nah nasatah in kikap tona nivei aume. Chule alang langin athi aum cheh uve. Muntin curfew ahijeh in twilen panglang ajonun agamchu twilah le guolah(Bamboo) ahijeh in gentheina kamchenga seijoulou athoh uve.
Movement sunga agen theinao sang dehset chu E.Pakistan aum sunguchun nisehle kikaptole mi thina a’umjing chule Mukti fauj hon liberate ahinbol phatnun Pakistan Commondo hochu manchah ijat aum vangin achat thei tapouvin MNF hochu ni somli gamnoi jah an angawllun hiche a thilhona a aneh  uchu chang long,aige, ai, twilung, tuum’ngeh, lielkeng’ngeh, hitiachu hinghaam haamu ahiove.Agenthei behseh phatnun guthimin Pakistan Commando Major Sahit le Ekbella koma Pu Ngura le Chakma upa ni asollun Chitagong army post achun aga kimutovin asungah tohgon ahin neijun, akihounao bangin amahon tople tank ahin thouvin MNF hojong chu steamer aumjouse achun akitollun Rangamati khopiah akisutou vin Muktifauj  hochu adelmangun khopi chu capture abollun hiche akona chu bu ahin neh kitnu ahi. Amahohin thitei dinga ka umu ahitan Pathenin eihin gonpeh u ahi atiove. 
Chuban kitna thil hahsa dehset kitchu Mythna state sunga Bhamo District sunga lhasagi sung adung avaija avaleo chu ahi.Akeng’ngujong avun umgam talou ahivanga chawldona um louva lam jot’teiteiding, tingling le inn na’ling ,vot tholo, vot alen aneo dimjing, thoukang thousivaibong, khosihle nat dangdang puma lamjotle gilkel nahohi II World war laija Britishten sepai somnga ana sollut nuva gam manjehle kelthoh jeh a mi’somni anathina munchu anahin sapten death valley anasah uvin hiche a hingdoh hochu hoitah in promotion apeove akiti.Sapte geija achuti vangun MNF te vangchu gentheina sanglheh jongleh thina lomvang anatoh pouvin, British armyho sanga gamlah a lungvaljo danin aum muve.
Chuleh achenao lampia’hin gen theina sangtah seijoulou toh jongleo kidangtah a athilmu danu khatchu phala muong muol anatiovin phaicham khatna kona hiche molchu dingdoh lotjeng tabang ahin akidang lheh e anatiuve. Chule molchung chu ikaldohle milim, salim, ngalim, thingphung lim, inlim, furniture holim, kidang tahtah vetchim joulou khop thil kidang ahin, hiche avet nuchu gentheina tampi atouva, athoh jengujong chu kiman lellin kagelpouve anatiuve ajehchu koiman hichekhu agavet ding gelphah ahipoi tin anasei juve.Abanin genthei atonao thuho themkhat seibeote.Arakan gamapat China alhunkah uva alampiohi Burma India Bangladesh hichenghi ahal ahalla atokhah cheh u anahin Burma gama nungah khat hin hiche  contingent hochu keihokho ajong ahung lhung khaovin ahunglhun nuva agikel theidanu chu bu honpeh dinga gangtah a kakipei jenguleh gollhang ho vangchun angahjou pouvin  voh anchu bujong tampipi uma ahijeh chun anegam  jenguvin henu kavetlel danleh kavoujang natpithei danchu tin anaseije.
Chubanin hiche China Contingent hohi inmunle khomuna jan gehkha lou, kingahna neikhalouva lamjot ahijeh uva camp kitijong neikhalou go ajuh jongle chuopdeh jeng ajuhlaise a athoh jengu khophat teng jongle akikhel nadiojong umchomlou atahsa chunguva chu apohgotden jengu ahijehchun China aumlaijun avun nuchu ahungthah (Itching) doh in akhuotnu jongleh chimthei  talou avunthuol chu ajuol juolla akhuotdoh leojeng danu ahi. Hichu Doctor hon eiveovin lou eipeove tin anasejuve. Chuleh chelang hunglanghin Burma army special force hoto akikapto jinguvin akikap tona jouseuhi ambush a alhahna jengseh’u ahijingin ahinla Pathen lung setnin phatseh in Burma army hojoh atam thijojiove.Burma army special force sunga hin captain eimiho khat aumin tua gams unga sepai guh thima lhalele hokhu koi hiuva hija, hoilangmi ahiujong akihepon firing experience anei danukhu anasal heh e ,kaki kaptoseh uvahin ambush a kakapjio ahin firing sungajong anoptah a thingchung kalpou aumun, akileole uvin dum achepmun firing kitijong kichatnan aneipouve, chule keihojoh ambush a pangho kahathijoh teijun hicheho hi dinmun kibanga kikapto kihileh lung kham umlheh inte tin anaseije atiove. (Hiche thuhi amaho security B.army HQ chehon aseiju ahi.)  
Chule alamjotnao nelgam hitchu akenguvah achudenin damdohkit joulou loi atamme. PLA hochun MNA contingent hochu revolutionary thu ahin world record China ahin nanghohi abana nahiove  tin aseijui. Chuban’nah MNA chontingent techu China gammahi amaho banga kithopi ngaicha adang tampijong anache  ahin PLA techun nangho tohin ikinai penuve atiovin eingailu lheh uve anatiove. Ajehchu namdang hochu army discipline strict tah ahijin PLA hole MNA’ho vangchu thakhat ahiovin akivaipoh naole achedanu chule molkanga an nethei loijong aumjeh uchun PLA’hochun eihovang sopikhatle thisan guikhat mongmong ihiove eitijiove anatiove.
PLA General pun tiilkhou nathu aseinachu tu’a natisanule ulsaluong hi khonungleh pahcha’a hungpah dohding ahi atin,availah nao bangin tukhanga Mizoram statehi ulsalongle thisan luongho akona Pacha a hungpahdoh chu ahitai @ thinale genthei ithohnao jouse gaa’chu ahunghitai.PLA techun keihon jong jalenna kadellai juchun kagenthei danuchu Shansui geija kalamjot nuchu mile 6000 anahin nangho 2600 tabang nahiuvin keihochu achung nungpen kahiuvin nanghohi anina nahiuve leiset pumpia dingin tijong aseijun tilkhounan eineijuve atiuve.P.Kipgenle D.Gangte kam cheng banjomma hin D. Gangte achu kanatam holjou tapoi ahinla gahet bailammin adangho sangin amahi China khopi Peking geijin anache in pu Mao -Tse-Tung le centre committee hotoh akimuvin ahin thilbol khatchu Chinaten English subject nakoi louvu ham? lekha simna a hi atileh amahon kakoi pouve atiovin D.Gangte chun genthei hesoh jousen hinkibel jinga migenthei hojala  beh-hi nakoijule itam nangho dinvang ngaichat hipontin atin  ahileh ama seidanin China sunga English subject simpat nading order centre committee akonin inlanga kahung kiledoh kah un ahinsosah taove anati. 
Hichu 1974 kum bullang chu ahin, tua asim asimlouvu vang kahepoi, Chinaten asimuleh tua kiseichu hiding ahi. Abanin  D.Gangtehi MNF le MNA thua aumdol themkhat P.Kipgen to akikhietna chu Pakistan aumlaijuva jail’la kikoi lah’a ajao tilou adang themkhat kipeljongleh akibange.Khatchu akihetle thakhat ahijengin adang ajinei a inchen, agamlen thudang hin ama jonghi sakap hattah ahivang kahen adang kahol joutapoi. Hicheto kilhon din aloipa P.Kipgen nahi mella dinga anasem ahi.
Pu Laldenga chief minister ahungkai jouvin D.Gangtehi ahinkou vin anache pon ibolla nachelouham katileh ajamo manna eihinkou hichui anati. Tunungin Mizoram state umjouvin Manipur gam Ex-MNF’ho Aizawl  agache jiuleh ngeilou tahtah’in ahoujiuvin hichu sopikhat kitong khom’ma  ibolla disarmed neibolluham? chuleh surrender party atikhumun hiche thuhi aseiho johchun ahetlou joh’u ahin Manipur gam’ma MNA ho aumlaijun Luseiho lah’a sepaihohin manipur gam MNA sepaiho kom’mah nangho kukihohi ipi kimuleh nanehphah diula aumpon genthei tah’in kanungu najuijuve tia anaseiji jeh uva nivei thumvei kilang khen’nuva kikapto dinga anaum khaova ahin lamkai ching theihon angei ngeinaleh aphat phatna a anaseitoh haam hamjiu ahin hiche thucheng jeh hin manipurgam miho lamkaiho lunggelchu lampini in ahung kikhen tai.
Loikhatchun alunghaanpi taovin loikhatchun mingol thusei ahi atiuvin apomdungjui juchun alunggel luchu kibanglou tah’in aum jingtan ahi. Hijehchun alungnatpi hochun hiche disarmed chu  ahin boldohlo’uchu ahung hitan hijongchu Luseiho keochu abollu anahipon  Manipur gam’mi lamkaiho pumachu disarmed abolkhum thao  anahijoi hichu army sunga 2nd commanderpa  Thang mang Kipgen mopohna a aum pet’tah’u ahin amachu a-imutpet khelkhel hilou hileh nasatah’a kikap tona umding disarmed jongchu umthei louding hinalai ahi. 
Abanin surrender party atiuhi D. Gangte holoichu atinau ahin hijong chu  MNF HQ in D.Gangte chu lekha ahin thotnuvin sumle manchah jouse hin submitnin China langa chekit dingjong HQ langa konabou kicheding ahi ahinti jeh uva ahi.Amajong akou pouvin achon nading dangjong asei pouvin aman chahle asumbou chu ahinpeh lutding tibou ahitan nang machu nasoh soh sohtan kapaitaove tina ahiphatna D.Gangte chun kithi bebe jongleh aphachom ding aumta poi khangthah hon kihet chihcheh uvin anati in hitiachu governor koma surrender abol ahitai.Asungthu hohi ivetleh China soheh D.Gangte khutna aumjeh a hi Bangla desh langa aumlaiju lungput chu hungdohkit dan  ham? ipipen hamchu hinte. Mizoram ahin Mani pur lang ahin det tah’a pangloi sumle pai hol’loi aumcheh e, ahin MNF high command thilbol vanghi dihlou ahi. Lungthonei tah’a anaum khah uhi Manipur gammi hochun anagelphah louhellu ahi. 
Hichekalval’la  jachat nathei phabeppi aumnalaije thu hetoh louva kamcheng gunei tahtah eiseikhumu jonghi alang alangin ikichin chehdiu angaije abulla chu sopikhat thisan khatchu kho nungding jalla thinale gentheina giing louva luon khomding tihi ahijeh’a kiluong khom anahin koi achohsala aumpon khonunga state umnunga aki chang chuun nutoh avaal vaallin thu aseinalaijun jachaaat umtah’a kagel lamtahhi amahon kithang atna langtah in anei nalaijuve. D.Gangte in hiche lekha amuphat nin khangthah hon kihetnuvin kithibebe jongle phachom ponte anatitan Laldenga injong greater Mizoram kiti thucheng hi agenda khatnin akoinai ahinlah damthei nadinga bou hitiachu abolbou ahin adinmun tuh danchu ama political target kapnathei ahilouhel phatna nopleda kibanga aboljoh ahi bouve.
Avella emkitna chule seikitna ahung hithei nading umchomlou ahichu ahet ahitai.Ama lungdei ahidohkit theinadinga hi ajinu jeng jong athunun jou tahlouhel dingchu ahetai.Thugille thutah ahin tua hinkisei chengsehi alang alangin ikihet chehdiu aphai 1971 kuminjong Pakistan langa chenading tohgon aumtah jeh in presidential order ahungin hiche lekha chun manchah jouse hinda =lhaovin Pakistan hinjonun tihi ahin koimala mipuiding aumpon suhna ding helouvin aumun hichelai tahchun manipur gama Lt.gover nor Dr. Kohli ahilaitah ahin MNA hochu hunglut nun kuki district namu nadiuvin keiman nasatah in panpiu vingting ngai touhite chuleh nangho jong nabonun injong sahpeh uving ting service a jong kahetlut paidiu ahi tin anajollun ahinlah amahon sopicheng natoh khomna  sunga hito bang kitumsah le sopi kikah geldao nahi district sanga iit umjole loupijo ahi tin anagellun ana nompouve. High command nin adontah loujeh uvin mohseh in aumthou thou taove.Aumdanhi akihet phahlou vanga lungmong tah’a umho chunga chu atumbeh a lunggel khenna ananei jiuhi ahunghi lhung keije tijong ikihet chehdiu aphai.
MANIPUR GAMA MNF MOPOLEN HO:
1. Lalkhohen Thangeo of Kangpokpi
  Senator 
2. Thangkholet Kipgen of Kangpokpi MP
3. P.K Kipgen  of  Songjang MP 
(Nominate)
4. Thangcha Sitlhou Imphal DC
5. Aseh Thangeo of Sapormeina ADC
6. Doujathang Haokip of Senam SDO
7. D.Gangte Imphal Political Advisor
POLICE
1. Vumjaam Haokip of Kotlenpai  
(Pallen)  DIG
2 Ngamjatong Chongloi  SP
3. Seikhogou Sitlhou of Sapormeina SP
4. Hempao Kipgen of Hengbung Police
5. Sehpu Hangsing of Hengbung Police
M.I.S. ( Mizo Intelligent Service)
1. JF.Rothangliana of CCPur   
2. Paokhasei Kipgen of Haipi    

VOLUNTERS
1. Ot’thang kipgen of Leikot VCO 
(Volunteer commanding officer)
2. Helkholen Chongloi of Chaljang 
- AVC (Assistant)
3. Jamkholal Kipgen of Songjang 
-VC (Volunteer commader )
4. Sehkam Thangeo of Luwangsangol
- VC (Volunteer commader )
5. Paojangul Haokip of Kholjang  
-VC (Volunteer commader )
7. Henna Gangte CCPur   
-VC (Volunteer commader )
8. Letkholal Haokip of CCPur  
-VC (Volunteer commader )
9. Ginkholam Thangeo 
-VC (Volunteer commader )

SECURITY OFFICERS
1. Jampu Kipgen of Imphal  
- C.S.O (Centre Security Officer)
2. Thangkholet Kipgen KMC 
- Security Officer
3. Lalkhokam (Lalkho) Selsi  
- Security Officer
4. Helkhosei Vaiphei of Changoubung  
- Security Officer
5. Haojakam Lhangum of Gelnel
- P.O (Publicity Officer)

MILITARY
1. Lalkholun Kipgen Chief of
  S.Phailen Major 
(Comder for Manipur)
2. Aneh Chongloi Chief of Khengjang 
Leut.
3. Lunlal Singsit of Motbung Leut.
4. Thangmang Kipgen of Selsi Leut.
5. Seilun Lhanghal of Selsi Leut.
6. Khaijam Haokip of Y-Tphai Leut.
7. Thonghen Haokip of Langgol Leut.
8. Ngulkholet Haokip of Sugunu
9. Nguljangam Haokip of Sugunu
10. Jamngam Touthang of Old Samtal
11. Letkhomang Lhanghal of N. Samtal
12. NgamkholunHaokip of S. Khongkang
13. Lunkhothang Haokip of Langching
14. Chungkhosei Haokip of C. Molbem
15. Jamsei Haokip of C.Molbem
16. Jamngam Haokip of Lonpi
17. Hawljang Lupho of Lonpi
18. Lhunkhosei Mate of Old Samtal
19. Tongkhothang Lhungdim of Sita
20. Tongkhojam Haokip Mata Lambulane
21. Boipu Haokip of Mongbung 
22. Ngamjang Touthang of Bijang 
23. Tongjathang Touthang of Bijang
24. T.N Haokip of Bijang Lamka
25. Jangkhomang Haokip of Tuikong
26. Tongkhosei Haokip of Kuljang
27. Lutkho Haokip of Tuinou
28. Lunngam Haokip of Tuinou
29. Jangkholun Haokip of Tollaibung
30. Letkholal Haokip Y.T.Phai
31. Mangkholun Haokip of Y.T Phai
32. John    Haokip of  Y.T Phai
33. Jangkholun Lenthang Langching
34. Solim Lhang-um of  Langching
35. Henkholen Haokip Y.T Phai
36. Paokhosei Haokip of Y.T Phai.
37. Songkhothang Haokip of Y.T Phai
38. Sohem Manchong of Lonpi
39. Khatkhothang of Vailou
40. Haokhosat Kipgen of Hengbung
41. Ngamkholam Kipgen of Hengbung
42. Lunkhokam thangeo of Hengbung
43. Sempao Chongloi of Taphou
44. Thanga Chongloi of Taphou
45. Semthang Chongloi of Taphou
46. Jangkholal of Changoubung
47. LunkhohenVaipheiof Changoubung
48. Jangkam Vaiphei of Changoubung
49. Tongsat Vaiphei of Changoubung
50. Thangmang Vaipheiof Changoubung
51. Letlen Chongloi of Taphou 
52. Tongsei Lotjem of Taphou
53. Satlun Chongloi of Taphou
54. Seihen Chongloi of Taphou
55. Sempao Chongloi of Taphou
56. Letsei Chongloi of Taphou
57. Seisat Chongloi
58. Dongthang Chongloi of Taphou
59. Ngulthang Chongloi of Taphou
60. Palhun Hangsing of Kailenjang
61. Khupsei Hangsing of Kangpokpi
62. Letsat Kipgen of Kangpokpi
63. LhunkhohaoKipgenof Kangpokpi
64. Lamjang Kipgen of Kangpokpi
65. Palun Kipgen of Haijol 
66. Chungthang Kipgen of Haijol
67. Henkai Kipgen of Haijol
68. Paothang Lhang-um of Gelnel
69. Thanglhun Kholhou of Gelnel
70. Seikam Lhang-um of Gelnel
71. Doujang Lhang-um of Gelnel
72. Thanghao Lhang-um of Gelnel
73. Haothang Lhang-um of Gelnel
74. Seidem Kholhou of Gelnel
75. Henkhojang Lhang-um of Gelnel
76. Ngulkhopao Hengna of Gelnel
77. Tilkholam Tuboi of Gelnel
78. Seikhojang Changsan of Chalwa
79. Thangsat Lenthang of Chalwa
80. Thongngam Lenthangof Vakotphai
81. Lamkhokai Lenthangof Vakotphai
82. Thangkhohao Hangsing of 
83. Lhunkhokai HangsingofVakotphai
84. Lamkholen LhanghalofVakotphai
85. Khuplim Changsan of Lhungjang
86. Lalmang Sitlhou of Lonjang
87. Lensat Kipgen of Lhouthang
88. Kaithang Sitlhou of Khochal
89. Seilen Singsit of Selsi
90. Henchon Singsit of Selsi
91. Paolen Kipgen of Haipi
92. Amthang Kipgen of Haipi
94. Jangsei Kipgen of Buning
95. Thehlam Kipgen of Buning
96. Kailal Sitlhou of Buning
97. Haomang Sitlhou of Jampi
98. Haopao Sitlhou of Jampi
99. Hellet Hangsing of Joupi
100. Lhouleng Hangsing of Joupi
101. Paolet Hangsing of Joupi
102. Lammang Sitlhou of Bolkot
103. Seingam Sitlhou Bolkot 
104. Paolam Kipgen  of Lasan
105. Khaithang Kipgen of Haijol
106. Seilet Kipgen of Selsi
107. Seilen Kipgen of Selsi
108. Seithang Kipgen of Selsi
109. Paolam Kipgen of Selsi
110. Paokhohao Kipgen of Selsi
111. Lhoulam Kipgen of Selsi
112. Jangsat Kipgen of Selsi
113. Thangkam Kipgen of Selsi
114. 2nd Thanglen Kipgen of Selsi
115. Hentinpao Kipgen of Selsi
116. Tongsat Kipgen of Selsi
117.Jangam Lenthangof Khomunnom
118. Seilet Lenthang of Khomunom
119. Tongam Kipgen of T.Waichong
120. Seijang Kipgen of T.Waichong
121. Tongngam Kipgen of Songtun
122. Satpao Kipgen of Songtun
123. Lalpao Kipgen of Songtun
124. Sonpao Kipgen of Phailengkot
125. Seitinpao Kipgen of N.Khonom
126. Tongkam Kipgen of Pangjang
127. Jangkam Kipgen of Pangjang
128. Demkhohao Kipgen of Pangjang
129.Holkhomang Kipgen of Pangjang
130. Helsei Haokip of Bunglung
131. Paolen Haokip of Bunglung
132. Tongsei Haokip of Bunglung
133. Lalkhokai Chongloi of Jangnoi
134. Kamboi Sitlhou of Motbung
135. Thangsat Sitlhou of Motbung
136. Paominthang Chongloi of KMC
137. Songkholal Sitlhou of KMC
138. KhupkholunChongloi Khengjang
139.Vumkhokam Kipgen of Songjang
140. Khupsat Kipgen of Songjang
141. Jangsat Kipgen of Songjang
142. Tongkhothang Kipgen Songjang
143. Jangkai Kipgen of Songjang 
144. Chungkhosat Kipgen of Songjang
145 Tongngam Sitlhou of Songjang
146. Satkhothang Kipgen of Haipi
147. Satkholam Kipgen of Haipi
148. Lunkhothang Kipgen of Haipi
149. Tongkai Kipgen of Haipi
150. Chonkholam Chongloi of KMC
151. Kaikholun Singsit of KMC
152. Chungmang Sitlhou KMC 
153. Henjamang Chongloi of KMC
155. Seigin Sitlhou of KMC
156. Lalkhochon Sitlhou of KMC
156. Nehlun Changsan of Mongbung
157. Lulun Lupho Leivomjang. Burma
158. Janghao Haokipof Leivomjang
159. Ngamlet Lunkim of Phungtha
160. Thangjangam Haokip of Gampal
161. Ngamthang Haokip of Gampal
162. Seikhojang Haokip of Phaimol
163. Ngamsei Haokip of Phaimol
164. Chunglet Haokip of Sapormeina
165. Lunsat Haokip of Meiti
166. Seikam kipgen of Kangpokpi
167. Holkhomang Kipgen of Pangjang
168. Paotingthang Kipgen of Imphal
169. Thangjakhup Kipgen of Haipi
170. Mangseh Singsit of Chalwa
171. Jangkholun Hangsing of Selsi
172. Lhunkhojang Kipgen Gopibung
173. Letkholam Singsit of Jangnoi
174. Lhunkholam Sitlhou Thenjang
175. Lamkholet Kipgen of Chalbung
176. Vumpao Sitlhou of Chalbung
177. Panang Haolai of Thenjang
178. Haopu Kipgen of Govajang
179. Jamsei of Phaikon 
180. Lelet of Tusam
181. Jangthang of Kultuh
182. Sehsei Singsit of Phoikon

LONG SUFERED  ( Patient )
1. Seipu Kipgen of Chanmari
2. Thangkholam Singsit of Gopibung
3. Tinpao Kipgen of Pangjang
4. Lunlam Kipgen of Songjang
5. Demkholet Kipgen of Songjang
6. Chunglal Kipgen of Bileijang
7. Sehsei Singsit of Phoikon 
8. Jangmang Kipgen Sapormeina
9. Tongkhothang Kipgen Pangjang

Songkul  LUTHO :
1. Thangpum Haokip of Khengjoi
2. Semkhothong Baite of Khunkot
3. Sumkhothong Haokip of Bongli
4.   Letkholal Haokip Mata Lambulane
5. Seingam Kipgen of Songjang
6. Hemlun Haokip of Holjang
7. Seikam Changsan of Bongmol
8. Lalbem Changsan of Bongmol
9. Paogin Kipgen of Leikot
10. Letkam of Karakhun
11. Lammang Sitlhou of Lasan
12. Janglal Kipgen K. Sajal
13. Satkhopao Kipgen Kholjang
14. Hemdou Kipgen Kholjang
14. Seitong Kipgen Kholjang
15. Ngultinmang Kipgen 2nd Tujang
16. Letkhosei Sitlhou Chaljang 
17. Seikhopao KholhouVakotphai
18. Sehlet Chongloi Chaljang
19. Pajang Tuboi of  Chaljang      
20. Dempao Lhang-um of Chaljang 21. Thongngam LenthangVakotphai
22. Letkhohen Kipgen Leikot
23. Seitinpao Lhang’um Chaljang
24. Haojangul Lhang’um Chaljang
25. PaokhongamHangsingChaljang
26. Thangchon Kipgen Chaljang
27. Umpao Lhang’um Chaljang

WOMEN’S ARMY :
1. Veikholhing Kipgen Songjang
2. Kikim Kipgen Kangpokpi
3. Phalneikim Kipgen Haipi

A’THIHO  :
(Teikhang kihaal nihin mili akithat ne akitin aminu kahepoi)
1. Mangjalut Sitlhou Chaljang
2. Chengjahao Chongloi  Chaljang
3. Jamkholal Haokip  Sita
4. Jampao Touthang Old Samtal
5. Basanto Chhetri Sirou
6. Henpu Haokip Y.T.phai
7. Jangkhoson Lhanghal kovang
8. Tongtinthang
Lhungdim  Thingkangphai
9. Semlun Kipgen Songjang
10. Thangkholam Kipgen Songjang
11. Limsei Lenthang Khomunom
12. Nehgin Haokip Leisang
13. Helkhothong Haokip Kotlen
14. Paohen Kipgen Haijol
15. Chunglal Kipgen Bileijang
16. Otmang Haokip 
17. Kaikhohen Hangsing Songjang
18. Seilet Kipgen Selsi
19. Vanlalsem Gangte Chongmun
20. Vungthang  Gangte Chongmun
21. Soitong  Gangte Chongmun
22. Hengin Gangte Chongmun
23. Paokhokam Gangte Chongmun
24. Tunjakai Gangte Chongmun
25. Paokhogin Gangte Chongmun
26 Laljathang Gangte Chongmun
27. KhamkhoginGangte     -do-
28.Letkholun Kipgen Songjang Kholen
29. Thonglam Kipgen Songjang Kholen
30. Demthang Kipgen Songjang Kholen
31. Ngulkhojang KipgenSongjang Kholen
32. Seikhoseh Lhouvum Lasan
33. Chongkhopao LhouvumLasan
34. Khuplim Changsan Lhungjang
35. Lalmang Sitlhou Lonjang
26. Lamkholen Lhanghal Jangphai
27. Lallen Chongloi 
28. Haokhothang Ch.loi Chaljang
29. Letvom Gangte 
30. Neikhochin Gangte
31. Chonghen Lhouvum Lasan
32. Jampao Kipgen Selsi
33. Lhaijaneng Kipgeng Selsi
34. Henkai Kipgen Selsi
35. Satkholal Kipgen Bolsang
36. Haokhosat Kipgen Hengbung
37. Haokhopao Chongloi Govajang 
38. Haosei Kipgen Buning
39. Kaikhohen Hangsing Songjang
40. Thonghem Hkip T.kangphai
41. Jamkhotinsat Haokip Tingjang
42. Seikam Haokip Tusam
43. Gina Thangngeo Longphailum
44. Thangkholam ThangneoB.mol
45. LamjahaoV.phei Changoubung
46. Ngulkhopao Hengna Bongmol
47. Ramma Ngathal NC Hills
48. Sanglena CCpur
49. Nguljahao Changsan Tusam
50. Lunkhothang Kipgen Haipi
51. Semlena Kangpokpi
52. Pathong Kipgen Kekuru
53. Letvom Leikot
54. Henpao Moreh
55. Lamjakap Nungthut
56. Letkhongam Chalwa
57. Paokholet Motbung 
58. Manglun Songjang
59. Tompok  KMC
60. Lhunmang Hengbung
61. Lalcholthang Chaljang
62. Abesikankung Salemthar
63. Himcha Makui
64. Masi Kamang Langka
65. Thanglet Govajang
66. Haopu Laikot
67. Lutkhogin Songsang
68. Sumkhothang Chahsat
69. Holthang Kongpang
70. Pakang Maokot
71. Holkholet Kipgen Saihaphoh
72. Vumkhosei Motbung
73. Tongkholhun Songjang
74. Songjahao Khomunnom
75. Semlal Kipgen 
76. Amkholam Kipgen Bungning
77. Paokhosat Chongloi Khengjang
78. Sonkhogin Lhanghal 
79. Ramlen Chothe Purumkhunou
80. Jousel Chothe Purumkhonou
81. Helkhosat Lenthang K. Munom
Mi 14 amin kiseidoh theilou aume. 
(akisei dohngailou)

DIR CASE JEH ‘A JAIL’LA LUT ‘HO :
1. Khothang Kipgen T.Vaichong
2. Satkholam Kipgen S.Phailen
3. Seisat Lenthang Chalwa
4. Seilam Khongthang Chalwa
5. Helkam Chongloi Chalwa
6. Seikholam Hangsing Vakotphai
7. Chungngam Chongloi Phoikon
8. Songkhopao Chongloi Phoikon
9. Vumchon Hangsing Govajang
10. Lenkhokam Singsit Motbung
11. Sehpao Chongloi Kangpokpi
12. Sehkho Chongloi Jangnoi
13. Dehkhosei Thangeo Longphailum
14. Khamjalam Vaiphei Longphailum
15. Jempao Sitlhou Phoikon 
16. Thongsei LenthangGelnel

 KHO’ KIHAAL ‘LHA  HO:
1. Songjang Pakang  
2. Kotlen 
3. Selsi kholui 
4. Kotlen Kholui 
5. Haijol 
6. Selsi (w) 
7. Longphailum 
8. Teikhang 
9. Chongmun 
10 .Jampi 
11. Bongmol

OPERATION MANIPUR & MIZORAM
1967 July amalam thim machun MNF army Gen.Shangkoija leh Brig. Muon kima in kikhop nading kouna ahin neilhonin Sadar Haipi kho munah hiche akonchun Volunteer ho khutna information to operation start ti lekha apohsah in volunteer hochun MNF army ho umna jouse achun lekha chu athah lutsoh taove.
Chule hiche amaho tohgon masang jepchun twilang gamkai sunga mile 19 Songjang munna khun CRP ho company post khat ana umin Havildar Punjabiho khat Jem Sher Singh bala kitikhat centre inteligent tokop khat ana umin amachun keika ume olmo hih un tin mipi alhamonin asung gillachun ijakai agongtup chetnin armyho koulutna estimate jouse amaho khutna pehdoh a suty kilah a inlanga chem angding hungkit taloudinga kigo ahi.Delhi langa konin special mountain brigade China galla Bahadur mucheh 50th major khat lamkainan agahkouvin ahileh ahung taove, hiche laichun SLR India sunga koimachan achoi khahloulai ahin LMG le SLR keoseh achoiju ahi. Direct ngin Imphal airportna agalan civil formin amaho camp’mah akoijin sunleh civillin aum’mun jaanle operation acheovin Kotlen najong numeikhat akapkhaovin ahi. 
CRP pachu army major puchun hicheho imabon hilou gachaidoh hitin inlangajong kilhon nahite atileh dathei louva muntina kilhonle ahilhon tai. MNFoperation program me toh Army ho operation chu aphat anakibang khatan Makui kiti milong kho achun armyhon trench akisemun ageh tauve. Kikap toding konchun MNF ho umna langa chun meivom ahungkaije hichu 26 July 1967 Saturday jingkah matah ahin operation commander chu D. Gangte ahi. MNA hochun makui hochu ana donguvin armyho chu hoilang geitao vem atiuleh avahmang taove tia anadon butnu ahi.Ajehchu army hon kaplih gamuntin beinao vinte tia anagellu ahin akikap to phat nuva sipaiho athigam nung uvin makuihon ima cha aseithei tapouve khosunga akikapto vangun. Hiche achun army hochu misagi ham bou asohchaovin chule aman chah hou chu abonin alaovin army amat houchu akaapje akihilsah uve.27 July 1967 Sunday nihin army majorkhat lamkainan teamkhat sepai 60 toh ahungkit taove hichun achepaijun haijol khochu agahaal lhataove. Chuleh Makui firing ngachun armyhon haijolho upani Chunglal le paohen chu anamat nuva makui aumnaovachu akhut akeng akannuva trench chunga ajamu ahin amanijong chu akap khah cheh’u ahitai. Haijol ahaal jouvun Lasan langah agalkaijun Sei khoseh le Chongkhopao lamhil dingin apuijun Langka kholang alhun phatnun gamlah ah akaplih un adalha taove, amanihi Lhouvum aithuhte cheh  ahilhone. Chujouvin Langka kho miho mini ahin mankit nun ahinpui jun lasan langah mikhat ajam mangin khatchu akaplih kittaove. Hichengse hi chunga kipe nikhoa’khu abolcheh ’u ahi.
Chujouvin achepeh kitnuvin Heng jang kho achun pasaljouse akaan tumun jankhovah’in inn noijah akoijun numei chapangho sechu inkhatnah kot apokam khu mun achuti koijun ajing sunkim don tah in inn ahaal khum’mun ahileh hiche petchun army holah a  khat hin mipi kibolnachu aven amitlhi akitheh jiji’e atiuve, hitia a dalhah phatnun amachun aloiho chu aven anukhah penin apangin aloihon amuloudiu phatnin gangtah in ahung lhaijin pasal kikan tumho chu khat ahung lhamin aloiho nungchu adeltai, hitichun akilham pachun khat alhamin abonun akilhamun kotjong agahongun ahileh mikhat phatna jalchun mipichu ahingdoh taove hichu 2nd August 1967 chu anahi.Aban nin sepaihochu achepeh un ahileh songjang kholenho pasal lii nehding hol’la cheho chutoh akitoh khakit nun hiche hojongchu aman kit nun asatlih un lam lhanga apail hauvin meichang ngin jong akap muve amahochu Letkholun, Thong-lam, Demthang, Ngulkhojang, Kipgen cheh ahiuvin anikhochu 5th. aug. 1967ahi.Chujouvin achepeh kitnu vin teikhang kholeh chongmun khochu ahaal’lha ki taove. Chongmun kho  achun gollhang cheh 9th akaplih kitnuve, aminu chu Vanlalsem, Vungthang, Soitong, Hengin, Paokho kam,Tunjakai, Paok hogin, Lalja thang, Kamkhogin, ahiuve. Hichini chu 10th Aug.1967 chu ahin ama ho thina chungahin nungah hon la 31 jen aboldoh uvin alasem houchu lungset aumlheh  jenge. Hiche athilo nao thuhi MNA holah achun apachu kol anu Luseiho khat ajaovin amachu adammo jeh in chongmun’na chun adalhauvin upaho komachu phaten anajen nunlang asamjong anavopeh un kahung kilelang tenguleh aman jong phaten penauvinge tia athu lhah’u ahin movement chu ana pom nomlou jeh ‘un anahsah pouvin hichu adamlou pachun ahetjeh a chutia chu alunghan jeh a amahohi MNA ahiuve  tia aseileh akaplih u ahin. ama chun keihi kadasa sa eimat nuva kajao ahibouve atin chuleh alimjong chu eimiho lim aputlouhel ahin armyho nung chu ajui ahitai.Makui firinga kipat chongmun khoa  mi 9th akaplih uhi manipur sunga MNF movement na dinga a’vomgui ahitai. Chongmunle Teikhang hi anikho thakhat danin akiseijin hicheni hin teikhang hojong mi 4 akikaplih’e akiti ahinvang kahechen poi.
special attacked on firing challenge :
The 12th Jan. 1967
Mizoram sungajong muntamtah umjong leh atumbeh in kichou nathu ahijeh in khat seiju hite.Torbung kiti khokhat umah ahin hiche gamhop sunga chun armypost khat aumin  hiche post chu sepai dinga monpi umtah min abulu ding jongleh gamlatah a kimu’masa chuleh mun sangtah chubana meithal aginjong leh army HQ khatna kona chom kahlouva ahindel lutthei um ahijeh in hiche post a umhochu operation ache tengu jongleh agilou lheh un chuleh amaho post maija jong chun hitihin sign board atah uve, MNF army come with your God jesus atiu ahi. Hiche thucheng chun MNA ho lung sung asukha lhehtai ahinla abulu dingdanchu ahahsa lheh jenge. Ahinla agellha taove. Ahindelbe dingho kapding loi aumun bululoi aummun khatcha sohchalou hellin akaplih sohkeijun amanchah jouseo achom ngim seltaove.  Ahin suuldel hochu atam behseh  jehchun atingho chun alellu vin Seilet Kipgen leh Lusei khat  amun’nah athi lhontai. Abulu dio chun postchu meivom min ahin tom me akiti. Chule Mr. Seilet din hitihin songkhat atunpeh uve. Ama athina munhi Lailak ahi.
     
CHAPTER-X
KIHOULIM NAHO
JF.Rothangliana :12-10-2005 (wed) nin CCpur la pu JF. Rothangliana former president KNA toh kaki houlim lhone,  Maipur le Mizoram tenia thupi thuguh hetohpenle mipitoh kitimat pena kageljeh hin lunggel seikhum kadeijin dohjong kadoh nomjeh in, Manipur gam’ma aumlaijin KNA president nin kum tamthim ana pangin tun Mizoram’ majong political party khatna aumin chule kiloi khomna lenjouse mipi lah’a dohletun ahijingin ami hinahi chulthei louva lunggel seinathei ahijing jeh’a kaki houlimpi nomin ahi. Chikhat nam khat hinalah a toh khom’na lah a adeh a MNF movement sungle kiman chah nasunga thil chedanle thu umdan ho chubana movement kichai jouva thu umdanho chunga Mizoramle Manipur lang mite kahlah hothu ka-oile ka oilou thil kibolho thua kaseije.
Manipur gama thile genthei toh-ho rehabilitation homdia hungho thilbol ahomkeo ahidan chule sopi thisan khat hinaho gelkhen’na him’ him kihepha louva Mizo tribe organise ahungboljeh uva kigelgam latna ahung pendoh phamo kasahdan chubana Manipur gama adeh a MNF organisation umnasa a Mizo unit asemuva hichenoija na atoh uhi keimudana MNF kipat tillapat thisan thule ngailut thu ijat anakisei vanga policy maimai ahung hisuhpeh kamudan chule hitabang eima phat chomna maimai dinga ngailut nale thisanthu abullapat tunigeija kisei ahihi kadei loudan kahetdoh danjong kaseijin ahi. Chule toh khom laija kitahlou miho amale amageija kijoh akitah miho dettah a thina geija dingdet jing Mizoram mi ahin Minipur mi ahin ana umcheh ahin koimacha adihjo chomle adih mojochom aumloujeh a aki oimoto theiding umlou dan thujong kaseijin adeh a MNF official policy chunga alungput nu ahoilou chunga kalung lhailou danho geijin kaseijin ahi. Adoltah’a vangchu ana kitong khom ahin asunga chengjong hilou hohi asungaho sanga ngailut joh dinga lha ahin, atohkhom pisao sahle lhanga kon’na ulenao khattou agache jongle imachaan agelhih laijuve, akalvallin amaho phat sahtah’a Ex-MNF association hojong chu bus khat reserved abollun electiona vote lhading kahiuve tin anacheuvin lampi bloc ahijeh in agalhung thei tapouvin hinla condition asei danu chu genading Hotel akiholdiu nehledon manjouse akipehdiu tihi ahin, keigeldanin state govt. to concerned hiuva amao kinna dinga chedingu va chutabang condition aseipeh uchu kagelleh jachaat um kasabeh seh in gache hihbeh uvo tin kana seije. Ajehchu hinkho lhumin amao ding kitong jongle amaoding ahilaise achu kiphatlamna neilou tele mi phatna geldoh saanga suhmilpeh jote ahijeh uvachu kivop’vopjong bolkittah louhel dingjoh ahibouve. Chuti malah in keivang Jawng in athina agiinge tichu katho ahitan ipi asei vangun kalung gilla tahsan dinghi alhingthei him’himpoi. 
Dihtah mongin ngailutna alembei anahileh Manipurgama ichen nao sesehi Pu Laldenga in naum nacheh uva abol dingdan anageluvin ati bangin keigel systemin kiboljong leh Mizoram state admini strationhi abulla anakisei chu half percent val chetante tin kagellin  chubana tahte akitho mongleh boldohmo hilouhel ahin.Ahinla keima geldanin Mizo ram lungputnin mizoram tilou sopidangho lungsung alothei lou nahi lunggel kichang chun hi alhakaang theilou vuhi ahijingin chuban na apenpio lungput khat lung theng sella sopi khatto kivople hinkhom, tohkhom him’ him ahithei louhelluhi  hahsa kasah tahkhat chu ahin, Pathenin thil-hi aphajo ding lam’lama agonjoh ahiding katah san’ne.
Kenjong tohkhom laija ikah uva aneolang ahin alenlang ahin Manipur gamaho dihlouna sangin Mizorama ’ho lunggelleh thilbol-ho  dihloujoh le abol khel’lu aletjoh tampi kahei. Nanehkhah diu ima cha umlouva movement najop muve tia mingol khatnin anasei dohkhah  chu asunggil thu anahin, hiche nalama chu manipurlang mihogeija kilang khenna ana umleovu ahin,top point chu china contingent-ho chungah ahin phong dohtaove. Avella kitah santo tah a pankhomkit nading vanghi gam lavang kasai. Hijongle ngailutna thu lentah mangthei umlevang dam sahjou nante. Ajehchu mipi kitihi lamkaijin apuinalam thuthu ahi bouvin tua kiseisa naneh khah diu umlouva kiti thucheng jongchu abidoichu anahet sohkeiju anahidan akilangin mipi lamkai sopi hopsoh joulou milung neoho ahikhah jeh anahijeh ahi bouve.Ahinla ipichu hitahleh tuchung chu amao vailona a kivaikonkhoma ana kitongkhom chu ahitan vaikon, vaillhun vaihom, amao mopohna ahitan achule ipi  geldingjong amao thuthu ahitai. Sopi ageldaovu ahitahjongle adangin imacha seibebe angaitapoi. 
Tuhin Manipur gama anahapan hole ana ngailutpen hohi alhasepen le alungna penin a’umgamtan kahlah a apolbetbut loijin nasatah in eiga minset sah jiuvin keihon abulapat thulela kihouna sale aumdol jouse kaheovin ka’umthim beh un minset natheijong kaseijun kabol khapou ve. Kahlah mihon sumlepai ngaichat jal hidingham thu bulle thulhuong ahetlou jeh’u ham, ahiloujongle ja chaatje ahetlou mong jeh’u ham vang akiseitheipon Aijawl khopi langah agachejiuvin mi phabep ho vanghi thudang ahingal louleh MNF thu avaang kinamsa ponte. 
Mi phabep agachejiuva MNF thu agaseijiuva thil  tampi aboljiova aki bah pio honjong  jummo tenga ahin houjio kahei. Masanga Mizoram le Sadar Hills Manipur iti pankhom ham?  paojong kigamlapen  apankhom petna chu kahlah a sopi jousehi apampet theilouna lampi umthei ahin 2nd stepma sopi ulenao  hina hinkho thua thusei nading jouse mizo ramten asuselheh uvin ulenao achingthei hole sopi ngailule homtho jousen phamo asatheilheh uve.Chuleh Pu.D.Gangte hinkho thudol ahin PuLal kholun Kipgen, PuLalkhohen Thangeo chule MNF movement sungthu hojong tampi kaseijin ama vangchun ahet themsa ahichehtan them khat kagah seibevang aume.
Adeh’in manipur’gam MNF jeh a genthei anathoh’hojouse hetdinga kasei nom ahi.PK.kipgen damlai nikho chun MNF nunglema dollin phabep kana dongkhan thil umdan ihetchet chehthei nadiovin hetna phahochu Pu Laldenga CM ahipet chun ahinkouvin  D. Gangte vang ana lung hangin anachepoi, amahi anache in hitihin thu ahinseije.MNF te movement chu akinga hihlaije iseima banguva chu itupmuhi tu dinmun pahi anahipon hijong ihisah loudio eihojong kangatai itithei loudio India Govt. nin pamlanga na’uma greater Mizoram natia nata’thotho’chu hitheiponte hunglut ninlang state seat khatnin touvinlang organise bollechun nakoma statehoto naki houtheileh hithei joding ahin nachutibol louleh nahinkho injong boldoh pon’nate greater thuchu atiu ahin kei gellinjong dih kasan hijong himonga ahin kila ahitai.Hiti ahijehchun akinga ihipou vin movement iboljeh uva kalbi khatna ichuh-u ahung hibouvin Mizoramhi kilimsah hihjongle hoija chemang ding ahipon eiho a hijingding ahin itoh gonnuchu siem letding tihi athupi penle inagon penuchu ahin tuahi akigong pipachu itohpatjohdio ahi.Naum nacheh uva toh khompisa jousen na lungu anagelcheh uvin lang tuhin kei kaboijep nalaijin ka hung onthei dom tengleh kahinkou cheh ding natohje dingdan iseikhom diu, igelkhom diu, ingaito khomdiu ahi iti kibolleh phapen dingham tithuhi na umnaovah nalung thi mun ana guong cheh un ati. Ahinla adam sungin koima kouna apetapoi hijong chu policy bou ahikitnin  chule jumlhao na a aseikit ahibouve. Ahung lhun nachun kanadongin  ahile, thilkhat guntah in seijintin ipi atah sode hiche sanga khohjo anung donji lou tamachu jumlhaona a aseibou hikit vehta-e anati. Chule Pu Laldeng achun amasa achu gamnoija lingle khao lah a genthei tah’a inabollu ahin tua vang govt. sumle neiho imanchah uva nomtah a iboldiojoh ahitai ati thujong aseije.
Milongten nasatah a eihin gaal boljeng laijuva Mizoram anache a Pu Thanhawla toh thil umdan akihou lim nalhon jongchu Mizoram Minister dang aloi agolho inah alhungin  akihoulim  naovachun CM patoh kimuton lang sumlepai beija ima  hitheilou ahin sum thumin eitiuvin ken jong sumchu ngaichat lah a akhopen ahi vangin kakimuto lhonchun kaseipoi. Ajehchu dinmunle hinkho thu kiki houlimleh aman akhohsahle akhoh sahlou thu in kagellin kaki muto lhonchun min luongle baan chap henhuna eisatnuva vannoi kithang khongta-a nakijah mosah un nathip beh jenguve kati masatpen jengleh athipbeh jengin kiphalam lheh dannin kamun hinla ijakai thua kaki houlim lhon na achun nagen thei naohi amasapa sangin asangjon govt. thilla kapetheipon i-kaloding ham atin keijong ama thuthu hidingdol ahijeh in imacha kaseipoi ati.Rehabilitation thu umdan iti nahet nem katileh Laldengin accord na koingaplou chu ipiba ahopding ham ken akihounaole akhutnungu kamu soh kei ahin accordna ajaosah louleh hoijaba alah dingham? ati tin aseijin, ahin keima hetdollin Mizo accord kibolna achun ministry in aphat dungjuija ama phasah ahin sem’ma ahinpehji dung juija centre govt. nin sanction aboljiji ding tihi ahin hiche dungjui chun keihet ninjong crore tampi aphat dungjuijin amutaove.
Chukitleh  2005 kumminjong CM Pu Zoramthanga komah Pu Aneh Chong loijin MNF memorial hall khat sahna ding agasei leh gangtah a kapeh dingu ahi tin ana don butnun hinlah tugeijin apedeh pouve. Hijeh hin thuhi abaan banna ivetleh koima jonghi thudihsei aumchom pouve tihi kichentah in akimudoh e. Chuleh masang jepchun rehabilitation hom dingin Mizoram ma konin teamkhat ahunguvin Pk.Kipgen chu Ex-MNF ho organisation chairman ahilai ahin akihouvuleh limlawm mo  behseh asah jeh’un ahopsah tapouve, abanin 1st week Feb. 2006 chun Mizo unit Lamka akonin thi-twibuh ahi atiuvin, Dk.5000/-in mithi khatchunga dingin ahinhomun kagelleh kingailut jehla ahipon, tohkhom jehla ahipon, ipijeh a thi-tuibuh chu kibolham @ kihom ham athu alajong akichen aum pon,kagelleh keivang kajah achaan ka insung mite athi amang aum vangin doninjong kaneipoi, hinlah thulela hephalou chule agenthei tahbeh lou sumpou pou amuleh kimantah a geljeng atamthou vin kachelou vangin lachai taovinte.Hicheho thudolhi Pu Henlal Kipgen koma kaseileh min eithatna iti memorial semna dingchu amaho koma kithum dingham? chuleh kithum jongleh iti ekipeh diuham? thinale gentheina jousejong ichung uva chujouse amaho bolla kisimding ahibouve, adoltah chu ahileh hiche thudolla hi gaalla kisatto natheijoh thu ummah ahibouvin govt. kingohthei louding hichu  keisei vanga jong ahipon athuchun apoh ahi tunung sanga jong mi thilboljong helouhella ipi kiseibebe nalai dingham tin eidon butne. Kenjong kagelleh dihlheh kasan mijousen jong dih sateijinte.1965 Konpui meetinga organisa-tion chujat ajaovangun movement ahungche phatnin mundanghon anajop tapouve, anajopmachu Sadar Hills leh tua Chandel dist. langinbou anajopmin CCpur district chu Konpuile Ngathal  chu luseiho ahijeh in nile thum anajao vui adang koimacha anapangpoi
P. Kipgen biography by D. Gangte.
            Mn.P.Kipgenin ahinkho thusim sundin eihung temin kadam molheh vangin ken kasutlouleh aheding aumlou dingjeh in khohsah tah’in chomchan kahin sunin, keima kadam hihenlang ama hinkho thuhi kakam tah in seileng ahilouleh kimtah in hinsun jouleng mitamtah dingin genthei hahsa itotengleh kitilkhouna hintin mitamtah din lungsetle khoto umtah hinte.
P. Kipgen khankho thusimhi iseileh amahi Pathen’na kingaijing mi ahin chule khamnathei agunei imacha tep louhel pasal hina a miguong lhingtah le melhoitah ahina bana milunglen hangsan tahle mihat tah lunglhabai louhel mi ahi. Aloi chapangho koma athusei mangmo khatchu kikaptona aum tengleh kisel lele louding hangsan tah a panding i-jem tia meichangin eise khah tahjongleh thithei dinga kigin chatna aumtah jongleh ikhup langa kihei lhuh a thichu pasalna ahilouleh gal hangho thidan ahi tin ahiljin ahi.
Aman asei ngetnin solamgam mile 2600 valjel kajotnaova jongchun mun tinah melmaten einalamtin jinguvin chu tabang hahsatna thiileman katotengu jongleh ama hangsan tah a apanji jeh in kahoidohnao atamji in ahi. Ama lunglet le apilna hohin gaalmuna kakihinso theinao ahiji in ahi. Chubanah gamsao tah kajot naovahin chelehunga amahi lamkai ahin Pathenin lungthim phatah anapeh khatchu gam hetlouna gama gamnoija kisuhdong le lungkham teng aman phante tia alung navah nalam lama eipuijioleh aphalam jeng anahijin ahi. Ajehchu kachin reservehi jangjella chedinjong jaanko jaansom louvajong kijot galkai joulou ahi. Chule amahi mikitah gunchu atoh nalam jouse a tahsan um ahijeh in lungdon nale hahsat phat jongleh aloi chapanghon alung ngaina lhehjiovin ahi. Chuleh keiman jong galginna khohtah muna kakoma ama aumkhah louleh kathawm hao lhehjin ahi. 
Amahi itobangmi ahihi keikeo hilouvin gentheile hahsa athoh khompi tua Mizorama alen alal honjong hesohkei junte. Ama tobanga sinthei umhi Kuki nampi sungah kikhaat lheh inte, chule kathoh khomu genthei hahsat nahi seiseng hiponte. 1970kumin Mani pur’la konin E.Pakis tan jonin ahungin Chitagong 
seaport Potanga muna kakimuto lhonin Diamond restaurant na kagehkhom lhonin ajingin steamer lah katou lhonin Marasia station geijin kakitol lhonin akitnin gamnoi camp kaga lhung lhontan ahi.27 Dec.1971 (wed) nihin Lt.Gen. Nazi Martial law commander lin surrender aboltah jeh in Chitagonga Pakistan commando comdr. Brigade Gen. pun thu ahin thotnin  kangailut tah Mizoho martial law commander lin surrender aboltah jeh in nakinep naotoh kabang tapouve. Hijeh chun manchahle bank jouse nakhut nuvah kahin pedohtai phante nati dan danuvin ana umtaovin ahinti phatnin keihonjong ka’umnao Ranga mati khopi sunga konin 2am donin Steamer som kamanun Arakan gamjonin kachetaove.
Kakipat naova patna speed boatna ana masajing dingin suon umpenin Mn Pk.Kipgen kalhenguvin ama lamkainan amasapeh taove. Lamkah a thina manna tamtah umjongleh Arakan gamchu kaga lhung lhathei taovin ahi.27Nov.1972 (Saturday) MNF sorkar tohgon dungjuijin keima Political Advisor mopohnan sepai 50 toh Chinagam jondin Arakan Communist HQ la konin kakipatdoh taove. Akyab seaport nakonin kakipatdoh taove Chinagam jotding kakholjin nau mile 2600valjel sungahin hahsat genthei na seisenglou toh jonguleng Pathen puihoina jallin 25-5-1973 (thursday) nin KIA (Kachin Independent Army) II bde HQ chu kalhungt aove. Kachin gamahin lhasagi ka chaamun KIA vice president Zauseng ahungphatnin agreement signed kabollun malam jonin kachekit taove. Gamgi luipi akonin PLA 50 le sakol 5 in eihung puijun Centre Committee chun PLA thalhengin Maj. Gen. khat keiho lamtodin ahinsollun ahi. Amachun an eineh khom piovin tilkhou nathu jong giltah eisepeh un ahi.
Agam mihochun ginchat sanga phajon einasangun sumlepai chule galman chah kathum channu eipeovin lhathum training centre lakonin PLA 50 leh sakol 20 in gamgi geijin eihungthah uvin kikhenkon chibai bye-bye mitlhi longin kaki khentaove. Keiman Mn Pk. Kipgenhi kukite lah a nam legam ngailupen nampumpi chapa chang khatna peng lhang sakolkei ahi tia kana minvosa ahitai. Zunan Province akonin 20 May 1974 hin kahungdoh un Pathen pui hoina jallin lolhingtah in kahung lhungtaove chule keile amahin nampi khan khotona jeh a hichan genthei hesoh kato nalhonhi nampi lunglaigilla mangdin katah sanpoi. 
By Demkhosiek Gangte 
Imphal 21 Nov. 1985 
D. Gangte in PK Kipgen Biography hi anasutpeh’sa anahitai.Chule hitobang genthei hahsat thohnahi movement nachun ana kipangcheh jongleh mijouse thohchu kibang louhel ahin chuche to kilhonin Mizoram langa jongchun a inkoko injong numei pasal aji acha puma pangajong  atame. Kei genthei tohi Mizoram majong umlou maithei ahi. Indian army hohi Mizoram sunga chu movement laijachu mipiho seidanchun gaalsat sangin  operation dunga numei jah alunglut jouve kiti thuchu kitamsei daan ahi. Hitia armyho operation akiha seithang laitah hin agamsung numei hodia kichat umtah ahitan akihoulim jouse le chanu sopinu neijousen numeiho dingin gaal ahibaanah aha hicheh’e tin aseijun hitobang khohlaitah hin Mizoram numei tomngai khat-hin chutia armyho alung lhaijuva independent khat state khat akimuthei dingleh keiman batalion khat khaangin kate hinsei peh uvin ati e tin Pu Jangkai Kipgen Aijawla kumli jail’la um pachun anaseijin ahi.
Chule “Siel” khopuichu kisugep lhehdan hinte akilachoina  Manipur gamgeijin audio cassette nah akijaan voujangnat a’umlheh’e. Ipichu hitaleh independent jong akimoh hoptho pet aumnan hinla independent hihen state hijongleh akideltho tengleh thisanna kichohtho ahijibouvin hoilang ahin genthei nachu seisenglou ahitai.
Mizoram langajong nam movement dinga dettah a pangloi umjongleh  Manipur gama armyho ahungki keh khen  banguchun Mizoram langa hojong President staff geijin akikeh khen’nuve. Hoilang johsang abitkei ana umpoi. Ngahkhat  ahung lhunthei nahi nunao chapang geijin Pathenhenga taona a akathotho jengjeh ahibouve. Koima kison natum dingle kichang seiphat natheijn kahepoi. Keima insung taona sehjong guilhunga hinte tin katahsanne. MNF movement tabanga mipin movement angailut atosot NEI sungah kahepoi.  Milongte meilheite chule Assamte ihecheh naovin chuchan-gei khopmin mipin atosotpon angailupoi titheijin aume, ajehchu MNF khang laichun insung maicham taokhom najousea kijaosah masajeng chule  loulaija natong lomlegol lah ajong, kholche migeijin ngailut a’umdanthu hou limnan akinei ji’e.
CCpur Konpuija kihouna a lamkaija anajaoho phabep chuti kihei manggam tajonguleh amahon phante tia appointment anabol-hou lah achun lungchuom gellou hella pangdet behbuh jeng tampi ana’um thouvin ahileh ichan -gei ahi vangin lunggel khenna umlouvin tom ngaitah in anapang jinguve.Chule Col. Sonkhopaole D. Gangte hi abullangahi imacha hepha a’um lhonpon nam natohchu achuti moh ngailut lhon ahin adeh in D.Gangte chu michinle mipha anahikhah jeh a chu  thilse ana sohlou ahin Col. Sonkhopao jong chu hunglut kitle chutima hikitding ahijeh achu chutia anaboldanu ahi. Khonungin thusung nung chu kichentah in ahung kilang doh’e. 
BUNG-XI
KUKI  AHUNG  KIPOH KHAH  THU
Manipur chunggama chenghon 
KNA tihi 24.11.1946 nin anaphut doh uvin hiche apex  body umchu tun Political party khat asodohtaove. Hitabang chu amun muna chenna  gampoh dungjuija mipi minding khatchu neilouthei ahilou jehchun phante titichu anakisah anakisem chitchetne. Hichehochu thilpha ahisoh keijin aphadinga kiboljong ahisohkeije  ajehchu sopi ulenao demna’a anakibol khat chajong a’umpoi. 
Ajehchu Govt. banga kiki vaipohjou la anahilou jeh in kikiloikhom phajoulou anahijeh in, chule khonung hinkhoding saotah anagelpha jongchu ana umlou jehle sopite jouse hopma lungeldoh joule thusei jouva vaihomjou ana lamkaijou ana umjoulou jeh in agampoh dungjuijin eima deilam lama kiki heidoh gamah anahin hichelaipa chu thilphamo anahipoi. Manipur gama hohin sapten kuki 
rebellion tia anajih khahpeh jeh uva bailamtah a kukihi  ahinman paijeng  khah’u anahin ajeh ajaaljong mipin agella Kuki minhi analhendoh’ujong ahipoi. Chule hichi minhi ihinaosa minjong ahidehpon ihinadiu mongjong ahikit dehpon chule pulepa,phungle chaang minjong ahikitpoi.Britiste vaihopna noijachu Kuki minhi eisah khumuva recordna order jousea natohna jousele kinjousea chu ichunguva amanjengule kimoh pohdenjeng ahibouvin suut  suutna holholla hichekal umbenading jong aumpoi.Chinhills’a Chin kitijong chutima ahikitne.
Kuki thuchenghi saapten Bengali hon  anaseiju dungjuija kon’na Kusi anatiuchu asunpa saap’pa chun Cuci tia akisut anahin hichu 10th Century lang english anahi nalaijin khonunga hichehi Kusi tina ahijeh a  acham cham’ma ogin dingchu spellinga asunhon abaan banna ogin  dungjui jachu spelling ahin kisemu leh achaina langa Cuci chu Kuki hung sohdoh ahin Kusi tina akona hung pengdoh hichu Kusi manu kusi admi tina a kon’na hungpengdoh ahi.
1947 -48 laanga chun KCS (Kuki Co-Operative  Society) anabollun dukan lentah ananeijun Imphal Dharmasala munkhu anahin Dukan len masapen anahi  akhantou laitah uchun Kuki insung mihohi population ijat-ham tia anaseiji naovachun atamtechu Rs 1 abana techu Rs.0.50 paise abankitna 0.25 paise 0.5 paise geija kilungtoh tah a calculation bolna ananeijio ahin, sumtam natoh khomna ahijeh in liing (earthquake) ahung kihot taan acheh taovin Hmar company Paite company geijin ahung umdohtan aphatlai niuchu aselam cheh in ahinsodoh taovin hichu Manipur sunga kuki min thua boina masa khatchu anahi.
   Achung chonin  lamkaija anapang honjong ama langsechu asungnung jepma kingaitona thuseile natoh lungthim ananei jeh ‘un sopikah a kingailutna a mangta louvin kilungtomo nabep anasoh jotai. Hitabang hin chunggam mitehi ahitheijep lang langhi ichennao gamjouse’ah kiokam hamhoitho ipan sohkeijun tunjong Mizoram langa icheleh luseipao thothei lou jouse mingol ahi atikitnun sopi hina kiloikhom nadinga jong Mizo tilou adangah anomji pouvin hitihin amabou kingai sanghi Pathen thu sangin mipin ingaisang cheh un umna munjouseah ki oimoton hinkho imanguve.
Chubanin tua Kuki manghohi bolkhel ahaojepmuve. Tillin Britishten N. E. India, Bangladeshle Burmagam lenthim tah geijin amile agamhi anahopsah uve. Major Khathing le  Capt. PB. Singh geijin Kuki minin tokenle discharged certificate geijin anapeovin anamang chaove. Hinla K.N.A.khang ahunghi aphatnin agam sungle asopi chengchu ichan-gei ahiole koikoi ahichu hetdingle holding ngai lutding chu khohsah louva analamkai masaho chun amaojengbou asungnunga ahung kigeljinguva sopidang paamlanga anageljing jeh un hitabang insung kilungto monahi hungsang jepjep ahi. Tulanghin amahogeijin akihop sahjou tapouve.  Kuki ahin Mizo ahin Chin ahin chule adangdang ahin koimacha tuma penpi pulepamin a=’umchuompon mipi min dinga kimang cheh ahibouve.Khang sung nohphahna jousehi mipi lamkaija pangjiho kisanin hiti hohi ahetkhenji loujeh uhi ahung hipeh e.
Hitabang hindanhi chunggam mite lah a sanga Hindustanho lah a ana umchu songpi tabang ahijoi, chuchan aphah vangun michingle ngailut nanei  milung len khangsaotah muthei mipi lamkaithei ana umjeh in thakhatnin ahingom theijun thisan phallin ngailut naan ahungpang khomun alo lhingtaove. Alolhin nuva daan asemnauva alenpen phabep hochu mipi apat changkhatpu geija “right” kibahna thuhi ahin hitabang mipi daan dingchu itih hileh mipi kaan khomjing dingin agelkhoh penun hichejeh hin mipi lah a tugeijin kibahna aume. Hichehin avetsah chu chunggam mite lah ahin tunigeijin migomjou leh mipui hoithei geichu lungthim neijou mipi lamkai umjoulou ahetchet nachu ahijenge. Tua mizoram jongkhu mikhat lungthima konin dist. ahung umdoh panin abanin mikhat lungthim le chihna akonin UT ahung umdoh kitnin achaina penin mikhat chihna akonin state hood ahung umdoh kitnin chunggam mite jouse chenkhom nading geihi koipen chihna hung kimang dingham? Miching dingin  imacha boldohmo,semphatmo aumpon  chule  ngailutna  neidingin asopiding aumjinge.
East Pakistan aumlaijun Bangladesh gaal laitah achun Indian army hochun Bangladesh public chunga nasatah in khansetna  aneijun chuleh numei chunga jong nasatah in akhang seuvin ahileh Pakistan army hochun amaho bolbanga chu boljengding atijiuvin ahileh Muslim thempuho chun pathen neilouho chuti chonjongleo nangho pathen nei nahiuve chutia chonthei nahipouve atijiule akitimdoh  jiuve. Hitobanga chu thuhil ana neihouvin jong hitobang gamlenam natong dingin changvalla hihen hon’ nading hijongle mihem lunghan nathei Pathen thutoh kitohlou chondan him’him bolhih beh un anatiuve. Mipi luchang dinghi ahi amuhah pentahchu. Indiate akimuto ngailoute, alen aneo umle kithietna geija neite chu ipin apankhom sah uham ?  koijakon ham ? ipi akonham? tihi ahin geldoh theiding pachu koihileh kipomding ahi.Hicheto kilhon nachu  mundanga umhochu munkhatna chu iga umkhah tengujongleh amun’na kimangpa minchu lung opkaina beihella kahina ahi tithei angaije. Ajehchu isopi hinakhatchu keivang kahipoi tije umlouhel ahin tugeija tithei loulai hochu back century mi hinalai hetkhena jong neitheilou chule amabou kingaisang nalaichu ahi. Chubanin sopi khat’touvin gelthemtah a keijong kahi michuom kahipoi,kasopi hinachu keijong ahisa kahi atijongleh mingolle mi kiletsah hochun hoilanga nahiding ham nang michuom nahibouve tinalaijong a’umin hitiho jongchu back century miho mama ahikitne, tukhanghi chihnale thil hetkhenna khang ahitan thilkhoh hetmasahding chu tunigeija hetlouva a’umjeh a boina umjing ahi.
Ipichu hitaleh achesa jousele akibolkhelsa jouse chu midangbol ahilou jeh in kingaidam taohite tu masanga kuki min thudolla boinaho jousejong veleo hen  imacha hetkhen themlou jeh a hung umdoh jengseh ahibouve. Ama kuki kihisah theija asopichu namdang hisahthei khopma thil hekhen theilou mipi lamkaija anapanjeh’a kilungto louna pengdoh  ahin  sopi ngailule sopi hethem lamkai inei tengule lolhing tante.
Tribe : Tribe chedol phabep seijute. Kumle khanghi ikigel sanguvin miluitahle khanglui tahte ihiuve.Thusim tampia pasal gaalhat hole khuolla thaamsot ho ahungkile tengule achaten ahetjilou tabang ihitaove.Avetsahnan kom, khoipu, lamkang, chengsehi 1956 kumin one language @ one tribe min recognition anakiboltai.Amahochu koisuon, koi chilhah ham itile Pu.Lenthangpa chilhah ahiuvin, ama honjong ahepha tapouvin tua Len thang pohonjong ahepha tapouve. Paokhat aman khomthei tahlou jeh uvin sopikhat hiding lamjong koima agelpha a’umta pouve. Geldoh theileo  nuolnabeija tribe minachu Lenthang anatidiu ahitan, tun minpoh tamtah in recognised akibol lotai.Ajehchu keimu dollin kumhi 1500 langhi kikikhen anahijeh ahin hiche sanga sotjo kikhenpi sopi tampi aumnalaije. Ibolla koi ki-oimo dingham ? Hitabang jengseh chu ihigam taove.Hinla min tamtah pota jongleo Lenthang ahinaochu hidadehlou hilouham? Tribe dihtah chu ahileh mihem chigui thudol ahin paochu  tribe tampi hijongle khatbou umthei, tribe khat jongchu pao tampi umkit theima ahicheh’e. Isrealte jongchu tribe 12 ahin paokhat bou anathouve, hinla achehchao khahjeh uvin Isreal pao hetalouhel tampi aumun chule Isrealmi ahiu geija hepha talouhel jong atamuve. Chuchan geichu aphah vanguva Isreal chu hidathei dehlou ahiuve. 
Chutabanga chu Chunggam mite jonghi keigel dollin kum 3000 lang hitadinga tahsan um Mikir @ Karbite jongkhu Lenthangte hiuvinte hinla Khomunom khoa Lenthang tetoh kihouthei talouhel ahiuve ajehchu pao akibang tapoi. Amaho jongchu namkhat nin aumtaove hinla Lenthang thisanmi ahinaole chigui ahinaochu koijoh ahiuva adalhah theilou ahi.Chubana tukhang dollin seileohen Zou, Hmar,Sukte lah ajong  Kipgenho tampipi aume. Hiche hochun Sadar hills langa Kipgenho pao amanlou jeh uvachu Kipgen ahimo nadiu aum dehpoi.Ajehchu pao kitihi eima umna mun’na pachu kilajengbou ahin pienpi ahipoi. Avetsah nan uicha khat, vohcha khat, Kelcha khatchu kulkhat kikaikhum henlang kum ijat kikoikhom jongle ahaam muchu kilatodeh pouvinte.Ajehchu amahoa chu penpi pao ahin mihemahi born languages ahipon develop languages ahi.Hitabang chu ahito kilhona eihohi kumsaotah sungahi eiholah mama a avelvella kikhen’na avel’vella chengkhom kit  ihiuve hijeh hin paokhat manghochu tribe khatna kisimding tia India govt.nin organise abolhi genealogical ahipon language ahibouvin tribe min pomtahbeh leohen Chin hills langa Kipgen hole Manipur gam Kipgenho chu kikhen teiteiding ahitan, hiche act hi chunggam miten thi lung chang pua pomthei ahipon ipomdiu mongchu hijongleh apomjele alahje alampile adoichu hetkhena pomdingle mandingbou ahi.Tun solkallin tribe recognition according to linguistic tia ahinbolhi eihon tribe kitilaichu iheovin linguistic laichu genealogistic langin ihekitnun ahileh aboilouding geijin iboisahlo taove.
Thisan guikhat ahiloujongle phung-gui khatnin hiche paohi imancheh louvuleh hiche phungahi kisim louhelding ahitai tileohen thil hitheilouva  kilol  ihidiu ahitai, ajehchu ken kamanpa paochu amahon amantheilou manachu sopi hinale phungkhat hinachu beithei ahipoi. Chu jongle mikhatnin pao kitichu 1-9 jong kichentah’a ahetthei ahin chujat ahetjeh a’chu phung ahiloule tribe 1-9 michu hithei chuomdeh dingham guinule thisan thuhi  eima decision na chethei ham ? eima phatsah dungjuija chethei ahilou jeh’achu thu dangtoh kibanglou ahihi hetcheh angaije.Chubaana eima insungmite to paokhat akimankhom theilou jeh achu phungthu achu kikikhen theiham ?Chunggam mitehi ajeh ajaal lentahle thuhtah chuban’na saotah jeh-hin pao kibang talou ahivanga phunggui khatle thisankhat chule guinu khatna kon hikhoma chule hicheho chu  namchom choma kigeltona dimset ahitan, hichehohi hinkhole khankho chule kumkhoho jeh ahitan Pathen tilouvin anungsemkit thei ahitapon,hinla  eima hinapa adihtahchu kihetding chule thil umdol hojong ajem chedan hetkhenna neiding ahi chutia alahje ihetlouvuleh manthahna’a inei teidiu mong ahi. 
Hitabanga namchuoma kigeltona umdohkhah thuhi alahdanle alahje eima chama kihet chehding ahijoi.Hicheto kilhonahi paohi eiman imanpachu iman vangachu eima phunggui michu kihida chuomjong ahiloudan jong kihetcheh aphai.Hijeh’hin paohi inopnop manding chu ahimopon phunggui thu vanghi eima nopnople eima deideichu ahitheipoi. Tua India sungahin  linguistic tribe hin genealogy tribe thudol imacha atong khapoi. Paojeh a kikaltole kibaololo dinghi athusim akhankho kihetloute ahiuve ti avetsah najoh ahin midang mudingle hetdinga  jachat umtah ahibouve.
Phungthu, tribe thudolla adihtah mong vangchu mihempa minkhat chu hiding ahi.Umdan dingchu ahile achung langa kihopkhen namuna mibulkhat minchu kimangji ahi. Tun Chunggam mitehi chiguikhat ihiuvin paohi khangthu jeh a tamtah aumdoh tahjeh in  pao tamtah aumin recognised jong akiboltai, hichea tribe mina kimangho jonghi guinu tribe minjong aumpon chen’napoh dungjuija tugeija min kipoden abana phungminle  tribe recogniion geija kimangpai  anai lampen lah a themkhat hochu : Vaiphei, Hmar, Gangte, Simte, Kom, Aimol, Chiru, Tarao,Mujon,Monsang, Khoipu, Lamkang, Anal, Purum, Zou, Paite, chule akibahpi chenghi ihiuve. Ahinla  kondohna pumin pamin chule guinu akona kisah ahilou vangun  phungminle tribe minin akingan se   gamtan akinganse vanga ipi ahimona umdehlou ahi. 
Mipi min dinginjong hichehi kiki sahle kilominte tia ikisah naojong phabep aumin, chuban’na midangin eisah ule eikounao kimangden loijong aumkitne.   Ideileh hichiho jongchu ahimona aumdehpoi ajehchu mijouse jonghi hitabang jengseh ahibouve.Adihmong jong aumdehpoi, hinla eihon pha isah uleh  inampi mindiu chu ahimo aumkitpoi. Tua kenjong chunggam mite kati jonghi ideicheh ule manthei ideiloule paithei ahi. Tua tribe   mina kimang chunga kiseihohi phungguija dihtah a manthei ahiding tahsan aumpoi. Tribe ahiloule phungmin mantei dingin kigongtaleh keigel danin hiti hin kimanginte. Avetsahnan hmar  khellin  nelvan akimang theije, vaiphei khellin sontah akimangtheije. Simte, Zou khellin Lunkim akimang theije. Lam kang, Kom,khellin Lenthang akimang theije. Chubanin Paite khellin  Guite  akimang theije. Tujenga jong chunga kiseiho khu imanjing dingu ahitan phungmin tahbeh minchu tribe mina itih hijongle iman dohkit tahdiuchu tahsan aumtapoi. Tunjong  kikouna hohi ama guinu mina kihetna  ama guinu min tahbeh hepha talou atamnalaije. 
Chunggam mite mong monghi  tribe dolla gah hettheijin kiseileh Poi @ Laai, Sukte, Hmar, Vaiphei, Gangte, Paite, Simte, Zou, Thadou, Lusei, Ralte, Kherkha,Lakher, kiti hohi  pao jengjong kikhen loulai  ahibouve.Chubanin  sopikhat hikhom cheng mong mongchu tu a gah kiseisa cheng chutoh Anal, Mujon, Monsang, Tarao, Lamkang, Chiru,  Aimol, Purum, Chothe, Khuram, Kherma, Kom, Koireng, Koirao, Thangal, Thangkhal, Khoipu,  Sakchep, Karan, Mishing, Dimasa, Bodo, Kasari, Garo, Jaintia, Mikir,Sema, Konjak, Khasi, Kachin, Tripuri,Bawm,Chakma,Arakanis, Aruna chalis hole akibahpio hohi ihiuvin Chu bana chenphana gamjong lentah ahin asopi koikoi ahi hekhen louho dingin vang hetphah dingin ahahsai.Thisangui jallachu athahbeh a iki ngailut kitdiuhi itohdiuva thilkhoh pena umchu ahin, hiche sopi chengho insung khat’ho thisan khat’ho tuhin khangsaotah kikhen jeh in kisu milgam tajongleohen lungthima beh ikinung hetto kitdiuhi ngailut aumlheh ’e.Chule kingailutna lungthim khatna kiheto thema umcheh dinghi ngaichat penchu ahi.
  Chubanin tribe thudolla gelkhom tohna umlou jeh in tunigeijin akimoh boljing nalaije aphamo lheh’e. Avetsahnan Kuki, Mizo, Chin, Zomi, kitiho jonghi mipi minin ineijun amun munah ahi vangin phung mina neiloile kisutloi jong aumkitne hichan geijachu thil hetkhen mona neijong umnalai ahi.Tun Mizoram ten Mizo chu tribe dingin asemdoh taove. Mipi mina dinga atilla kipatna ana kimanga ahin hijeh achu ulenao sopikhat jousechun asungachu keijong mikhatchu kahi kitisohkeija pangjong kipangkhom anahin  tua tribe khatna asemule keijong kajaothei louding ahitan chule Duhlen pao manglouse jongchu jaolouding ahitaove. Umdan  mongachu mipidinga kibol ahijeh achu Mizo National Front kitithei ahin  paokhat sehchu national kiti theilou ahi tuachu Mizo Tribe Front akiti louvule midangla kijaothei talouva, amongajong MNF tia national mina political party jong umma tribe mina umsah kitle semkitchu  Mizo chu class ijat uma hintem hoichipa chu national hija hoichipa chu tribe hijaham, akikhetna aumlouleh National le Tribe chu hikopthei dingham, ahiloule National le Tribe chu akimanna thakhat mong hijaham ahiloule ken kahetloujoh hidingham kei hetdanin national kitihi asunga phungpi hole haamle pao tampi umin kahen Tribe hi ahile Phunggui khatle Paokhat bepbep hohi kiseina in kahei. Chuti hilouva henasasa kibolmong ahilevang Duhlen speaking te tilouchu jutabang vatabang ahiuve tina ahin amao tilou midang imacha agellou naochu ahin amaobou kingaisang ulenao dangchu simletaija neilou vetsahna ahitai.
Hitabang machun Manipur gama Thadou speaking honjong tomngai tah in abolkitnuve.Duhlen speaking hole Thadou speaking hohi Chunggam mite lah’a dingin  haam hoitho kiletsah sopi heodah penin akiseije. tilla kipatnin tunigeijin athilbol lhonhi akibangjing nalaije. Manipur gama Kuki Tribe bolpa PT. Jamthang kaki houlimpia athilbol thudol kadohna a athuseichu kagelleh hitabang lungput jehachu Mizo Tribe recognition jonghi kibollah ahiding chu katahsane.Hitabang lungthim jeh’a kibolchu ahileh hiche pao kiti mongmong chu manghel jongleh koima alaina umponte.Keijong chu amachutoh Thadou kahikhom lhon  ahin  ahinlah keima pao pachu japi huopma Kuki mina lentah’a  ahung kisemdoh’a Kuki unification sunga umjouse chu amang khalouhelho geija nopleda kibanga khuukhum dingchu  amahonla mangdeh pouvintin asungthu chu they are attatched in Kuki hung kitiding tina ahin ulenaovin ipi agelding khohsahna umtalou ahijehchun keima geldanin kimangthahhel jongleh koima ichungah laaina ponte tin kagellin chule manthahna joh injong kagelle.Chunggam mite jonghi sopikhat kinunghet phahkit talouhel khopma kikhena aumhi hitabang hindan inabol jeh uva ahibouve.Hijeh hin keivang hitabang lungputle thilbolhi ikhangsungu thuluiho nasatah’a ka suutleh kagim kathaangin anam jengin kadeija kadeilou,kalung himhim jong hitabangahi lutthei louhel ahijenge. Tuajong lunggel khomtohna beija nakitonghi Mizole Kuki chu ipi dinmuna kikoiding hitam National la kimangsa ahin Tribe mala kimangsa ahin Tribe ma ipi kimanga National lachu ipi kimang dingham linguistic tribe machu pao khatkal chu tribe hithei dingham ? chubanna paochu khat sanga tamjochu tribe khat hitheikit dingham ? Tunjong tribe khatna umsachu tribekhat sunga galuut kiti hojong iumsahthei kitnun tribe khatpa paochula kimangkhom dehpontin ipile ipi kisutokit ham? alampi umin kageldoh thei hihhelle. 
Thadou Kuki :  Chunggam’mite lah a hin tuhin Thadou hi jatni aumtai. Khat-hi Sehtha chapa Thadou ahin khatpahi Thadou-Kuki akitin, hichi Thadou Kuki kitipa hi koite insung kon agui abah alhum alhahna Chunggam mite sungahin kamu joupoi.17th Century A.D. langa Cuci kisutna akon’na Kuki ahung hidoh banga Thadou-Kuki hi hung umdoh ahiding kagingmo pene.Thadou chu nilethum uma hileh ahetkhen nadinga ajem khatvang sembe ngaiding ahinan ahiloujongle Thadouchu Milong sungajong, Meilhei sungajong Kolte sungajong umsohkei hilevang  Kuki jongchu ajaobe louchu khoh intin, ahinla chidang namdanglah hihen chunggam mite lah hijongle adangla aumpon kuki akikoi beding angaina umlouhella akikoibehi ilah uva geltohna neilouva aphungmina kuki ana kisuthon khonunga ahin hetdohji tengule akhelnom jiovin kheldingla akhel mokheh jiuvin adeilou sasaovin amangtei teijuvin mijousenjong apholojiuvin amanjong adeimon  adih jeh’a deile deihihle kibolla ahikitpon ahinkhon  kisihnan anei lhungkei ji’in hitabang dingachu kikisemdoh ahitai. Ajehchu mijousehin thilhi ahina dihtah thengtah kichehtah bouhi ahindei gamtan ama hina kichehtah hi ahin gelkhoh gamtai. Tribe recognition kibol thudolhi adihnale ahoibenading aumleh bolbemo ahipon athengsella umnasa suhbuohhi thil pamaitah ahi.Ajehchu veleohen tilla chu koiman adem theilou minle  thucheng anahin tuahi itilang hileh ahoimona langlanga seithei nale demtheina uma ahitai.Ajehchu aphung mina Kuki ana mangpachu amaan amanvanga midangin ibolla namanham atijiuleh ama  johchu seiding beija umji ahitai.
Khasi: Chongthu le aloiho chunggam ahungdoh tilluchun mi 7 ahiuve kitikhu mihonpi sunga ingsungkaija  mopopen, khatcheh ahiuve,Chunggam ahungdoh masanguva patna mibulho chu sagi in akiseije.Tua akihetchet theil tahou phatna seidan kikhe chitchet gama ahita.Chinate dynasty lah’a Gangis kitikhu tunjong Khagis tia akiseinale akisutna atame hichu adoidaanle akiseilona thakhat ahi. Burma te Bramaha kiti minpoho ahiubanga tillajong tuajong Gangis kiti minpo uma ahin, tua NE India Maghalaya state na Khasi kitiloihin hichi minkhu aseinao ahin Chunggam mitenjong hichiminkhu aseinao mama ahin Khakhi akitikitne.Zo, tia panho asungthu thakhat jong khakhi’a panhotoh thakhat ahikitne ajehchu Chinate sungahi dynasty tamtah umah ahin tua China kiti minjonghi Great Wall hinsempa Qin-Sehuangdi minakona Qin kitilaichu ahungkiman chu Chin hungkisohdoh hung kitidoh ahi.Tuajong ikiginmo daanule ikilah daanuhi thakhat ahin dihjong dihcheh inte.Athu umdanhi akiseipachu dihmonghih jongleh Uupat kichuho banga kikhen theilou hikhahjeh’a lahdan kibangkha ahichu akilange. Phungmin hohi atilla akiseibang bangachu hungkisei louhel ahitaove khang ahung sotle mijousen ahinseiji kamcheng mandaan hung kikhejingpeh ahi lekhabua kijihmong aumtahlou jeh in suttho hilouva seithoa vangchu tupet jengajong spelling monga akibollouleh eimahopao kisan kihechen na eiseipehpan aseinabanga kiseidoh thei jilou ahi.Tujonghin keima suut sunga jonghin abullangle akimlai kisimkop atamme.Hiche thudolhin Thadou sunga khangthu umdaan kichentah a kamudoh’a kona kasuutbe kitle abonna thakhat ahikit daanu kamukitne, hichu Gaaljeh’a ageinalam kinunghet totalouva chuchekhanga kipatle abullanga suhmilmo phungbulho minchu hinjopma tua khang 16-25 geibou hinalai jengseh ahitan loikhatchun khang 50-60 geija neijong umnante hinla khatcha vangchu dihjouponte ajehchu khang 100 chunga mite ihitaovin Phungminho jonghi mi phungminle eima phungmin kisimtha’a chengjong kichenghal ahunghipeh in anaai chakhatho tilou kichehtaponte.Tukhanga dinga Guinu kisuutna’a ipansatnao lenpenchu  kithoi na’a themthu khu ahin hichi jongkhu abullanga akipatnachu dihmaithei hichi jongchu atilla akiseibanga kiseitalou maithei ahin hijongle abullanga mipi huopmachu kipanjia chuakuona eima langkaija hungkilemphei kitna insung guija hinkisimkitna eimachunga kichaijah ahin chutichu ahileh abulla konachu mipia ahin abahbah achu hungkikhenpeh ahikitnin atampena khang 30 hochu abulle aleh kijopmatna hinkineichu ahung hibepme.Ajehchu Thempuho thuchingho ahiuvinjong thuluihohi ahetchet louvu ahivanga adihmonga anamanhou jongchu thuchen kimunaho(record kimunaho) a kona ihin mudohna khat aumtengleh akibahlouna alenji lheh’e.Aumdanchu Tuitobitnin Kholkiple Kholjang thu akiseijin hichu amunle aphaat itabang ahichu koima aseithei aumjipon ahinla hichu Manipur gamhi anahin akum jongchu 251 AD chu anahin chule chuchi khanglaija Alvate lengpa minchu Khoi akiti anatiuvin Hijongchu Manipur leng 2channa pachu anahi.Chule hichithu chu tukhanga ginmodanin Noah tuisanglet chu aki gingmo pene.Hitiachu thujousehi ana kichingdoh hochu akiching ahijengin tukhanga eiho deibanga imudiuchu hahsa ahi.Ipichu hitaleh koimacha phung bahkaija konvang ihipouvin leiset khang bullanga kona mangtheilou pasalkhat mibulkhatna hungkipandoh mitekhat vangchu ihiu kichentah invang imudoh theijuve.
BUNG XII
THUSIM  PHABEP
LHomi(The Lusei Kuki clan)Hiche Lho-
mi ,  kitihi sapte lekhajih tampi’a kon ninjong akimui.Ahinla Lhomi kitimong monga alhinga ajihnao akimu poi.Lhomi itiovin akiseivangin atahsan loulai atamjo aki’ume ipijeh-ham itileh koima chan amit tah’a amupetna lho hija mi hungkisoh, mihija lho kisoh aumlou jeh in tahsan ahahsa thouve. Lhomitoh inacheng khom’mun mi amoh nehneh jenguchu ahahsat jeh in adontho diovin ana kihouvun lungthimin anabollun ana thatnun ahileh lhomi techu ana kichataove akiti.Hiche hohi giltah a athusimhi isuutle ahin kihedoh’e. Gah hetthei din Burma gama chengnalai themkhat akimu nalaije amahochu Thamandi kiti mihokhu ahiuve.
Thamandi kitihi akhomin jong ajaat minuvin jong akimange.Asungthuhi giltah a ivetleh dawi themte ahiove. Dawithu tuhchahjing mitehi leiset ahijeng vangin phat theina anei pouve. Khangjong akhangtou theipouve.Hijeh hin hiche thudolla ahetthem jousen  dawithu achin nom gam tapouve.Amaho seidanin miching jong aki’um theipon,penhoile penphajong a’um theipoi, damthei jong aumpoi atiuvin adeimo lhehtaove, akiti.
Hiche akisei Thamandi kitihohi dawithem ahiove tina ahijenge.Lho kisonathei mi kisonathei khopchu doithu ahetnu ahi. Amaho seidanin Lho kiso sangin mi kinungsokit ahahjoi atiove. Chule Lho akiso tengleh sahing aneh jenguva mi akisopetle mihem ngaibang hikit ahiove.Lho ahiphat tengle Lho thanei nale ahinajouse hisoh kitjeng ahinla mihem thusei ahetheijuve.Hichehin selepha hetkhen theina lhagao vangam geija eipuilut diu, mang theilou lhagao   ineiju akichetsah lheh’e. Chule Lhomi thuhi eiho gah hedthei phah in meilhei tenjong aseijun milong tenjong aseijun van noi chitin namtin ninjong neijunte tihi ginchat aume adeh in dawichoile, dawi thepna gamho a hin atamthei jepme akiti. Hiche thuhi ingaitoleh lhomitoh mihem akichenge, lhomi in mi adamlou ajen’ne chule lhomi in dawijin mi abol’le akiti ji’hin asungthu chu mihem hija dawi them holoi ahiuchu hetdoh thei ahijenge.
Tulaihin Burmagam Thamandi tehi Missionary hon alungvil’luve tithu jong akijai ahinla amahovanghi bailam dingin tahsan aumpoi. Ajehchu akhochen danujong ahinkho mandanu jong akiseito abahle midangtoh akihoumat  nom pouvin, mitojong achengnai nom pouve. Thamandi tehi kholhomtah injong akiseijin, Chule ahinkho mandanujong vonbeija umnalai ahiovin alup tengu jongleh vutvai akivuh khumuvin kisiljong amang hihlaijun sepaile sepaivon kitijong avetnom pouve, amu uleh thallin akaap jenguve, athallu jonghi eiho thalpi sangin anasajoi akiti. Inchen lamah vohchavah vaang abollun apao lelten avahtheipoi alah uva haosa tobang mija theidom ahilouleh anachaidoh pehji danun akiseije.
Burmagam langa eimihon Thamandi tehi mikilip atiovin, ajehchu Lhole mihem ’ma akikhel lelethei jeh u ahi.Leiset chunga hin tugeijin doithu themthu kidang tahtah bolnagam thepnagam atamnalaije. Chule thusima Lenchonghoi jin a’uteho koma kijephoi nading ahsile lhathah vaan na umho nei galahpeh uvinlang neipeovin atileh amahojong thempu komah acheovin chujouvin vanlai jollah alengleovin aga holluve, kiti jongkhu doithu ahi.Chuleh chitin namtin lah ah eiho lah’a akisei bang ngin akiseijin asungthuhi dawithu ahi.
GAM’MI : Hiche gam’mi kiti thucheng hi meilheiten mimaram atiove.Amahohi mihem limlemel tabang ahin themkhat vang amuljep heove akiti.Chule afeldanhi gamleng khatnin kapdinga meithalla adoipetnin ahung lhaijin ameithal apaimang pehle triger jongchu amehpel manpoi tin akiseijin hijongchu numei ahi akitin hiche phatchun amanuchun gamleng pachu amanin akengtochu avun akholhah peh in akichenpin thingga, theiga in avah in nao avop phat-hin akipah lheh in a-oi agahbeng detdetji  in akipahji’e tin mipachun aseije akiti. Mipahi lungthim thimin ahung jamdoh tai, akengto adam phatnin. 
Chubanin mineo tah tahjong aum kitnin gah-het theijin africa gam’maang sungajong thingkohoma chengthei mi neochacha a’umjong akiseije, ahinla iseiju gam’mi kitichu ahicheh lhonin aneojeple alenjep umjongle thakhat ahin chule adang jong amani akisei tenitoh kibang jeplou umbe kitthei ahin afeldanle  athilbol theinajong kibang louding ahikitne, chunga kisei masaho vanghi mihem felnasanga nasatah a feljo in akiseije.
GAN’HING LE MI KIHOU : Thusimlui nasatah a isuutleh vachale ganhing dangdangho toh mihem kihouna kidonbut tona kiseiji hohi tahsan theidin akigel gamtapoi. Ahinla thil anasoh mong mong anahijeh a hung kiseisonpeh loikhat ahi.Ganhing hohin Pathen thilsema gojuh nisat chule athilmule aphat-ho dungjuija pengjengle haamjeng kimang chajeng thei ahiovin, chule anikhole aphat ho umding danjong themgao banga nikhat beple phat chom khat sung umding danjong atamjo ahetnu ahi.
Hicheto kilhonahi mihem alungdong, agenthei akipahle akicha chule alhase amutengu jongle atamjo ahetnu ahi. Hijeh’a hi amu dungjui juvachu haamjengu ahijeh in gamleng, kholche lamchuom chuoma kimangcha ihinaova eimu tenguleh eiho mihemte chungchang thu ajong hamjiovah ahi.Amaho kahlah a vanghi mihem pao bangin kimsel hihjong leh kivai pohna khambep gahseichet jou lou lhingsetna umdan ahi. Ahaam danuhi khatbanga akiijah vangin akibangpoi haam dan’ngai aumnan, ahinla asung cheh uva jat tamtahle umdan tamtah aneicheh uva hiti dollachu amanjiu ahi. Chule ama hohi atamjon amahole amaho kikah a umdan kihet  themtona nasatah aneijuve.
Avetsahnan Bongle Loihokhu ahaam daan nukhu anou akoudan khat aumin, akipa, akichat, athoh lelho dungjuijin awgin akikhe chitchetne.Chubanah amaho umdanjong tamtahtah aumkitne.Hicheto kilhonin gamleng, kholcheho ganhing umdaanle haamdan hethem hon vangphat dingle vangsetding akihet masah theijiovin mihemin amaho hetsanga ganhing ho umdan ana kihahetna ahi. Milui phabep min vang   kivang phante, vacha-in’guo-junte atin, juponte ati tin aseithei jiuve. Chutichun thil tampi lungdonna hihen kipana hijongle kihetto nathei nasatah ana’umin, chule kidohto’a kidon butna geijin ana’ume. Hiche thuhi vannoi chitinle namtin lah’a umah ahin tuahi koima akhoh sah aumtahlou phatna hetlouhi tamcheh cheh ahitai.Gah nunghol kitna hetmole mumo ahidehpoi. 
Hichevanghi doile aija kon’na umdoh thil ahipon umdan kihettoa konajoh ahibouve. Mimasa hojongchu lekhasim ana umlou thubou ahin lungthim chihna le thil hetkhen, hetdoh theina nasatah neija anahiove.Khulla ahung kondoh masang nguva patna alungput athilbol-hou datmo umtah’tah tugeija gelphahlou atame.Hiche ganhing le mihem kihouthei tithuhi ahethemho kadohle phat kineijou henlang kinung holleh lekhabu khat atumbeh a sodingin thanop aume. Chule kiboljouleh mihemte dinga thilphachom jong tampi umdoh joudingin katah san’ne. Chule mihem tabang lhagao tabangjong thilha danna kiseiji  hinkhonei jong tampi a’umkit nalaije.
LHAGAO BUOH : (The lusei kuki clan) Bible paovin lhagaoboh akitin eipaovin kaose akiti. Hiche lhagaohi hoijakona mihem sunga iti hung umthei ham tihi datmo umtahkhat chu ahi. Chule hiche lhagaoboh thudol-hin lekhasun masaho mudollin vannoi chitinle namtinah a’ume akiti. Ahin eiholah a kona ahung kipatdan thusimkhat gahseijuhite.Pasalkhat gam lenga acheleh saguol khat amui, hiche sagolla chu akiisei lhagaoboh chu umah ahin mipachun akaplih in inlangah akihonun anetaove. Chomkhat jouvin anaonu nungah khat nuhin athaochu asama kinudinga akikoi chu akinuleh amanu achun hiche lhagao abohchu aluttai hiche nungahnu in akinu thaochu aminlou akihonlou ahi.A inkieng nuchu agalhun khumtai, alhun khum nuchu khohelouvin aumtan mihochun hoija cheding nahim tia adoh uleh amanu chun hichehi ka Uupa sagol kapchu ahi atiphatnin, ipi nadeijem atiuleh ahtuikhat neipeovin atin apeh uleh achetai.
Hicheni’a patchun hichenu thilpohna “Nam”jongchu midangin aman jongleh akilamat theije  akiti. Samthijong imanleh akilamat theije anatiove.Chule ahihole ahilouho chu numeile pasal akitimat,  jongleh akilatheijin, chaale nao aneiju jongle akilamat theijin amaho guija piengjouse jong ahoidoh aumtheipoi akiti.Kholai hihen hoilai hijongle numeile pasal ahihole ahilou hojong aki timatnule akilamatne tin akiseije.Hiche thudol lahin ahethemho seidanin Jesuhi lhagao jouse chunga thanei ahijeh in ama minhin suhthengle suhmang  theina aume hichu amajong akiphondoh a adeimona jong aseija Jesuchu amakhella achensahle abeihellin ahinla ama akituup louleh alutkitji, akisuhtheng niapatna a Pathentoh kilhakaang louhella aum jingleh atheng jinge.Hinla khamnathei nesaho in anguol vanga phaat tin’na angaichat jiu tabang ahikitne. Hijehhin min adeimo lheh vangin adeijong atamkitnin chule aneisa honjong khamna theiho banga angaichat jingjiu ahi. Akisutheng hojong ngaichat jeh a nung kou lutkit atame. 
Amahohi jun niinglahle thil aniinglah a alhatle jeh in aleile akam akhut akeng phosphorus anaatnin jaantengleh amletlut jiu ahi akiti. Hichehin lhagao hinna thugeijin tha aneipoi, ajehchu amihempa thuthua kimangcha bou ahijeh in. Chule ahilou khatnin amathua akilahlutle anei ahipon aneitah jongle atahsan akituhdetna akichintup thema, mihem hinkhole tahsa asuh khahda pouleh. Mihem chungahin tahsathu hihen lhagaothu hijongle chonset thudol kisimnahi hichijeh hin mihem chungahin akisemthah jouvapat kisuh buoh daleh aphamo aumpoi akiti. Mitin geldanin Kaosehi vangam lutlouhel dinga anakigel ahi. Hinlah chunga kisei banga Pathen atahsana lhagaoboh kinle angaichat anung bolkit-tahlouhella,Pathen kinjeng bou aboltahleh Pathenin eipeh’u isunguva lhagaochu mangthai louhel dingin akiseije.Kaose hiloujong thisana kichema le mihem chunga gitloubol tolthat chu vangam lutbeh dingham?kaosejong hicheho jouse chunga chu akichin tuupma Pathen dihtah’a ahouleh Kaoselouhoto akikhiet teiteinading aumpoi tinjong akiseije.  
HAOTHANG  KIPGEN : Japan gaal masang chun NH 39 DM Road na jonghin mihem ana lhomlheh nalaijin  tua Koubru laikha kiti munkhu eimihon theose anatiuvin, tunvang Hindu mandir inn hoitah in akisatai.Hiche munhi mandir ima anakisah masang chun eimiho achele jousen apalpa chanuvin theoboh alhieh un akisejing namun nachun agahseppa jiove. Theobohchu akisena asot jehchun theoboh gochu tamtah kiset thojeng ahitan gahvet dingachu kihaalleh ameikouchu vetnomle thanop umlheh dingdan ahijehchun Pu.Haothang hin agah palpa’ in ahileh meikhet machu apohjeh in alung ajatenin agah-haal khatai.
Adanchu amaan ahet phahlou vanga chu Koubrute kotsole lamso hamkhat chu anahidan ahijeh achu aumdan hethem hon theoboh anasejio ahin thilhate chun amah daanu ahitai.Hijehchun achung thuhi tandingin aumtai atiuvin Pu Haothanghi Hou Inn kaipetnin kajun asoh in kajunbuh pohkehding abangjengin junthadinga  polanga kaga chedohle sepaini in kabanjang teniah eiman lhonin Koubru jonin eilenpi lhonin chomkah louvin kalhung taove.Kalhun jouvin thutana inah eipuilut nun thadingin kachungthu alhuhsah taove ati.
Achaina kheh’in Pathen hou kahichu ahinhet phatnun mijouse ama ama Pathen lekhabu dungjui jachu thu atanpehjio ahijeh chun almirah sunga khatna konin Bible ahin ladoh un Lengpa masanga chun akoitaove.Phongkeh inlang hiche dungjuija chu nachung thu nakitanding ahi eitiovin ahileh kenjong phante katilai khatchu kagah phongin ahileh kakhut muh dontah achun sagi munsom sagivei, ngaidamin kitilai ana hikhatai. Hichun aveovin ahileh eiho sanga lenjo in hitia aseileh atiovin keimachu ngaidam ka changtai anati.
VUMKHOKHAI  HAOKIPLE  TUKIH  LUPHENG :   Britishten eivaipoh laiju ahung hiphatai chule kivaipohna jongchu Darbar tijong ahinkoi khangu ahunghitai.PuVum-khokhaihi nikhat gamleng din achen milong khokhat agahjotpa in ahileh insung khatnahin mi akapmin agahvetpa leh nungah hoitah khathi pon asilpeh un aneh ding apeovin akaatoh akopmun ahileh adatmo lheh in iti ami hinglai sanchu adammo khatla ahipon nachuti kaapiuham tia agah dohle amahochun jingtengleh thiding ahitah jeh a kalhah u ahi atiuve.
Hiche phatchun ipithu hitam tia adohle amahochun Humpi lentah khatnin kai adongin nikhatle mikhat kapeh jingu ahin imacha geljela kahe chompouvin tin adonbut taovin ahi.Hiche phatchun Vumkhokhai chun ken Humpichu that ningting nungah nuchu kei neipeovin atileh milongho chun natha theileh ipi kadana diuham atiphatnun abonun Humpi thanading agelkhom taove. Vumkhokhai chun itih phatle  ahungding chuleh aumdan jouse adongtoh sohkeijin aphat anai phatnin inkam chungah ameithal pumin atoudohtai.
Jingkah niso joutah in humpichu ahungtai, Haosa upahochun ahintom lellul jengun haosa atiovin apah chaovin aneh dingte inlangchu ahinjon taovin Inchu ahung lhungtan  Vumkhokhai jinla akaap tahih beh in milong hochun aseinah vanga hi humpihi aletbehset jeh a  hi akiichat ahitai tia agellu ahitai. Humpilen chu kotphung ahunglutnin, ahileh inn neiten haosa juu dontadin atiuvin anthawm kuonglen khatnah agah luipeh un ahileh amanjong agah chipmin akha asunap napmin ahileh Vumkhokhai chun adeh paangtah ahin kaapleh alhuden jengtan mipile haosa upahochu akipah behset jengun nehledon abolpeh un chujouvin nungah nuchu apetaovin ahileh, Vum khokhai chun hitin asetai. Ama nungah ahin agoldei khattoh kicheng nante kei jinei kihita hiche sangchun kumsehle kai neipehtho taovin atileh amahonjong pha asaovin kumseh in kai apehtho taovin ahile  phat ahung sotjep phatnin apehnom tapouvin ahileh Vumkhokai alunghangin Tukih Luphengto akitho in gaallin abulu lhonin  ahileh sapte kom geijin anakiheh  uve, tin akiseije. 
THADO MAHARAJA (Royal history of Burma 504-443BC) Hiche Thadou Maharaja kiti Thadou leng khang17 bulpia kiseipahin chapa aneilou jeh in ajinu Uupa Khepadou hi ama khel dingin akoitai.Ahinla Khepadou’hi aleng chan kah in hiche leng gamahin Ngal changlen khat alaangin koima apot ngamtapoi. Hijehchun lengpan Khepadou komachun ngalchang thading thuchu agaseijin ahileh, Khepadouvin igamsunga koima kamasanga ding-ngambon umlou atin katha kahsen hungkile ponge tin akondohtai.Ngalchang letdanchu feet 18 lang asangin vadung lentah anoh jongleh a-oi aphajipoi tin the great Chronicle chun aseijin chule Ngalchang chun miloupi tah khatnin ahindel ahetphatnin Shan gam langah ajamluttai.Chule Khepadou hin akhonung chu ajuipeh in asunlihtai. Apohjela umlou lengpa koma kathattai tia vetsah dingla aumlou jeh in kilekit sangin agama changa chengden dingchun akigel lhatai. Hiche mun nachun chanu khat aneijin aminchu Bidaiji asah’e. Naochu ahunglet phatnin amachu Hou lama kipemi ahijeh in twithal nading umkhat amuh satvang loukhat apen twi agathal sahjin ahileh achanu chu anilhum keikei’jitai.
Tagaunga kona Khepadou Ngalchang della achedoh jou tillin lengpa jinu Khepadou naonu chun cha Pasalni aneijin apengkop ahin amitchogel ahilhone. Hijeh chun lengpan chun ajinu komah that dohtan atileh lengnuchun alung ase behseh in guhthimin avah in ahileh ahung gollhang lhontai. Hichu lengpan ahin hetdoh phatnin alung hangin kaloupina nasuneove atin ahileh lengnunjong pumkhat asemin nehledawn akikhamset asempeh in athilhon jongleh kamulouna beh a thilhon nante tin pum chungachun atousah lhonin vadungchun aposuhpeh lhonin athithi nalhona  thidingachun asoldohtai.Amani minchu alenpa  Maha thambong ahin aneopa minchu Sula thambong akiti. Hitia akitollaitah lhonhin mun khatnah a-ohden lhontan ahileh pumchunga chun gamnupi khat ahung toudoh in bu anehlhon tengleh anehpijin ahileh anekhop jilhon tapon hitichun akihoutoh lhonin ahinsokit phatnin atuhdet chahkheh lhontan ahi.
Akitomdoh joulou phatnin neilha lhonin nadei lhonkhat ipi hile bollinge atileh amani injong amitlhon ahaasah nadingchun aseilhonin phatah a akitep phatnin alhaa lhontai amanu injong thilha dangtoh akitho in ahileh amit lhonchu ahahtai. Chuphatnin pumchu phabepkhat atolbe lhonin munkhat amulhon phatnin angalhonin ache lhonleh amitlhon aha phatnin akimoh papajeng lhontai.Hiti chun phabep ache lhonleh mi khonung amu lhonin ajui lhonleh apupalhon chanu Bidaiji chun umkht amuh vulouva twi anathaal chu atohkha lhontai.Hichun amani injong umchu amuh asat vangpeh lhonin ahileh chomkah in athaal dimtan ahi, chuleh nungah nuchun apatoh achen nalhon langachun apui lhontai. Hichenia matah a ahunglhun chu apan adatmo lheh’e.Hijeh chun achanu chun a’umdan nuchu aseipeh phatnin Khepadou vin gollhang tenichu aumdan lhonleh hoi langmi ahilhonchu adongtan ahileh amani injong thu umchan chu aseipeh lhon phatnin amanin ahetlhonlou vangin Khepadouvin atuteni ahichu ahedohtan alenpa chule Bidaijichu akichen sahtai.
Hichelai  gamchu Pyuste lenggam ahin Pyus lengnuhin thukhoh jouse Khepadou hi anadohjing ahin hijehchun Khepadou hin lengnujah a nangin boitah a lengvai napoh sangin katupa Mahathambong hi vaihomdan themtahle mihaattah ahin pha nasahleh pansah jotan atileh Pyus lengnun jong numei sangin pasallin thu neijonte atin lengin apansahtai.Hitichun Maha thambongin apu chanu Bidaijile lengnu chu jii in aneijin Bidaiji in chapa khat ahinpeh in aminchu Doutabong akiti.Maha thambong athi phatnin achapa aneo behseh nahlai jeh in anaopa Sulathambongin lengvai apon aupa jinu Bedaiji akichenpi kitne.Hichiphat geihin apaa lhon Thadou Maharaja in Tagaunga lengvai aponalaije. (Ancient history of Thado)
PYUSAWTI: 162-242 AD (Ancient history of Thado) : Tagaunga Thadou  vaihom khang kichai dingkon langin vaihomte insunga konin Thadou Adeisaraja chu leng insung dalhan ajinutoh milhaam bangin huon bolleh lou natongin gamchom mah akivah lhonin ahilieh ahonsung lhonachun kohom khatnah Naga lengnule lengpa achensah lhonin ahileh hiche jalchun phatthei achang lhonin Thadou adeisaraja jinuchun AD 132 chun chapa khat ahin neijin aminchu Sawti asahlhone. 
Anule apachun Sawtichu jilkung pipupa komah akhanlet sahlhone. Sawti chu kum somlegup ahung lhinin Pagam langa gamlenga achenom thuchu anule apa komah aseitan ahileh anule apachun masanga jilkung pipupan Sawtihi lhanglang gamma lenga hungpang ding ahi tia anaseichu ageldoh lhontan ahi. Hijehchun amani injong achapa lhonchu Sakra Pakaipan anapehlhon thal vamitnei chu akenpeh lhontan ahileh amajong achetai.Achena Pagam gamachun Pyus nupakhat chaneilou inn khatnah agalut khan ahileh amani injong achaa bangin ageljeng lhone.
Nikhat-hi Sawti  in thalmandan kithem chuhto goma gamleng din akigotan ahile Pyus nupateni chun boi chehih beh in Pagam gamahin koimacha apotdoh ngam aumtapoi gamlah tilouvinjong, ajehchu Solangahin Ngalchang lentah khat alaangin, lhumlanga Vachalen tahkhat alaangin, lhanglangah Humpi lentahkhat alaangin, sahlang sangah Julei lentahle gimneitah khat alaangin athatjouding aumlou jeh in Pagam lengpan Ngalchang nehding nikhatnin bulhanglen 60 Maai kangtalai dim 9 le changvai kangtalai dim 9 khatveija apehjia nisehle hitiachu apehjing ahin hichehi kum 12 ahitai  Pagam lengam lungdon nale genthei na hichehi ahi tin ajahda lhonin ahileh Sawti lung thimahin olmona himhim aum dehpon leng gamkhat lungdona ahivangin achetai. Agam gama akichat houchu athal mitnei chun abaan banin Humpilen Ngalchanglen chule Julei lengthei hochu akaplih gamtai. Ahepha jousen Sawti natoh-hi kidang asalheh uve. Chubanin Vachalen umna gam langachun achekitnin ahileh Vacha anpedingin pasal khatnin kangtalaijin nungah sagi ahintollin ahileh Sawti chun hoicheding nahiuham tia agah dohle pasal pachun thu umdanchu aseitan ahileh amanjong nungah-hochu agahven ahileh kikhotona dimset maiso umdanchu                                                  amuphatnin keitabang umlaisea ipi nalung khamuham tia ahinseileh nungah ho lungsung chu kinepna adimtan ahileh Vachalen chu ahungleng paitai.Hichun Sawti in akaap paijenga ahileh tuol ahungchuhle athisa ahitai.Hichun amahon jong kum 16 bep gollhang chakhat thilbol dingchun kidang asalheh jenguve, chuin Sawti chun amul khatchu abotdoh in lengpa hinvetsah un ati.
Amaho mi sagichun Vachamul khatchu apouvin ahileh aposot  joupouvin adalhao vin leng inn alhun phatnun thilsoh umdan chu lengpa komah aseitaove. Lengpan chutabang thu ajah phatnin asepai hotoh Vacha thina langa chun ahung lhaitho taove. Lengpa alhunin Vachakoma gollhang chapang khat dingchu amutan kidang asa behseh in Lengpa Thamodam minjong aganai pheijin chapa koisuon koi chilhah nahi a chuleh ipi manchah naman na hitabang galmi lenhi natha ham? atileh Sawti injong koi chilhah ahile ijakai thuho jousechu aseipehtai. 
Lengpan adihtah chu ahet phatnin achihna aloupi nahole ahatnaho ahet them to lhonin achanu Thilisang chutoh akichensah in aleng Iinle agoulodin akisemtai. Achesa kum 12 sungchun nungah 4320 vacha vahnachun ana neije. Kumli jouvin lengpa athitai. Sawtichu kum 20 bepbou ahijeh in jilkungpu johchu lengin atungin kum 15 jouvin athikittai hiche jouchun aman lengmun alotai. Chule chapa khat aneijin amin Thiminjin asah e. 
NICOBAR  ISLAND: ( From a journal ) Lengpa jii himaithei ahinla koipen jii ahiding akihetapoi. Numei khat-hi anaovop laitah in engbolna sangtah achungah ahung lhungtan ipipen jeh hidingham akihetapon thaajeng dinga lhahochu Kuong khatnah nehlechah nengchetnin akoipeh uvin amanu jongchu asungachun atousah un hitichun Twikhangle nachun atolmang taovin ahileh amanu jongchun nehding hochu anen kongchu hoilanga iti che a hitam tijong ahetapon akhon-nan tua Nicobar Island nakhun aga kingakhata. 
Amanu jongchu phat chomkhat jouvin anaochu ahungsoh in pasalkhat aneitai. Ahin nathei theijin akivah lhonin anaochu agollhang tai. Nikhat-hi anuchun achapa komachun nangding nungah ngaito hite atileh achapa chun nangin pha nasah sahchu pha kasajenge atin ahileh anuhin Kuonghi tollinlang gam chinchin nahin chelechun nungah khat ana umintin hinkipui jinlang eini umnahi hinjot pinlang  cheng lhontan nahung lhuntengleh keima  vang neimu louding ahitan kana um louding ahitai ahinla natehset langtengleh neimu kitding ahi tin aseipeh in asoltai. 
Hitichun anu seibangchun achen ahileh nungah khat von chuombeh’a kisem khat agamutan ahi. Amachu ahin kipuijin akicheng lhontai. Chanu chapa tampi anei lhonin atehset langlhon phatnin ajinuchun ahin seijin keima nanuchu kahi atitai. Natehset langleh neimu kitding ahi tia kaseichu ahitai tin aseidohtai Nucha kicheng ahilhonin achateojong kichengkit chubana alen aneo tithujong umchuom louva tuni geijahi Nicobar mite lah akhu numeile pasal chule khangle khang kikah a dan umloulai ahiove.
Tukhanga jong khantouna thudolla lekhasim kitihojong nasatah a lhasam nalai ahi. Numei naoneiding aum jongleh inn neocha khatna kot akam khumuva nikhat nini jouleh agavetnuva anahin khahle avangphat anathi khahleh avangset hijing nalai ahiuve. Hiche Kuonga ahintolmang nu uhi Thailand gam mi ahi tin akiseje. Leisetchung thilsohle umdanhi kidangtah tah gelphahlou tampi aume. Frazer : Folk lore of the Old Testament khun thimjin, tuitobin tia Chunggammite seihohi tuikuol gamhole adeh in south east Asia mihohin aseiju akibange tin asunin, chule Tuikuol gamhohi Asia miho jengseh hidingdanin jong ginchaat aume.Akalvalla tua gahkisei chengse hitoh ijakai hindanle khandan jousehi kiki bangah ahinalaije tugei jonghin.
SUMTUM KAAITE :(Traditional history) Masanglai hin khokhat nahin Pagawng khat-hi achapa nii-toh achengun  chuleh numeikhat mahi chani neijouva ajipan athiikhum khat aumkitne. Hiche numeinu hin pasalpa chutoh kichending atuplheh jengin hijehhin achapa tenichu aphatbol lhehjengin Changmanbu ahonin ameh luumin ahgilla Ahcha kotchu asinna in, patlomkhat sehseh aneijin hiche tenichu amangchan pasalpa chateni chu ajoljol jengjin ahi. Napatoh neikichensah lhonleh ahkot kisinna Changman tumjong kaneh sah lhonding atin chule sinkhupma patlum khat akoichu avelvellin aladoh in hichehi nang sangkhol ding hichehi napa sang kholding hiche hi nanao sangkhol ding atijin abolbolji leh chapang tenichu athanom lhontan apa komah aseilhontan ahileh apachun nangnin chutia nadei lhonleh kakichen lhontah hihding ham tin akicheng lhontai. 
Akichenlhon napatnin numei nuchun ama chateni jongchu akipuitha ahijeh in ama chateni chu alungsetnin ajipa chateni chu ahotbol pantai. Louva akon nujongleh ama chateni chu liimah aumsah in twijah akichepsah jin ajipa chateni chu nilhumin natongin agoijiin inlanga ahungding tenguleh Pasalpa chateni chu asil ngimin ama chateni chu meihol pou anuvomin inlang ahunglhun tenguleh ajipa komah nachateni khu kivetno natong dingin akithajou pon twijah akichem nilhum jilhonin atiji in chutichun atheida manin imalam jouse a amani phatmona jengseh aseijjin katheichim  behseh jenge gakithah mangin tin anopantai.
Hitia phatseh a anojing phatnin nikhathi apachun achateni chu apuijin gamlah a hichelai hoilai hitam tin adongpeh in ahileh achateni jongchun hichelai kaputoh Sakhithaang kakamnao, Vengke thaang kakamnao, Sielnou kalonao tin asei pehjeng lhonin ahetlhon lou namun ahiphatnin achatenichu lhimma imut sahdingin aphei chungah aluchang lhon angapsah in ahitlhon aven ol olin amaovin ahi. Ajinu thu apal-lhahlel jehbou ahin achateni toh kithi khen dingchu agelleh amitlhi chu achateni bengachun ahung valhajitan achateni chun hepa lonlhiham thuonggo ham ahungvot lhuh lhuh e  atiji lhonleh apachun imuthim lhonin boi lonlhijong hintin thonggo jong hinte ,atin avelvellin hitichun aumun ahi.
Ahinla phatchu saothim alhim phatnin phatah in a-imutsah lhontan hichun apan kaangchan adalhatai.Apahin adalhah vanghin alungthim khat akoijin patjang khat akaijin ahi.Hitichun“gampu” (Thilha) komahchun kachatenin eihin holmo lhonna eikou lhontengle anahouji-o atileh gampu chun henge ati.Apa nunga achateni ahung khahlhon phatnin aholmo lhontan vo hepa tia achuti koujeng lhonleh gam puchun “hoi” ahintijin ahileh amani injong nang kapa nahipoi gampu nahibou ve atilhonin hitichun avelvellin akou lhonin, gampujong chu avel vellin ahou vin,chutia lungdonga avalelhon nalamin apa patjang kaichu amudoh lhontan ajuilhonleh khosungah ajuilut lhontai. 
Insungchu alutngam lhonpon in noijachun aum lhonin ahileh insunga insung miten baal aneh petnu ahijehchun lhong vangkah achu paithei hochu asot lhahjio ahin amani ucha chun anaa t-hochu nehdingin akilolo lhonin ahi. Insunga apachun achateni lhuong noij aumlhon  chu ahet phatnin baalchu ahoitah tahjong aseiseji in asonlhaji in ahileh achateni chu hampha akisa lhehji lhone. Hitia aumsot lhon phatnin vohpitoh ahungkichu taovin ahileh ajinun ahin hedohtan ahung lunghangin hita hiba baalpi phapha nasot lhahji hivehta ibolla hitia uma nahim gakithah doh loitang atikitnin ahileh ajingin agathah kitnin achateni chu adongpeh kitnin ahetlou mong mong namun lhon ahiphatnin alhim kitnin aimut lhon phatnin amasa a bangin gampuchu aseipeh kitnin patjang kailouvin achetai. Achateni ahungkhah lhon phatnin apa akoukit lhonin gampu in ahin houkitne.
  Hitichun inlangchu ajonthei lhontapon hoilang suhding jong gelthei talouvin amoh umlhontan chomkhat jouvin avahlele lhonin ahileh a Uupachun Vaphuol buhkhat thingchunga umchu agahmun keima kallingting gavenge tin akalleh Vaphuol Tuui anaumin adonleh amachu amul ahung kehpan tai.Anaopan jong he-o keijong atileh kanao kamkatang ahintin ahinse lhahleh akehtan avella anaat hochu alieleh amul ahungkeh kitnin ahileh thahsesu asan akikhuot loiloi jingleh akhuot lhagamtai, ahinla a’Uupa chu Vaphol akisohtai. 
Anaopa chun he’o kei iba katiding hitam atileh kanao liebel liebel atin amachu alengin anoija aliimchu anaopan ajuijin alhaijin ahileh akisep lhutai.Achuti phatchun anao komachun kanao hindan akibangtapon kingailheh jonglehen ikivopjing theilouding ahitan hijehchun nang hilaijahin ana uminlang keima lenging ting gamlego gavelenge tin athulhah in amachu alengtai.Hitichun alengin gamchu agavelen ahileh aniite chenna khochu aga mudohtai.Anao komchu ahungle lhunphat nin agamu bangchun ahiltan ahi.Hichi a Uupa agalendohle sungachu anapahi avahlelen ahileh Theichang phungkhat amun akaldoh in anetaan ahileh Thilhate  pucha khat-hin sumtum ahinkai lhonin ahileh amanjong agah kouvin vo hepu hunglhono hiche theigahi neohite agahtin ahileh puchateni chun sumtum chu dalhan ama hengachun ahung lhontai.
Chapangpa hin theichu avellin hepu natengcha chu neihinpen kaphah joulou jeh in nakam sunga kahin koilut joupoi atileh tehsepu chun agahpen ahi. Hitichun theichu avelji in tengchamuh achun agah butji in hepu kamka agahtijin ahileh thilha chapang pachun hepu kithat nahen tia hitiachu abol ahi ahintin ahileh chapang pachun kon apu athading ham atileh tehse punjong ahilouleba konba apu athade atin chomkhat jouvin chapang pachun hepu kamka atin akamkat phatchun adangkuun asutpihle athitai. 
Chujouchun ahung kumlhan thilha chapang pachu adongin sumtumhi iti nakai lhonham atileh a itbehseh jehchun aseinompon ahinla naseilouleh napu kathabanga kathading nahi atiphatnin aseitai. Sumtum kakai paitum kakai heiha tinlang kaailechun achamin hungtante atin, hitiachu aseija agah kaileh sumtum chu achamin ahungtai.Akaije ahet phatnin thilha chapangpa jongchu athatnin asum tumchu akaijin achetai.Chomkhat agah cheleh a  ini kom joninlang ana umtan hindan akibah lou tahjeh in keimajong kakibahpi lah a umingting hitichun umtahite avella kimuto a lengkhom kit theiding jong ihitapoi ati in anaopa chena dingchu ahet theiding tah in aseipeh in kimutokit taloule kivopkhom kit talouva ama hinthei nacheh kisah dingin akikhen lhontai.A Uupachun anaochu angai behseh jehchun alengdoh nomtahih beh in ahinla ama alendoh loulai sechun anaochu achepanthei tapon akilhalel behseh lhonin hinkhosunga kimukit louhelding ahilhon jehchun  seitheilouvin alunglhonchu ahel behseh jengtan hinla agei behseh lhonding phatchun akikhen lhontan a Uupa chu alengtan anaopa jongchu a’ Uu seibangin achetan ahileh aniite khochu agalhungtai. Khomollachun asumtum kaichu adalhan aniite inachun agalhungin ahileh aniichun anahomtho lheh jengin  chomkhat jouvin khomolla Sumtum kikoichu ahin mudoh taovin haosapu komah agaseitaove. 
Haosapun agaven kidang asalheh jengin koiham hitobang hinkai lutthei khosunga maljin hin holtemun atileh hiche chapangpa chu anii in keima inna kanao ahung lhungin hichehola chutobang boljou dingho ahipon ati. Khosunga Sielkhao tampi adongkhomun akaijuleh atan-gamin hinlah sumtum chu achatsapoi, Hiche phatchun haosapun hiche sumtum hinkaija kaleitolla koijou a’umleh kagam akeh khat pengting kachanu jong pengting chule kaneiho jouse akehkhat kapehding ahi tin aphongtai. 
Hiche phatchun chapang pachun henii patkhao eihuolpeh in atin ahileh anii chun mipin Sielkhaova kaijabon chatsalouva nangin patkhaova inalo dingham tin adonbutnin ahileh chapangpan neibolpeh pou pouvin atiphatnin abolpehtai. Hichun amajong ache in patkhao chun akhitnin Sumtum kakai Paitum kakai heiha tin olchachaan aseijin akaileh achamin ahungin haosapu leitollachun akoijin adalhatai. Haosapu chu akitepna bangtah a akamnung ahinjuiding jehchun anii-chun anaochu thuguh jouse ahilmasa gamtai, Siel namat tengleh ahoimopen kimatnin, nungah nalhen tengleh mitvetna ahoimopen kilhenin ajehchu Siel ahoitah hokhu lhemlhung Siel ahibouvin chuleh nungah dangho jongkhu suoh ahibouve tin aseipehtai. Hitichun anii seibangin akilhenin ahileh nungahnu jongchu achanu mongmong melhoitah anahin Sielho jongchu aphatah ana hikhatai. Amapahi ahung haotan achongtai. Ahinla apaan aga thahmang ahijeh chun apaan adapa tin midanghon aseijun ahileh amamin kihedoh talouvin dapa tihin ahung chepai paitai.
Achonding tahjeh in anunole apajong chu akouvuleh ahunglhonin a’Uupa Vaphuol jongchu vahuuijin agakouve. Vahuuijong alengin muolchung khatnah hitihin agakouve. Pholva o’e naovin  Chon khong adinglhuh’e, hungjouvo tia aga kouleh ajaphapon alengkitnin agahkou kitleh ajatan aloinutoh ahung lhonne.
Chonchu nisagi jen abollun ahileh Vaphol tenupa jongchun inkam chung langah atoulhonin noija khan nougol laamho luchangachun alhamul ameimul lhon geichun, khat luchunga agahkhoji  lhonleh aluchungu vachun akiphut jangpetnin apah silsellin ahileh adangho jongchu athau anomcheh uvin abaan bana abol lhonleh amul lhonchu akihopchai lhontan chon akichai jouvin innah amoh um lhontai. Khannougol chutia alaam laamjeng laijuhin Vakawl honkhat ahung lengun inkamchung langachun ahon changin achuti lamlamun alhao ajaap jaap jengun hichejeh’a hi chunga jangkholva laamin nuoija khonnougol laame tia kisa ahi. Chutia vaphuol tenupan amul ahopma khat luchunga agahkhoji lhonleh kiphut chetchetji ahin avetnuleh vetnom umlheh jeng ahijehchun anunole apa jongchu athangse lhonin Kanao keijong agahti lhonleh Vaphuol tenupa chun kamka kamka agahti lhonleh akamlhon akat phatnin a-eh lhonchu akamsung lhonachun akholut peh lhone. 
Chon kichai phatnin a’Uuteni chu alengthei lhontapon phatsaotah anaote nin insunga avahlhonin alha lhonchu alhun phatnin nikhat hi alhim imu lhonin analendoh lhonleh khomol alep lhonding konin anaoteni nupachun ahinmudoh lhonin haka’a akajeng lhonleh ajahlhon phatnin ahung kilekit lhontai. Chomkhatpi a’um khomkit nuvin nikhatmachu alhim imu kitlhonin alendoh phatkit lhonleh anaote nupachu ahung khahkit lhon phatnin agah vetkit lhonleh gamlatah molla aleplhonding konchachu amu lhonin haakaa’a akaalhon vangin ajaphalhon tapon vaphuol tenupajong alenglep lhontan anao tenupa jong lunghel behseh in akapkap lhonin akap imulhontai.Tua Vakollam tia kiseikhu adoltah chu “Chawn Laam”tidingjoh ahi. Alu chunguva akitotnu Vachamul khu Vaphuol’mul ahin, achunglanga alaam limma kidomsang vacha luchang khu  Vakawl luchang dinga kibol ahi. Hijeh’a chu chunga Jaangkolva laamin noija khan nougol laam’me kiti ahin hichu Dapa Chon chunga umdanchu kiseina ahi.
Hiche thusimhi chungam mite dinga moh thusim ahipoi, Chon kitihi noigama Nuoimang khopi chenlaijin Noimangpa chapa Chonkim chu akhanthei loujehle aleitolla papi khatchu apahlhah theilou jeh in themgaovin nachonteng phatante atileh ana Chonge. Abanin “Dapa Chon” aban kitnin Thadoupa Chon ahikitnin hicheng thumhin thusim lentah apohcheh ahi. Dapa kiti apaan agathah mang jeh a akidapa tina ahin chuleh a’innlanga akilekit tahloujeh’a  akihden, aumden tina a mikih, mikihden anatileh khonunga Hindi pao ahunglut phatna mikih chu Mikir hungkiti ahin, Mikir techu Lenthangte  ahiuve tin akiseije.Hiche khanglaija vangchu pao jengjong kikhen loulai ahibanna ganhingho geija jong ana kivopma ana kihouthei nalaijin thusim chun aseije.
Chothe : Chunggam mite lah a Chothe tehi hetchet jep angaina phabep aumin hijeh hin atumbeh in chomcha seijuhite. Chunggama hungdoh holah a Lamkaipa Chongthu chiguipa mongmong tekhu ahiove.Chule thusima Galngam kitipa jongkhu Chothete lah’a khieng kitiholoi insungmite Moirang khopia chengholoi khu anahiuve.Galngam khang jongchu hiche Noilang @ Moirang khopilanga achenjou nungsang peh’u phaat laichu ahung hinalaije.Ahivangin ama khang chun Meilheite khu hiche Manipur gamahin ahunglhung hihlaijuve. Chung gam mite lah’a amahi Dawi thema ana kiseipan penchu ahi.Galngamin Dawithu analahna chu Hangsai jakona ahin chule Hangsaichu tua gahhet baidin Shanho ahi.Abanin Galngamhin Dawithuhi Thailand ho ajong analai. Hijehhin dawithu akisei tengle Sale Nga,Juchale Vacha thaana theile matnathei chubanna thaang kamna ajong ana kimangji Sapohnathei Dawithu hochu Thailaan dawi akitiji’e hichu tua Thailand te Dawi khu kitina ahi.Amahi ahinkho anasaolou jeh in ama hetna banga koima anahil manlou jeh in amakhang jouvin amabanga Dawithu themjou koima aumjoutapoi.Ama khang hin hiche Manipur gamsungahin  akhut nung akengnung chule thilsemho limle Suongpi lentahtah kigolle kitung  chubana itihchana mangthei louding thil melchih nading tampi anabolho tugeija umnalai tampi aume.Kipgen, Haokip Elmun holoi pienkhanga jonghin Chothete khohi nailama chenkhompi sehsechu  khohi 3-5 lang ana umah ahi.Chunggam mite chu 100 BC-33 AD sunga leng munadinga tunthei penchu amao insunghi anahiuvin hijehchun leng chanding kichuna nasatah ana umvangin lengmun chu ana kichangtan ahi. Lengmun ahung kichanjou kum 220 khang thudolla seidingin khang 4-6 jouvin lenga panglou Kongjangphaija umnom lou mi tampichu solang jonin anachedoh taovin hicheho lah ‘a jongchun Chothete jong tampi ajaokit nuve.Thoibile Khamba thusim machun Kongjampa kitikhat ana kiseijin amachu Kongjangte chapa khat ahijeh achu Kongjanga kona hungah ahijeh achu hitiachu kiseidohkha ahi. Chuleh  mipi tampi chu anachedoh jongleo  anachedoh sohkei pouvin aumden loijongchu tampi aumna laije .Chule aumdenho jousehi kimutokit kah in meilhei sungah tampijong ana kisim taovin hetjoujai ahitapoi.Moirangte kisan meilheija ana kigeljeng khopmin khang-thu kimansahna aumtai.Chujongle meilhei lah a thului hejouse jongkhu amahohi ahijiuvin chule meilheiten thului thubul tia aseiju jongleh Chunggam mite thusim thusimhi ahung hiji’e. Amaohi achaolele behseh tahlou jeh uvin khulkon thule chunggam thului, thubul hole laluui, lagil hohi amaohin atam chindoh pennuve. Aimol, Purum, kawm, Maring, Chiru, Khoipu, Lamkang, Kharam,  kitiho jong Sadar Hills langin aseijiu “Jongbe, Uibuh, Julom,Ahgal,Sailih”tia kiseiho jong mikhat na kona hinkipoh dohsah ahi akiti banga khu ahinpoh doh u jengseh anahin Chung gam insung mite kiminvona jengseh ahiuve.
Thil umdol khatnin Sadar Hills  sungahin Lenthang aume. Thusim ivetle kawm, kharam tele Lamkangte jongkhu Lenthang ahiuvin, Mikir hojong Lenthang ahiuve.Chen namunle chaolenajeh chule umdaan chuom chuom jeh in minpoh kibanglou tam jongleh asunggilhi thuh thima isuutleh thisan khatchu paochuom chuoma tamthima kikhentel chubana sopi thisankhat hina geija kiheto phatalou jengseh akihi gamtai. Ilah uvahin ivetle  amang thahle midang kisoh tamlheh tajongleh thisankhat ihinaohi ngailut louva koithei ahipon insungkhat ihiu banga ahina bangtah’a athahbeh’a iumkitdiuhi thilpha ahito kilhona itohdiu lah’a ngailut umpena igelluva ahisachu ahina bangtah’a ihisah kitdiu imanchah kitdiuhi ahin hichu iti ngailut um ahunghi tadem.252 AD kuma loitamtah achedoh ana um nung jongchun akidalhaho sungachun chunga kisei phungpi hokhun Chothetehi Sating ngahna-a ananeiju ahin anabollu jongchu adihtah ahikitne.Chujongleh tu Assam langa hin kidalhaho jongkhu achaole behsehjong akihetapon leng geija kivaipoh jong tampi aummuve.
Phaicham sungho khu tillin tui anatamin  koima anachen nompon amahokhu phaicham sunga chenglha masapen ahiuve hijeh achu aseijousen noilanga chengho noilang noilang anatileh khonunga  Moirang hung kitidoh ahitai tukhun meilhei phabep chengnante hichelai achen nao khomuna  kon nakhu Pakhangba jong lenga hung pangdoh ahin khonunga tua Kangla kiti munakhu hung kichonkit bou ahi.Akisei masa bangin Muolpi langachu damthei loule puntheilou jeh’a noilanga aga chenlhah uvachun ahin kitopilheh jengun hijehchun hitihin la ana ume. Chungmang Pathen hamjang phatnan lenna vangkho Noilang khopi dawcham chungah vangkhoa Chiin-ngai chengle tuoigol chengtoh lenkhong chawijin vabang kalenge. Moirang Thoibi le Khamba thusim chu Chunggam mite ahivanga khang thusimle khankho  thudol Chunggam lekhabu a kiseiho banga inaman khahjeh uvin meilheite thusim danna gella tamjonte ajehchu meilheitehi ahunglhuntil laijun imalam jouseah thaneina ananei pouvin ijakai thudolla chu Chunggam miho chungachu kingamjeng anahiuve ana hitheina lampi jongchu haamle paojong thakhat anahin chubanna customle culture jong imachuom ana umpon  hitabang hindan kibahna jallachu  ana chuti umah ahiuve.Chumale Chunggam miho machu tamjong tamjoa chenjong sotpi anacheng masajo ahijeh uvin amao thuchu bailam tah’a ijakaija anajop bailam theiju ahunghi.Kum 1400 valjel kikhentel khahjeh ahin kimuto kitlangin sopikhat hikhahding lamchajong agelpha josang umlouvin ahung kiume.

BUNG-XIII
ANGLO  KUKI  WAR
1917-1919
( Shakespear : The Assam Rifles )
Britiste chu ipijeh’a ana kisatna ham tijonghi ikihet chetdiu aphai.Manipur lenggam kitundoh masanga pat lengkhang 33AD-1700 AD geija Manipur lenggam sunga alengtechu chunggam mitehi anahivangun tuisanglet theida jehchun 252AD kumin chunggam mite chu tampi anapotdoh uve tichu  ihetaove, ahinla 1300 -1700 AD sungah hiche Manipur gamhi alhingsetle akimkei chu ahitapon atamjo ahindalhah joh’u ahin ahunglhung loichun Britiste satnading chu ahingonkhah kitnu ahi.Manipur keo ahipon Thadou chilhah ho khang jouvin jong gelphahlou khopmin gamlatah tahgeijin anacheh chaovun tua kiseiding pahi Indiale Burma sunga umlah a thilsoh ahi.British techu ahung thanei  chehcheh’un 1891 Kumapat manipur lengam  geijin ahin sulhu taove.Chunggam mitehi1700AD langapat Manipur lengte toh ahung kivopthei panun ahileh aleng gamu huhnan nasatah in anapangun chamlhat tah’a umnagamle hinkho man nachu British ten nople dathu umlouva eihin vaipoh khumuleh Chung gam haosahole upa hochun atheida behseh uva anasaatnu ahi, hichu chamlhat gaalsat dihtah mongmong anahichu ihetchet diu angaije. Meilheiten Britishte anga surrender anabollou vangun kho nungin freedom  Govt. anajoptaovin Chunggam miten vang Britishte komah surrender anabol pouvin  India freedom jong tunigeijin akijopnathu aumkhapoi. 
Achom nathei chanin seijuhite  nampi minthan napenle gaal anakisat lah’a anasapen ahi.Britishtehi inathei dalheh taove.Amahon alekhasut naovajong labour corp toh ahung kitojeh a kipaome  ahibouvin eithei danao asottaan doudinghi kigomong anahiuve tin asun’ nuve.Hiche gaalhi nile thumin kiseijinte sapte recordna vangchun  “punitive war”, chule “Kuki rebellion “atiuve. Hiche sapte douding thuhi March 1917 langa patchun mun tamthim tah-a kikhopna kihouna ana neitaove chubanin British tenjong lunglhai sella akhoh dungjuija kisei ahijeh a labour corpma achetei nadiova chu aphatnathei channa dinga anaseiju ahi. Chule hichehi history of Assam Rifles jihpa L.W. Shake spear lin Kuki and the south Chinhills rebellion 1917-1919 tia ajih a konakhu kila ahi.Hichi gaal thudolla kibol jousehi ama sutpahi abulpi ahi ajehchu amahi  operation commander ahi.
Chule Assam Rifles kiti hohi gaal kipat masang lhathumbep machu Military Police ahinaova kona Assam Rifles tia ahin khellu ahi. Sapte noija umcheh ihijeh un Burma langa hojong Burma Rifles atiovin Chin hills Rifles jong ana ume tillachu Military Police ana kiticheh ahiove. Chule hiche gaala dinga sanction anakibol Sepaichu Manipur langa 2400 ahin Burma langachu 3000 ahin abona 5400 anahiove. Chunggam haosa hotoh anakihou sap pachun alung lhailou manin mi anamoh hohsaal saallin ahinla amachu PA anahi vangin labour corp hotoh France langah asoltha taove. Ahungkhel pachun phaten mi ajollin atoh manujong apehdio thu aseijin ahi.1916 langa jongchu mundanga hochu anapui panu ahitan 1917 nachu Manipur chunggam miholah chu ahin phah ahi.
Hicheto kilhonchun chunggam  haosa hotoh akihou kitnin (Mombi atijiukhu Lonpi ahi) Lonpi haosapu Ngulkhuple Longja haosapu Ngulbul ahung kiphin doh lhontai. A’umdanhi Manipur Labour Corp jehseh hilouva Kuki levy kiti 1850 kum langajong Cachar gamapat anagoi juva hiche  genthei naho jousechu ana lungnat nao hung hiphapeh dan anahi. Hijeh achu Lonpi haosapu Ngulkhup jongchun Britishte jop aumleh a’in kihalding a’insung mitegeija kithat gamding tigeija thu anasei ahi.Longja haosapu Ngulbul jongchun hitabangma  a’chu anabolsa ahi.
 Hitichu anahijeh a’chu 21st  Sept.1917 ni’a chu “Sajaam” hung kilhah a thing khole malcha kikanbeh  chu hunglhung  ahitai.Hiche kikhopna’ a haosa anajao hochu Pu Khotinthang Jampipa. Tintong Laijangpa, Songchung Sangnaopa, Lunkholal Chongjangpa, Letkhothang Loikhaipa, Vumngul Tujangpa le achapa Lhunjangul, Enjakhup Kholhou Thenjol, hichenghi ahiuvin akihouvuleh aseimou vin, adatmocheh taovin, achuti phatnin Pu Tintong Laijangpa ahung dingdoh in akiminlah in ameithalchu akaapmin kameichang le kameilou umlaisen nung chon ponge ahinti jengleh seibebe umtalouva luong lhajel ahitaovin atillachu saapte toh akikisatle akijojou dingle akijojou louding lepkah na’a hitihi hunginte tia aleljoding langchu ahung hiteidio chu aseiju ahin bolda taote kichaat aume  atio ahipon hiche  laitah’a chu Pu Tintong ahung pokeh thojengleh koima chan nopna dana thusei umbetalouva  long lhajel ahitaove. 
Ajehchu atheida jeh’uva saat nomna lungthim neicheh kikhom anahitaove. Hicheho lah’a Pu Tingtongchu aloiho hetpeh louva kisuon nakhat ananei ahi. Ahomkeo hijongleh Pu Lalpi seidanin gaalbolding thuhi mun tamthima kona ahung kikhop masangu chun Tingtongle thempu pachun twiluong diil chu vohcha khatnin agakat lhonin alol a’atna diil sungachu athi agah lonlut sahle diil sungachun kuonga (Ship) dimsetna gaalmanchah abaan bana ahung kitol chu amutai.Hiche a konachu thilhaten eipan pidio ahi tia lungthima kinemtah le kisong tah’a um ahijeh’a chu mi dangin ahetlou vanga amachu kon ipi aseivanga olmo louhel ahi tin anaseije. Thempuchu ahile keima pupa tahchu anahin dawi thiemtah ahichu kanunghet bepme. Chuleh hiche kikhopna achun Chengjapao Aisan pale Lhukhomang Chahsatpa ajao lhonpoi. “Sajaam kitihin ipithuchu hijongleh  ahung kithotna thudolla chu  ajeh apol seibebe umlouva hinkho phalnagei hijongle panding, juijengding tina ahin, thingkho le malcha kikanbeh hin athuhi thukhoh tah ahitai tina ahi. Hiche ban’nahin Pu Enjakhup Kholhou Thenjolpa hin  Sangnao khomunah kikhopna khat anasem kitnin hiche a hin Chengjapao Aisanpa, Lhukhomang Chahsatpa, Suut mang Kanjangpa ajaovui.Hiche nihin Sutmang Kanjang pan amao phungsung tha lhengin Sielmei abantanin hichu gaalla kajopdio ahi tina ahi.Hiche thuhohi abaanbana ajah phatnin P.A pan Oktaan nah haosaho chu akouvin alhiemin ju ahomin ahileh aginmo haosa hochun akilah pouve.Hichun haosa hochu aki thukop mun Jampipale Aisanpa chu lengpa komah asollun thinglhaang gam khantou machal ahahsat thu agaseisah un amanijong ahungdoh pailhontai. Thuguhhi haosaho chun kumbul langa anagon jingsao ahitai. Hinla saptechu avaihom naole achale naochu munjousea kibang jinglou ahin hijeh achu umna muncheh achu amaho thua nunglouhel dinga umsa ahitaove. Ahinphah masah uchun adoumasah jengding chu ahitaove. 
1917 kum malam machun DIG Assam rifles chun S.P Chinhills akonin thudoh khat ahung kibollin Chinle Lusei border vella itabang boina dingle  boinathei thu nahet nem ahungkitin ahileh DIG chun kahepoi Zongling kiti Arakan vella maap gama thu themkhat kija tilou ti-in adonbut nin ahileh chuche akihoulhon joutah pung 12 dontah kitnin thukin dolla thuthot khat ahung lhungpai kitnin Falaam makonin Shillongah Chinhills HQ stationah thu ahung lhungin Chinhills lhanglangah gaal akipantai Haka stationchu aumkimvel taove  gangtah in kithopiding hinsollin ahungkititai. DIG chun Capt. Falkland 1stAR commandant Aizawlla umchu Sepai 150 toh Haka mun agan nathei chana lhungdin thu apetan ahi.Nichomkhat jouvin Falaam makonin Kithopi ngai chatna thukin ahunglhung kitnin ahileh, Capt. Montifiore le sepai 150 3rd AR Kohima pachu asolkittai.
Hitobang chun Aisanpale Jampipan Lengpa inna kona ahung kiledoh joulhon chomkhat sungin Loikhaihon Britisht officer khatle sepai ni athatnun aluchu puon vomin atomun Jampi haosapu innah ahin polutnun ahileh haosapu ana umlou jeh chun upa danghochun alonaje  ahetlou jeh un Khaochangbunga gollhangni asollun akicholdona muna chun aga hetsah taove. Hiche thu ahet phatnin Aisanpale Jampipa chu Jampi langah ahung lhonin Pu Khotinthang chun Bolsol khoa Sielkhat agachon gaallu chu vailhunna abollin hiche velchun Kuki hochun meithal 70 aneijun chuleh asembe beuve.
Tintongle Enjakhup chun gollhangho gaalboldan ahil lhonin chule khojouse chu meiloule meichang akisemtoh uva akigot nadiovin athupeh lhonin, thih thembol hole thalsemthei jousenjong abolthei chana kigotna aneidiovin athulhah lhonin chule PuLenkhokam Chongloi Haf longpa jongchu meithal sem thiemtah le feltah ahijeh chun amachu ajochanna semjeng dingin anganseovin ahileh phat chomkhat sungin amanchah kham setnu asemdohtai akiti. Chule lampi akhohlaiho ah songkhai thaang asemun, gopum savunin atomchah un pumpi asemun khopijouse chu thaw akaijun chule sounang akaanun nasatah in akigotaove kiphinna neochacha anaum jongleh hettheitah a kiginna ana umkhalou ahin akigot lhingset phatnun Lonpile  Longja langtoh, Hengleple Ukhalang ahung kithouvin 17th Dec.1917 nihin Itol Police station abulutaove. 
Chule Burma lang lamlen jong akhah taove.Rest house ho asuseovin Chowkidar pa athatnun telegraph line asuseuvin ahileh Imphalla konin sepai loini ahungin 4th AR 80 cheh ahiovin loikhat chu Lt. Halliday lamkaina ahin P.A. Patoh Lonpi langah acheovin, loikhat kitchu Capt. Coote le Lt. Hooper lamkaina ahin, amani loihochu Henglep langah acheovin Lt. Halliday chu Chakpi vadung agalkaijin Lonpichu agabulu leh akulchu adetnin ahileh anokeh joupon mithum athiuvin phabep akisukhaovin ajolou phatnin Imphal langah akilekittai.Capt. Coote vangchun ahinjouvin Ukha miho jongchu ahin sugepmin ahi.Athuhi akiseile akiseitha vangin Lonpi langkaichu octoberlang ahitai.
Aban’na dingin DIG in jetleveja AR holeh Burma langaho geichu thu apen lamlenpang  khoholeh gaalbol khojouse ahaal lhahloi, ajeploi chehjeng jungin aboltai.Hiche thusoh hi nikhat  nini  sungin Burma gamle India gam lentah sungah akithang loitai. Manipur la operation chu hopli in akihomin, chule hiche dungjui chun gaal lamkai jong hitihin ana kihome.
(1) Jampi area: 
Major Marshal, Lt. Walker, Capt. Montifior chuleh Lt.Needham.
(2) Henglep area: 
Capt. Goodal Capt. Fox, Lt.Carter
(3) Lonpi area : 
Capt. Coote, Lt. Askwith
(4) Chahsat area :  
Capt. Perry, Capt. Black
Chunggam mitelang Jampi gamkaija ana lamkai hochu Tintong, Enjakhup, Khotinthang ahiuvin amaho lah’a sepai lamkai chu Enjakhup chu anahin, ana kihabolnao munle khohochu Loibol, Leima tak;Khopum, Khimuching, Laijang, Dulen chule Kanakin ahiovin gentheina dimset ahitaove. Chule Mjor Vickers leh Lt. Sanderson sepai 150 toh Hanema jonin April 1918 hin lampile thuboi tampi semjang dinga Aimol ajotpet nuhin Bolkot komah ana  tingun sapte sepai khatjong akaaplih uvin akisukha jong aume.
Laijang jona ache naovahin numei nile pasalkhat to akitoh un pasal pachu aman’nun akaitaove. Jampi langa cheding ahiovin ahaosapu uchun mi 40 toh achaang taove tithu ajaovin Mn.Lengsei Lenthangin achangseh in sap sepai 4 akaaplih in ahinla amachu amanun akaijuvin ahileh amelma hon anop nopma aboldio deilou jeh in akaipa tuhkhuh tahchu apetnin ahileh alamkai paochu alunghangin alol abantan sahtai.Aluong chu adalhah uleh aloihon Talolong mun nakhun avuitaove. Pu Mangkhothang Sitlhoule Pu.Vumjalal Kipgen nin chamna aum nadin thil angaito lhonin hinla aphachom joutapoi.
Sepai hochun Talolong ahin hopakit naovachun Khuhsai thahkhat umchu amu phatnun asugenthei paochu hikha dingham ti aginmojeh uchun akhomi hochu akhotdoh sah uleh anahi phatnin alung hangun akhochu ahaal lhaovin akulpiu gamlatah’a umjong chu abuluvin sepai hojong mili athilouve.Abannin Buning langa achekit nuleh ahaosapu Thangjakai chun doulouding tin numei chapangho asolmangin pasal jengseh toh jubel atungin kelcha khatjong ahenin kichamding deinachun ahinlah sapte sepai hochu akigin lounao langtah a ahung sohdoh un khosung langchu ahinkap paijeng taovin ahileh dou dinga kigo louhel anahijeh uchun ima anabol thei tapouvin ajam mangtaove. Hiche phatchun akhochu ahaal lhataove.Abanin Kawl kaang  Khopi jonin acheo vin ahileh kolkanghi molchung ahijeh in songkhai thaang anasemun ahin sattan khumuleh sepai20athiuvin hinla apangjou pouve. Abanin Sangnao abulu kitnuleh phat sot-thim akihabol jouvun agaal lamkaiju Letkolal  Singsonle Onkai Sitlhou hin haosapu komah luut taohite tia asei lhonleh haosa puchu anop phatnin aluut taove. Hiche phatchun sepai Commander pachun Dk.1000/- Sielchal nga, Dahpi khat, Meithal gup, min aleosah’e. Sangnao hi kholen ahin kisuon piule ana lungmon piu loi ahin ulenao lunggel chu athalhom sah lhehtaove.
Haipi bulu dinga achekit nuleh ana pang ngam tapouvin Ngulkhotinpao Kipgen hi kelkot komah akisellin sepai lah’a Commander sapkang pachu akaplih in hijehchun kipamanin la khatjong abolle. Abankitnin Dulen abulukit nuvin ahileh Dulenten top asemu chun ahin kaapmun ahileh sepai ni akaplih un chujou kitnin Nakachieng buludin achekitnun ahileh suongkhai thaang ngahpa chu nomtah in ana ihmun ahileh amanuvin akho jongchu hahsalou tah in ajoutaove.
Abanin Chongjangle Kumpung nga chun akisaat nuvin akhonei langho thum athiovin li akisukhai.Thu kijadanin alha sam lhehtaovin, Tingtongle Enjakhup jong Tengou kho’a chule Lenkhokam Chongloi chu Zoute khoah akiselluve tijehchun Zamedar Bokul Thapa hin Dongpu Lambu patoh sepai 50 akipuijin agahollin ahileh Tintongle Enjakhup chu anajaam mang lhontan Lenkhokam Chongloichu ahin mantaove.Ahin chomkhat jouvin Tintongle Enjakhup jong Tingkai kho a aman nuvin, amani amatnuva patnin gaalchu athiphuoi hoi jenge anatiove.
LONPI  AREA : Pallen le Sugunuhi Britishten pansat namuna ananeiju ahin chule manchah jouse kholna a aneiju ahi.Chule potpoho jongchu seven pounders mountain guns pohle kapjejong ahil themun Imphal le Tamu lampi kikhah hojong ahongdoh uvin 17.10.1917 ninjong Capt. Coote le Lt. Higgins lamkainan Longja khojong ahaal lhataove. Naphou khunou langah achekitnun akikap touvin sepai thum  akisukhaove,hichechu lamtou ache petnu ahin Naphou khunou gaalmu nabep machun anakap kitnun sepai thum akisukha kitnun sepaiho chu achiepeh kitnun Napphou khunou chu asumang taove. Nikhat nini jouvin Tujanglang ajotsuh uleh ana chaangun ahinkap muleh Capt. Coote loiho sepai li  akaplih taove, chule akisukha jong aumbe kitnuve.
Sepai athah hunghotoh Capt. Coote chu Lonpi langa ahunguleh anating kitnun khonichu abaanchaan ahaal lhataove. Chubanin vadung langah achesuh un Kaika kiti Anal kho a akaldoh un Khailet jonna achenaovah gaalpal nasatah ana umin Steadmen chun abulu jengleh sepai somlekhat athi in Steadman jongchu akiha suhkhah lheh e. Higginle DIG chu Aihang kho geijin achelhonin haosapu Seilet Haokip le miphabep ahinman lhonin Sugunu campmah ahinpui lhone, Police station buluna’a jaodinga aginmojeh u ahi.
HENGLEP AREA : Kuki gaalbol hochun Govt. rest house chu asumangun Silchar road langa road jongchu achamin akikhah taan ahileh, Major Cootele sepai jakhatchu akonkit nuvin Loibuol munnah akikap touvin hiche gamkaija lamkai chu Pakang Henglep’pa chule Semchung Ukha haosa pu ahin Ukha kulpi sungachu Seilkhat atha lhona asepai lhonchu avahlhona atilkhou lhon ahi. Nasatah in akikap touvin pung somleni tabang hengtamle Ngaljang khotenin jong akithopi lhonne. Capt. Goodal leh Lt. Carter lamkainan habollin abollun Hengleple Ukhachu ahaal lha taove.
CHAHSAT AREA : Chahsat gamkaija Lamkai hochu PuLhukhomang Chahsatpa, Tong khothang, Maokotpa, Letkhothang Khotuh pa, Semkholun Phaisatpa, Phaipi tolkon sapsepai dounading tiin la abollun aki hanlho uvin kulpi nasatah asemuvin ahin bulu phatnuvin aki habollheh jenguvin British officer thumjong athiin ahinla Govt. chun Lt. Molesworth bou thidanin aseiju ve. Chahsat, Molnoi, Maokot, Phaisat, Kongkan thana chule adangdang le Chahsat jotlangin sepai thum  athiuve. Chahsat kulpichu adetlheh in khodang dangho kithopi najalchun, hinla sepaiho jongchu kigomuva ahijeh uchun atamun  eimi hochu somthum athiovin sepaijong ni  athi.
BURMA SUNG : Haka Station chu  Kherkha hon asumang taove tithu chu ahung lhung tan 1stAR Aizawlla um  Capt. Falkland chu sepai 150 toh Haka gangtah a lhungdingin DIG in thu apen DIG jong Imphallah achesuh in thil gongtup dingle operation hatsahbe nadingin, chule Burma langa chehonjong ahin kithopi nadiovin thu apen Molvailup mah nasatah in akikap touvin Capt. Falkland lamkaina a AR holeh MP ho kigom ahiovin sepaihochu munkhat na akicholdo petnun chun top asemu khatchu thingphung khatnah akanbeh un guhthimin Helkholam Kipgen chu akap dingin anganseuvin agah kapleh amajong thingphung noilangah alenglha jengin JCO khat jaonan sepai somni athi.
NAGA HILLS : Kanjang khochu buludingin 3rd AR hochu sapte officer khat lamkainan acheove. Hichemun  nahin Aisanpa Chengjapao a’ume tijong ahetnu ahi. PuHaolun Lotjemhi anaki sellin British Officer pachu akaplihtai. Sepai hochu achuti phatnin akinungle taove. Sepai hochun Kanjang khochu akicha thimlheh un haptani kithopina angah tauve. A’umdanchu amaho chun  meithal jongchu gup sehbou aneiju anahi.Gojuh nikhat hin ahinbulu kittaovin ahileh Nguljalen Kanjangpa hin lelnakhat hung umkhante tin Chengjapao chu kulpi homkah’a asoldohtan chule  Suutmang  Singson chun Vahuong Camp geijin agathah e. Sepai hochun ahinjou taovin amanchah jouseo achomgam taovin chuleh Chengjapao jongchu aholdoh uvin aman taove.Hiche nichu 23rd August 1918 ahi. 
UMDAAN PHABEP : Hiche chunggam mite thusima gaal thupi penna kisaat nathu ahijeh hin phabep a’umdan gahseibeu hite. Govt. nin record abol dung juijin, abaan banin, Indian Officer khatle rifle man 34th athin, kikaptona’a Indian officer 8 akisukhan, rifleman 47 jong akisukhai, dam mojeh in rifleman 84 athiin, sepaiho nungjui 7 athii in 393 damlou jeh in athii. Burma sunga officer khatle rifleman 99th athii.
Chuleh kho 86 akisumangin kho 112 ahung kipelutnin  chubanin kho 15th akhomiten adalhaove.Hitihin record abol luve, ahinlah agam agama hiche gaalla anapangho seidanin lekha a anasutlutlou vangun kachenalang langa thului heho kadohji a kalung thima kagah suhtojileh amaho record bolna’a athi”e kiti jousele akisukai kitijouse  khu kikaptona’a eimiho kaplih hileh hung kitoh bepdin kahei. Chuti ahileh abona 673rd hi athii ahiove kitileh dih inte. Chuleh jaampi a kikhopna achu sabaneh abollun Sajaam jong alhah uvin Thing khole malcha kikan nikhochu 21st Sept. 1917th chu ahi. Hitichun gaalchu 20th May 1919th nihin akichaitai. Jail’la umhojong asunga thu atin atang tampi akidalhai eihodia bailamtahle achom lamtah a hetbai lam dinga kasut ahibouve. Chule amaho recordna kimu dungjuija kisatna munle  aminho kagah koibe nomin, chule hetnapha khatchu surrender holeh khosung dalha, ajam mangho ajaosah pouve. Hiche kisat namunle akhomin hochu noijahohi ahiove.
Dulen, Chanakin, Laijang, Kebuc hing, Khopum,Loibol, Henglep, Ukha, Naatjang, Hengtam, Hakka, Lonpi, Tolbung, Kengoi, Rekchu, Chahsat, Molnoi, Kangal Thana, Chatik,Dansagu,Kalewa,Kongke, Hoondung ahiove.Map kipe akhun kikaptona munhochu cross mark akipei. Geldoh beding khatchu akidounao huopse hibou chunggam mite chen’na ahipoi, anadou khaho gamkaile amiho kiseibou ahi.
AKILOIkhom  THEILOU PEN : India chamlhat nading natoh-hi kum somko lhingset alutne. Chamlhat-hi thisana anachoh mong mongu ahi. Kipumkhatna chu asotchanna hatcheh cheh jinga hung lolhing ahiove. Indiate hitua Kukiho phungthua akilang khen maimaiju hitoh akibang poi.Amahohi mihem jong atamin lengjong amun munah tampi ana umin vannoi thanga analoupi jong anatame. Chubanin Hou atamin jaatlenle jaatneo a’umin achungchonin chuon na daan jat tampi umnalah ahi. Hichu kimuto ngai lou, nekhom ngailou, khat umna a khat um’ngailou chule khatle khat kithiet’ to,numeijong ajipa angsung geija puon kikhu khum, jaat’khatle jaat khatjong kichengto ngailou, loikhat chu miloupiloi hiuva loikhat chu insunga lutdinga jong phallou  hitobang hi aumin pankhom, kithu khat kipum khat dingchu gelphah jong ahipoi.Hitobanga umhi leiset chung mun dang gamdanga kimujou loudin ginchat aume. India miho banga gop khom hah dinghi  vaan’noi chitinle namtin lah’ah adang um’min te tijong katahsanpoi.
CHAMLHAT   LOUPIDAAN : Ipijeh a chutabang mitechu akhang akhanguva chutia umte chu hibangse achu hung kipumkhat kha hiovam, ibola aloupi naole akimanlut sahnao jousechu ahin dalhah uva lengho geija mipitoh kibah nomna lungput aneithei jengu hintem? apankhom louva aumchanu alha louvuleh koima alenle alal chule aloupi umchom louva abonuva soh hichehdio ahichu amujeh uva amahole amaho kikah kiletdelchu kingailutna’ a  ahin khellu ahitai.Hichu mi suoh a um sanga sopikhat kingailut na’a chamlhat mikhat hichu aloupidan ahin mujeh’u ahunghi. Hichan-gei hidoh nadinga mipi hinheitoh thei lamkaija hungpang dohjou hohi pachat changlou thei ahipouvin,  amahohi ahiove Indiate dingabou hilouva vannoija mihemte hinkho’a dinga mimanlu kitichu. Chihnan jolel bollel aneipoi.
BRITIST TE HUNGLUT APHATCHOM NA : India gamsunghi leng thanei nagama kum sottah ana umsa ahin chuleh India’gam thusimhi ivetleh tanglouva gaal kisatna jengseh anahi.Tua NEI ahin, Burma’gam ahin, Mani pur’gam ahin, hitabanga chu taanglouva gaal ana umjingchu anahi 1600AD kum mapat East India company ahunglutnin chuakonin Britist thaneina chun Indiagam pumpihi ahinlosoh in Manipur, Burma geijin amao thaneina noijah aki umcheh  tai.Hiche’a konhin jaatlen jaatneo abon chaan amaothu palkehjou umloujeh hin koimacha gaalbol gaalkuon umthei louding tin ahin khaamun ahile apalkeh ngam umlou jeh in gaalbol ahung umthei tapoi hiche jonghi gamsunga dinga chamna lentah ahung umdohtheina khat ahi. Chubanin India gam sunghi Chiile nam tam’nagam ahivangin lekha thakhat nin ahung kisimkhom theijin gamdang chihnale hetna chule chihna dangdangjong saotah ahin kineidoh theijin natoh thakhat ahung kitong khomin chihnale hetna saotah ahung umdoh theijin, chubanin India sunglam pumpi’a chiile nam jousen amao theidajeh in kihot kithiet ahin pailhaovin thakhatnin lungletha ahinje khomun gampumpi nam pumpi lungkhat nin ahin kingailuthei sohkeijin chiilenam mi hijathi lung khatnin ahung kilongkhom theitai.
Hiche lungthima konhin dettah in ahung kipang khomin kum 90th jen lutnin ahung kikiloikhom theijin asotchanin kiloi khom nachu adetcheh cheh in kingailut nale kipumkhatna ahatcheh cheh in ahung kilolhing tai. Akalvallin  hichelai sungahin missionary ho ahung lutkitnun huhhingna thupha ahinpolut kitnuve. Hiche akon’na tugeija Indiate aphat chomnao kitchu “Sati” kiti hindute daan lentah numei chu ajii athiteng nopleda umlouva agothajiu, chuleh thempuhon lhasehleh naosen uh-hoilai kithenso nadinga  vadunga alelut jiohi ahin, govt. thaneina in ahinkhah uvin tugeijin amahon jong abolkit tapouve. Hitichun hinkho dollinjong chamlhat ahung umphatnin Monarchy lang lung thim koiman aneitapon govt. chu ahung kisemding phatnin mijouse right kibah nading ahin khohsah theijun daanjouse hoitah in ahinsemun tunigeijin namlen namneo kinoisena, kihotbolna umlouvin mijouse mipi kivaipohna noijah lung mongtah in aumtheitai.Hichehin leiset pumpia India gamhi gam nompenle kivai pohna nompen ahinsosah ahitai.Britiste jallin mijousen gamlenam ngailutje pankhomje ahin kigeldoh in akikhohsah in, tuhin vannoija govt. lah’a ahaatloile akhangtou loitah ahitai.Amaho hunglut hin Indiate dingin chihna, ngailutna, kipumkhatna, lolhinna ahin polutnin asangthei tedingin tonsot hinkemlou geijin aumdohtai. Hichehi giltah a igelleh Britiste hunglut hi seijoulou khopma thilpha ahilam geldoh louvin aphat monao jeng sehbou igeldoh jiuhi adihpoi eina engbol nau jouse akona agammite in khonung geija dinga thilpha geldoh theina aman simjoulou chihnapha eipeh u agam miten ilung sunguvaa ichamuva ihin kigeldoh theinao hungkon dohnajoh ahin, tunigeija songmantam banga hinkho ineijule gamnomtah ineijuhi ahunghitan, igeldoh theiju angaije.Amaho jallin adeh in Hindute dingin damtheinale hamphatna lentah aum nalaije. 
 Adeh in numeihon gelthem muleh  Christianity lampihi bailamtah’a ajopdiu ahin, kum asot phatna vangsetah dinmuna dingah anahilamu ahetlouvu ahitai. Chubanin amaho jallin road and communication bailam saan aumin khonunga khantou machaal navahna lentah jong a’ umsaan ahung ume.Britiste hunglut khah hi aphatchuom na seijoulou ahibouve.

BUNG-XIV
CHUNGGAM   MITE   PHATNA
( Chunggamis life’s experience )
Chunggam chenna patnin amite jong 
hin Lampi tamtah a analungput daan nuva hin min eingaichatna thudolla lolhingtah’a gapan pihi khangjousea lung pitah ananeinao khatchu ahung hipeh e. Chubanin ahinkho manu jonghi muntina aumna jouseovah haosa a kivaipohna nei jingte ahunghi peh’e, tunigei jonghin, hitobang machun Chief Right  Britist Govt. khanga pat eikipejing nalaijun malai bangin khochen akibol nalaije.Dihtah mongin tunigeija achen’nao gamjonghi giltah’a asungthuhi  igelleh Govt. gam ahipon, Independent country a chenga ahibouve.Hinla Govt.gam ahipon Cunggam mite gamchu ahi kitijongleh mipi kivaipohna gamvang ahipoi.Itihle chamlhat mipi Govt.khatna umthei  tithuvang akisei theipoi.Tua achenna gamu jonghi International gam atouphau ahinalaije.Gah nungseijep leuhen chung gam mitehin achenna chan nuva sopi ulenao chenkhom pihon akhohna dungjui ja angaichat naovah tuneigeijin ahin panpijing peh uve.16th-17th century sunghin chunggam mite lah’a loikhatchu athumvei channan Manipur gamahin ahunglut kitnuve. Hiche khanga jonghin agam lengpatoh ana kingailuvin alung dona lentahtah aumteng angaichat dungjuijin anakithopi jiuve, hijeh achu Manipur gam jonghi phaicham tilou thinglhang gam pumpi hi kipana jalla anapehdoh khah ahi.Milongte lah’a Tamenglong langkai thuah gahseileuhen hichelang gama anathanei jachu chung gam mite lah’a Sitlhoute anahiuvin chuchi gamlanga milong chenghochu milong danghon anop nopmin ajii achateo geijin anakichep naovin,hijehchun inchen kho sahjejong ana hetapouve.Achuti phatchun amahon chunggam haosaho hengachun panpina ana thumun hiche dungjuichun anapan piovin lungmong tah in anakhosa theitaove.Chunggam mihon jong ngailut tah in anapuihoijun Pathen thujong anahillun anahousah un, Bible geijin analedoh peh uve.
Asopihou milong mamaan anatha gamnao khoho jongachun haosahon mi anasollun  akhomun nuvachun chii akhai peh un achenpiuleh hitichun acheng paipaijun hicheho sechu 1970’geichun milongho lah a kachanaga anatiuvin amaho chengse khu ahiuve chunggam mite.A banin Ukhrul langsang jong gahsei kitleuhen hichelanga anathanei chu Haokipte anahi kitnun Tamenglong langa bangchun hilangaho jonghi amaho gaallin anakichep naovin lungmonga inchen khosah umthei louvin ana umun, hijeh chun  chunggam haosaho hengah panpina ana ngehkitnun hiche dungjuichun ama honjong anagimpi kitnuvin ahileh lung mongin ahung inchengthei kitnun hiche jalchun kai kitichu chunggam haosaho chu aneloijong ana ummuve. Hiche jal-hin milong tampi eimi kisoh aum kitne. Abankitnin Maolangkai jong gahseikit leuhen hichelanga ana thanei kitnachu chunggam miho lah’a Kipgenho ahikit nuve. Hitabang machun maolang milong hojong aumkitnun ahileh chunggam haosaho koma panpina ana thuum kitnun hiche dungjuichun amahonjong anapanpi kitnuvin nasatah in gaal anasaat peh uvin hiche a konchun lungmong tah in ahung chengthei kitnuve. Hitabang thusim ana umjeh hin tukhang geijin milongho lah a Sitlhoute ngailuloi, Haokipte ngai luloi, Kipgente ngailuloi hitihin aum nalaijin hichu hitabang malai hinkho jeh achu   umdoh ahung hipeh nalaije.
Gahseibe kitleuhen 18th century AD bullangchun  chunggam sadar hills  sunga jonghin sopi Nepalite khat khatnin ahung vahlut kitnuvin ahileh mundangah koima chan achensah nompouve ,ahin milung dongte khotojing chunggam haosahon anapan piuvin ngailuttah in anachensah un amahojong lungmong tah in tuni geijin achenguve.Agancha vahnadiu, aloulho nadiu akimanchah nadiu abonchan  nomtah in avetsui peh un migilouho geijin ahonbit peh ‘uve. 
Hitihin ulenaoho lungsetnale  ngailut nahi chenkhompi jouse chungah ananei jun amahojong anakipah cheh ‘uve. Achung chonin political dollin Nagaland state delnanjong akipangin, Manipur state delnanjong akipangin, Mizoram  delnan jong akipangin, Indiate chamlhat delnan jong akipangin, Britistejong agalsat naova agakipanpin ahinla 1917-1919 sunga chunggam huhna Britiste anakisat vangchun tunigeijin political chamlhatna thule chenna gamthu aumhih laije. Chen khompi sopihon India union sungah state aneigam taovin hinlah chung gam miten hichetabang dinmun ulenaotoh kikhenna kitum sahnabep  lungthim chu anagel nom pouvin akideichu dinmun lentah ahingaal louleh tihi tunigeija lungputchu ahinalaije. Hinlah sopi ulenao chenkhom piho lungputdanhi inmunkhat chenmun khat neijousen koimacha gelphah louding tihi ahicheh kitnin mikitumsah le miki chang chuun nomloute chu tuhin aumnao channa ahotbolcheh uleh malaija  milung set jingtechu tuhin ana panpisahou jousen amaohi isahlou tahle hamhoitho na abolkhum gammun adiuva anaphat naole amaho vanga hinkho ana neithei nahou adiuva ana phatnaoho jousehi suhmiltei johdingin agellun phatnale lungset nachu sietna joh in alethuhgam taove. 
Ahinlah thilpha kanabolpeh uve neisaovin geldoh uvin tinjong koima chungah akiseidehpoi.Ajehchu chunggam mitehi alungneo  khapouvin political lama dinmun phale lampi phapentah tunigeija mangtheilou neinalaile umnalai chule boltheinalai ahijeh un min  asuhgenthei hou jonghi thupitah injong agel behseh pouve. Ahinla kitumsahna neinom louhel tehi sopi ulenaoten nopleda umlou khop ma abolgamtah jeh uvin ahin geldoh thei pantaove. Chunggam mitehi koikoihi hiuvam tihi kihet chetjong angai jin itobangbang thusim neitele itobang bang dinmun neite ahiuchu khat veileh hung kilang teiding ahi keigel danin  anaai lamtai politics maimai jong hiponte. Chule achandiu  gam umdol jonghi amao thuthua bou kingamding ahi. 


BUNG-XV
CHUNGGAM  MI’TE  KUON  NALE  CHELE’ CHENLENA

1. Chunggam mite kitilonahi Pu Chongthu khuulla kona ahung kaldohchun nom asalheh’in agakaldoh ahijehchun Chunggam tin asahpaijenge, Chunggam kagamu tin aseijitan koima akilekit aum tahlou jeh’in khuulkon jousechu tugeijahi Chunggama chengcheh ahinalaije. Achien’nao masachu Noimang khopi anatiuve. Chuche noimang khopichu achangseh ahipon kho tamthim chu anaumin aminhou jongchu tunungin kibangloutah in akiseitai.Hiche kho tamthim hohi kageldanin Babylon gama Shinar phaichu ahidem ahilouleh tua China langjoh ahidem kaginchatna akibange.
2. Khuul kitia kiseijing pahi missionary vahlepa khat RR. Khieng seina’a kona kajah danchun khuulko muna ka umpetchun songbang khatna chun songchangin akijih in Kailash mountain molbulla konchun mile 40 tin akisune ati. Chule keichun kadohnom hochu abaan banin kadongin leikochu itabangam chule ichangei naga lutnam, asungchu itabangam, chubana khuulpaam hochu itabangam katileh mile kisun jongchu akitemong ahipon ginchat dollin tia kisun ahin khuulko sungachun keichu mile’khat nailam kagalutnin khuulko bulchu alenin akosung jongchu alenin anaam jenjunin tuining akaije ajehchu agamchu leiset akimupon buhbangin a-opkhumin asunga kagalutchun kachesao joulou nachu mu athimin torch jong avahtheipon hinla kaphahna chan’gei vangchu anomin hiche kosung thuhi sapte numei khatnin ajih in amachu hiche khuul thudolla kholgilpen hidin aume tin aseije. Amanu vangchun midanga koninjong hetbethei chanjong holbentin miho hetnajouse’a konin sunintin lhingpen ninte keichu guntah’a kigoa gavejong kahipoi hinla amanjong ichan’gei sunjongleh hilaijahin hitihin akipanin hichelaijah asohdoh’e tichanvang neijoudeh ponte ati.Chuleh Tibet tenjong hiche khuulla konahi hungdoh kahiuve tin aseijuve atikitne.
3. Nepal kiti thucheng khu Tibet’te paova kisah ahin lenlhah tina ahi Chunggam mitehi hiche Nepal phaichama khu ana lhunguva abankitna gangetic phailanga khu kithon pheiphei kitnuva gangetic phaijakhu anacheng ahiuve. Thusimho achun hindustan hohi India ahunglut patnuhi 1500 BC ahin chule amaholhun masangin Chunggam mitehi ana umtaove akiti. Hichehohi kavet kahleh Chunggam mite gangetic’phai ana lhunuhi 1600 BC langchu ahidem 1500 BC langchu ahidem hetchet dingin ahahsatai hinla ipichu hitajongleh 1500 BC donvang hinte.
4. Thusima kona aum dingdan kimudollin chunggam mitehi amun amunachu ama ama lamkai hole abullapatna ana mopohou dungjui jachu abihbih’a ana khochengun akimui ajehchu iinsungho jongchu thisanin thakhat hijongleo tahsachu iinkon’le iinchen kikhensa anahitaovin aloiloija umchu ahitaove. Pu Chongthu loihin khuulsung thusima jongchun phoipi ahinvopmun hiche minhi muntinah apotaove Phoite-Poite tihin.
5. Noimang khopi’a kona Chunggam hungdoh sechu inkuon sagi ahiuhi ahung kiseipeh jingin chua minchongjing hochu : a. Chongthu, b. Khupngam, c. Kolhen, d. Khupngam, e. Khasin, f. Khongthang, g. Lenthang h. Vangal @ Vangal’pahi ahiuvin chule amahohin inko ahilouleh ama nungjui dingmong agokhopset chehchu ahinkipui cheh’uve akitin hiche dungjuichun pungjong ahung pungun chule abihbih in achengjiuve.
6. Chongthu iinsungho gangetic phaija achen’nao khomun minchu Phoituh tin Brahmin lengte thusimachun akiseije hichun phoi hinpoloiho atina ahin athuchu phoi’te aseina ahin atabangachu aseidoh louvu ahitai. Hiche khopi jongchu brahminte leng khopi ahidohtai. Asunggil thuchu ahileh Chunggam mihohi anacheng masaovin abanin Aryan hohi ahung lhunguve tina ahi. Chutia Aryan hochu ahunglhun nuchun loulhoje, gancha vahjele iinchen boltheisa, chihnajong lhingsa ahitaovin hijehchun ana masaho chunggam mihochu lhepje themtah in alhemun amaho johchu lengin apangun amaho vaipohna noijachun chunggam mitechu ana umtaove.
7. Aban’na chunggam mite khopi Aryanten alokitnu chu Kolhente loi chen’na khopi ahikitne. Kolhen’loi chenna khopi jongchu akisei masapa bangma a chu abolluva Brahmin’ho johchun aleng chankhum kitnu ahi. 
 
BUNG-XVI
CHUNGGAM  MITE  GUINU THU 
(GENEALOGY)
Chung’gam mite phunggui thuhi  akhohsah jousen hollintin sunjong suninte,Guinu thudolhi keimu danin tukhanga mihem political langa thaneina kichu banga hung chesuh peh’hi atam min,chule khangsunga chenlechao jehhin thuhi amahthah atamlheh’e.Pathen tilou hitimong ahi atitheiding umponte. Penna bulpipen pahi eiholah’a guinu suut jousejong akitohpoi.Khatnin asuutle mibulchu Zo ahisah in katnin asuutle Khakhi ahisah in khatnin asuutle Mangou len ahisah in,khatnin asuutle Chin ahisah in hitihin akipel chitchetne.Keima suut danin mibulhi Chongthuhi ahijengin ajehchu Chunggam hungkaldoh geija lamkaile guinudolla mibulpena umchu amahi ahijengin hijeh hin mibulla dinga amasanga mopoding adang aumpoi. Chongthuhi mibul ahin chule ahin kilhon dohpi jouse jongchu ama insungmi ahiuvin alah uva Lenthangpa jinu jonghi Chongthu sopite ahin hitabanga chu akikhen theiloucheh chu hungki lhon khom ahiuve.Hichenga konachu aban bana hungpungsuh ihitaove.
Mibulpa Zo tia kipan pahi keimu dollin Chinate Zhou dynasty khu kiman kha ahiding kaging chai.Chule Khakhi mibulla simho jonghin Chinate Gegis dynasty amatkhah danin kamu kitne. Mangoulen mibulla seikitho jongkhun Mongolia@Mongol hi amatkhah ahiding jong kagingchai.Tua kiseiho jousehi bailamtah’a matkhahthei jengseh ahiuve ajehchu kikihalmong hihjongle kicheng khomjinga kiki hetojing ahiuve. Chung gamihohi mi thaneina sunga lutnom louhel anahiuvin hinla alutnom loile alutthei loijong aumin,chule minuoija umtheijeple umthei louheljong aumcheh’ e.Hitabang umdan jehchun milah’a lutna mang denjong aumin,thuneina chanjoulou jeh’a chaodohjing loijong aumjingin hitabanga kikhenho jonghin kinung vilto kitding jong gelphah in aneijitapouvin hiche achen khom nomlou jeh uva kikhenji ahijeh uchun phatdangle mundanga akimuto’u jongle kingailutle kihomtho sangin ana kihotboljiuve.Hitabangchu Chunggam mite hinkho mandan chu ahi.    
  Chongthu apat atingpigui hungsuh’a akingah napen Doungel tia kisei jengseh akijan, chubanin Doungel a ingamtai tithutoh akijan abanin Thalhun dinga Chongloi le Hangsing apangah hisah loijong aumin, chukitle Thalhun chate   khu Elmun, Kipgen, Haokip, tiloi hinla pom danle hetdan nilethum geija neiloi aumkitnin akisei masaho hihen akisei nukhah-ho hijongleh ibon chaovin adihnai itideh pouvin hijeh hin insung boina hohi itidanle ipijehpen ihiuham tihi kajochanin kasuut nin kamubang banga mai phavet, langnei chule doiletup tum neilouhella kasut ahi.Ajehchu penhi khanggui chung changa hin aphat dungjuija mikhat lungdeile pomdan chule tohdan anaum jingin, pon kikhukhum tho tabanghi akhang akhangin ahung umpeh in chule hichehi asungthu hitihi aume tithu toh ahung kiseitha peh in ahileh ahina dingdol mong mongchu ahinale adihna chu phondoh johding ahilou jongle record khatna aumdinghi kadeilo penchu ahi. 
Khangthu umdol-hi thilkhat chu aphaat dungjuija kimanga chule aphaat dungjuija kipaijong aumin,chule itihphaat ahivanga kipai theilou aumin paitei teiding loi khatjong aumji’e. Ahinla daan umjongle mihemin kinitlouva kihet mosah khum chubana eima lunglam ahiman’na kibol nahnah hohi khangsunga ana umjing jehhin thunohle baotam adimin chubanin thudihjong akisuh millo gamtai adih louhon aseljijeh uvin.Guinu chedollahin aneolang hohi aminpoh akikhel behseh jipon adangdang sangin abulpi penpa vanghi aminpoh ahungkikhel suhpeh teiji’e.Umdan hohi khang masale khang nukhah’a mibul-ho minjong kihaikah chule athujong thudangjepto kisimtha thucheng kimat hai ahum ahallin aum gamin akihedoh thei aumin akihedoh joutalou atamjoi. Avetsah nan Kipgen le Haokip hi apengkop-ham, ahiloule kum ijatna kisang lhonham ? chule apen nalhon anu minchu ipiham? chukitle koite chanu ham tijonghi tugeijin kinelna aumthei nalaije.Abanin Laos gam chenlai twitobin chun chunggam miten anaseiju chu malmasi chate chunggam nom jonin kachetaove anatiu ahin hichu mibul Adam chilhahte tina’a aseiju chu tun malmasi chu manmasi itidohkit phatnun pao  akimang khel akichon ahichu hepha talouvin Manaseh kiti Jacob chilhah mikhat akihi sah kitnin, gulf country lang mikhatle east Asia miho thucheng khatchu achuom beh in akisodohsah in lamvainan akineilo’e. Milong honjong Hindustan hon  pathen’ na dinga namtheng tia nang’ga kitichu bailama naga atiu hitoh akilah matnun ahileh asungthu helouva thucheng kamcheng akibah mana khatchu ahisah jengjeh un ahomkeo asolouve. 
Asungthu chu ahile Nanga kiti Hou jeh’a namtheng mindia anakisah hochu vonbeija um ahiuvin NE India langa milongho jonghi vonbeija umah ahijeh uva Britiste chun Naga ahinti khum kitnu ahunghin hinla thisan’gui thudolle khang gui thudolla hichetenihi  meichanga jong kaap-phah ahipoi.Tua eiho Chunggam mite jong Israel thisanle nampi ihina diujong chutima ahibouve.Kipgen, Haokip, chule Elmun  pen khanghi 800-600 BC sunghi hidin thusimhon apei. Amaho pen khanghin Chothe tejong avelluvah kho 3,4 langhi aumin Gaalngam jonghi amaho penjou peh mi ahin  Gal ngam penhi 250BC dontah in akiseije.
Chongthu apat atingpigui suh-hi   mibulho minhohi akhangche dungjuijin manlouvin ahung um suhpeh jitan tunjong Chongthu chu ahungsuh peh in achaina le aneopena aminpoh kingahna chu Sichaang ahunghitai. Sichaang hin chapa thum aneijin amaho chu Lotjem, Doungel, Haochang ahiuvin Haochang lhahsunghi atingpipo in Haolai ahung hitai. Doungel sunghi Doungel poloi aumin Guite poloi aumin amanilah a’hin Guite polang hohi alenjo, a Uupajo apengmasa ahiuve. Lotjem hin chapa nga ahingin amahochu Chenghol, Phungthang,Chenghen, Cheng mang chule Zaden ahiuve. Chule alenpen pa  Chenghol sunga Sating kingah napenhi Sichaang pahi ahi. Lotjem chapaho lah’a aneopenpa Zaden hi apendan achuom jepmin hijehchun ama chunthuhi seijuhite. Lotjem jonghi apaan kholaija amu ahin inpisunga kiphalam tah’a um ahijeh in inmunah ana jineiden  nompon ajiding nuchu khosunga konachu akipuidoh thoa khochuom beh’a agachen pi ahin chapa lii aneijouva amanjong Zadenhi kholaija amu ahikitnin, ajachat mana chingthei tah’a alepma kona Sasan sunga soh ahi tithu hungkiseidoh  kha ahin amin jongchu  Zaden hung kimoh tidoh kha ahi ajehchu mihuhel ahin koiman anavetsui  behseh lou jeh in ahuhellin mitinin avojing ngin hijeh achu  Zaden hungki mohtidoh jenga ahi.
Apendan kihelou mi anahijeh’achu inpiten ahinvah’u ahin, ama khanga kipat chun khangthum  chan’nan miching tahle thilbol thei tahkhat Thangur kitipahi ahung pengdoh in chule haosate haosat mun jongchu aman ahinlotai.Amachun chapa guup ahingin amaho minchu Rokhum, Thangluah, Zadeng, Palian, Rivung, Sailo chenghi ahiuve. Zaden kitipa Lotjem chapa lah’a nga chan’na pahi apenjouhin apa Lotjemhi hiche khosunga hin aumnom tapon akhopiu langah anungche kittai. Chapang chunla ahetlou ding mongchu ahin apa’chunla alungvil dingchu ajachaat nalamtah ahijeh in ahinkhosung lhonin akihepha lhonta poi.Guite jonghi Doungel lin ajachaat man’na lepnathei theija alepjeh’a Guite hung kitidoh ahibouvin chubana ajachaat chu kiphong khante tia inpi ajong um dingle umlouding jengjong kiseipoh louva anahin hinla Doungelpa chiguija dinga chu amasapen anahijoi.
Abanin Chongthu apat khang phabep pi jouvin mili anapeng khomin amahochu Titou, Touhin, Toulum, Touthang ahiuve. Titou hin Lotjem, Doungel, Haolai  mi thumhi ahingin, Toulum hi Lamhaao te  ahunghin amahohi Burmalanga khun ahutnin acheng jepmuve. Touthang hi ahileh aneopen ahijeh in aminhi akikhel poi, umdan mongin aneolang hohi aminu hi akikhel behseh jipoi.Abanin Titou baantah’a pa Touhin sungaho seikit nu hite.Touhin’na konin ahungsuh in khang phabepjouvin Ni-el ahungpengin amahin chapa nii aneijin amanichu Sehtha le Chongmang ahilhone.Sehtha chun Thadou ahingin,Thadouvin Thalhun, Chongloi,Hangsing ahinge. Thalhunin Kipgen, Haokip, Elmun ahingkitnin chule tuhin Elmun sungin Sitlhou le Singsit  tihin amangjo taove.Abanin Chongmangin Suontah ahingin Suontah chun Suontah, Vaiphei,Mangte,Mate, Baaite, Neisiel, Gangte chenghi ahinge.
Sitlhoupa thusim chomcha seijuhite. Alenpen pahi anu aumtah loujeh a anuthah nu in ahot bolleh insunga anuthah nu chapaan vaai ahinpoh phatna lhase behseh’a khosungchu adalhah’a kuonga kitolla  Tuikhang len twipanga gachang chen  ahitai, hiche twipanga chenna minchu ahin pohtoupeh jeh achu khonunga Bengali  ahungtam nunga bangali kaso in ahin sembe’a twipanga cheng kitichu Tipera, Tipura, Tripura hungsoh doh ahi. History jih’hon agam mihole Tripura mihi Aryan @ Gangetic miho milui danin aseijun kichentah invang akisei theipoi atiuve.Hinla eimi dihtah ahiuvin  Chung gam mitehi Pre-History  mite ahitai.
Chubanin Assam maibong station koma Lailenbungpa jongkhu Manipur gama Jampipa sanga upajo ahin, Lailen bungpa sangajong Tripura pachu upajo ahi. Chule Thangeo tejong ahikit nuvin Thangeohi tua Manipur  sunga Jampi pote sanga lenjo ahikitnun ahivanga tua Jampi pote Henmangte hin satinghi apehdoh nomlou jeh ‘uva alenpena umah ahiuvin, hitabangahi thilkibol ahung um suhpeh jeh’ahi munjouse’a aneolangkhat hi alenpa dinmuna umji atame.
Chubanin Hmarho lah a Joute @ Zote ho jongkhu Sitlhou ahiuvin hichethu jonghi donlouva akoikitnu ahi. Asung thuhi kiveleh alen lang hikitninte ajehchu aneolanghi donlouvin akikoijipoi.Ahinla Manipur gama alenpenpa Jampi popenpa hin alenpen hiding adei behseh jeh in ama chunglang mi poupou chutoh kijopmat nomlou ahijenge akitin, athilbol danchu ivetle aneo langtah ahichu amanjong akihet sasa’a uma ahichu akilange. Achunga honjong ahetnu chubana apum piu vajong  ahetnu, akalvalla jong Thadou sungapat Doungel sung geijin jong ahet thou thouvu ahi. 
Thaneina kitihi achuom ahin pendol khanggui chedanhi achuom ahi. Inpi  hin’ngahpen penin achungapa penthu  selmang teiding agotjiuhi Elmun insung konho sungahin akhoh deh’e. Tua gah kiseiho cheng jongchu midang ahipon amao insungmi alenjoho keoseh ahiuvin hitichun akibol nalaijuve.Hitabanghi khunpia penglou tia pomdan khat kiloupisahle kithensah thudoljong ana umthouvin chutilanga chu apom mongu ham tidingjong amaho sungah midang jong tampi aumkitnin hichehohi kagelleh custom jong helou nitjong nitlou Semthu khanggui danin aumuve.
Pu Shonghol Kipgenle Pi Chinchim  chapa Lhouthang jonghi Sitlhoula ahipon ahinla Sitlhouvin asimkitnun, Lhouthang hojongchu ahinao ahilou vangun alunglhai thei kitnun hinla phungthu’a’hi simthochu dih’ dingham ahina dungjuija umsah joh’a kinit’hitoh hoijoh dihjoham ? ahinla pomdan vanghi akibangpon loikhat’ hin apomtho in asimtho in chule daanto kitoh  hihjongle ama lunglhaina ahipoule deijoa lung lhaipiloi aumin, loikhatte chun ahina johchu ajuitho’e. Hiche thudol lahin  alung lhaina bolho insunghi asunglangle apo langchu athen athenlou chu asungle apo thakhat ahiji’e. 
  Phung thusim hohi abaan bana ivetleh a upa leonading anaopan anapohdoh  mana mi  u’pa dinmun chu’a amale ama mi Uupa’a kisimjeng loijong aumin   sopikhat hijeh a akipan mana penthu toh kisuto theijam ? customa asuhto nathei daan umkha-am? avetsahnan Esaule Jacob thusimachun Esauvin aUupatchu anaopa apetai akitin hinla Esau upa Jacob akitideh poi.Customhi chuon’na daan chule kivaipohna ahin penthu-ah tha aneipoi, chule penthuhi kivai pohna in akanpha poi,chubanin pen thudol thuhin phatsahle phatsahlou chule nopleda thuhohin tha aneipoi.Aneithei dingle numei ahungpen tengjongle ideimoleh pasal kihisahgam taloudingham ?mihemchu ahungpen dungjuija chu kisim jengbou ahin chule ahina chubou kisimkitna ahi.
Chung gam mite hin ikhang sunguva mimasahon anabolkhel penuchu hiche  mihem thuneina a boltheija umlouhel  thikhat ana bolluhi ahi.Hijeh a hi ahisah vanguva hithei dehlou, asimteitei kit vanguva hitheikit dehlou iti abolvanguva hilha mongmong theidehlou ahijeh’a guinusung jousea kibaona kiboina dimset ahi.Chubana khangsung sunohphah kit khatchu pasalhohin kholaijah chalenao anahing jiuvin hinla paithei ahilou jehchun insungachun umjongleh anubeiho chu insungachun imalam jouseah akiphalamin hitabangchu anahijeh in ana pengmasa khahochu sotlhah in ana umlojiuve. Hita bang thujeh a’hi thu asungnung aponung kitihohi ana umdohloji ahi. 
Tunjong Lotjem hin Chongthu gui hungsuhchu apoh ahitan atuma Chongthu poloi aumkit-hi adihje umtheilou ahi. Hiche thuhi guinu chedaan jouse thua ahi.  Pen thuboihi atamin  Elmunin jong amasa penin asopiteni Kipgenle Haokip simlou vin anakoijin hichebanah amachang insung jong chunga kisei bangachu avelvella abolkitchu amadinga ipi aphat chuomna umkhaam?Abanin Guite thujong aumin Lotjem thujong aumin, Luseite thujong aume.
  Chunggam mite sungahin lekha phabep akisotan hiche holah’a hin Khong sai magazine kitikhat jongkhu kasimleh Pu Lenthanghi Vanlanga kona hung kumlha danin akisunin  aumdaan khu Hidustan hon nisa a’kona peng Lhathah akona peng atio mythological style langtoh akilouve. Leisetchung thusimho ahin pendaan tampi aum thouve, hinla Pu Lenthang vanghi eiho chunggam mite thusim mahin,Pu Chongthu toh khulla kona hung kivopdoh  chule Khuul masanga jong chengkhom jingsa in akiseijin chule Chongthu jinu jonghi Lenthangpa sopitah ahi tinjong akiseijin alajong aume, chule chen’nale chaolena jouse’a lamkai penin jong akiseije. Ahilou jongleh Lenthang dang jongvang um’mo  ahipoi khuulkon lah’a Lenthang chu katijoh ahi. Chujongleh Pu Lunkim kiti Haokiple Kipgen pute jonghi khongthang pa insungkonin akiseije. Abanin Pu Lenthang jonghi ahingsotne akiti.Tua Lamkang, Aimol,  Kharam,  Kom, Tribe ho jonghi Lenthang chilhah in akiseije. (amahohi khuulkon Lenthangpa)  
ThaaLhun le achate sungthu jonghi aumkitnin tunigeijin chunga kiseiho bangin aumnalaije. Thalhunhin jihi ni’aneije tiloi aumin,thum aneije tiloi a’ume. Keima mudanin thum aneije. Ani chan’na nuchu Lunkimte chanu ahin aminjong Kimlhing ahi. Amanu’a konhin Kipgen le Haokip apenge.Thumchan nanuhi  Chailente chanu Neijaphal @ Japhal akitin tua Sitlhou le Singsit hungkon dohna  Elmun pen’na nuchu ahi. Thalhun ji-masapen’nu vangchu amajong athitan achapa jongchu agollhan laijin athitai. Thalhun jitehi thum ahiuvin amasapen hi Lunneng tiloi a’umin Neinem tiloi aume, keihetnin Neinem ahi abana nuhi Kimlhing ahin Lunkimte chanu ahi. Abankitnin thum chan nanuchu Neijaphal @ Japhal Chothete chanu ahikitne. Tha doupa“Chawn” chunga Chawntuul jeh’a  minsenu Doungelpa jinuchu Nem neng ahi.Chule guitepa pen’nanu jongchu Venghoi ahin Sichaang pa chanu ahi akiti.

BUNG-XVII
THAA LHUN 
(traditional)
Elmunhi Thalhun dinga ajimasa pento acha masapen ahin ama hindanhi mi huheltah anahin anujongchu athi masang nginjong Lhungjang khopi chen noplai chule ama jengjong a insung bitlaitah khang jongchun anuchu avoji’e akitei. Hitabang chu anahin anu athinung  hin apachu gun gaalla Lajang khoa  agapeme. Apa pemdoh sunghin Elmunhi ataalsan nin dawisa jong demlou Indawi jong jaalou thempu geija jaalou ahitan chubana apa Indawi khaijong asaatlhan Dawisa jong amotneh neh in ahileh Thempu pachu alunghangin alasiet nin”Chung Pathen khai saatchun saat lhachun vaan’nin na oimoi, leijin na oimoi noijah phengbang kigoltan” atileh Elmunchu ahungphah tan hijehchun khopam langa buhsung khatnah akoijun ahileh gaallin jaanin atohkhan alol atanun alu akipoh taove. 
Hijehchun Chongloile Hangsing chun Elmun thijeh in Thalhun agakousah lhonin ahileh Kipgen pachu apaan ahin kilhonpin anao Haokipchu  minung juithei ahiloulai jeh in anukomah adalhaan ahungtan ahileh Elmunchu aluchang aumlou jehchun tibukim lima vuiding deinachun Thalhun chun ahusum machun buhkuong chu alieng langchu sunlutnun atin ahileh ama seibangchun abollun chujouvin ponin atuom muvin tibukim limin asemun thol paijin avuitaove akiti.(Tholpai kitihi athina muna kon’na inlanga kipolouva akomdunga khuh kilaija kivuipai khu kiseina ahi.) Hiche  avuinao khuhsaija konchun Anjou ahung kehdoh in ahileh Elmun mella hungkehdoh ahi atiovin Lhungjang khoa  chengjouse chun  Anjou ana’ngawllun ahileh tunigeija Anjou nelouloi aum nalaije. Chuleh paocham tuh’a husum buon Buhkuongin akijopme kiti jonghi hiche Elmun thichunga kona hung kiseidoh ahi akiti.
Thalhunle Kipgen hi acheng lhonin chomkhat jouvin Kipgen ajineitai.Kipgen pa jineile chaneijou nunghin apangah teni Chongloile Hangsingin a’Uupalhon chu lungset aume tin ajiding khat aholpeh lhonin Chothe Chailente chanu Neijaphal @ Japhal chu agapuipeh lhonin aman dinginjong Paigen khatle Dahthih bukhat apelhon’ne.Hiche Japhal man apeh lhonchu Chongloile Hangsingin apohdoh pih lhona apehlhon ahin hinla khonung teng Kipgenin asahkit lhondinga anabol lhon ahijeh in Kipgenpa pehdingin ana’ umin tugeijin Kipgenpan apehih laije.
  Vangphat umtah chun Japhalla konin pasalkhat ahung pengtan ahileh Elmun thichunga chun Chongloile Hangsingin Elmun min manlou nadinga la anabol lhon jehchun Elmun mamachu asah kit’taove. Chule“Japhal apuidiu chunga jonghin Chailente jongchun insung umdanchu anahetsao ahijeh chun kitepna abolsah un  chapa ahin neileh keiju tupachun haosat  apohding hinam? tia adoh uleh khat honjong kapohsah diu ahi tin kitepnachu aboltaove, hijeh achu Japhal’lakona chapa khat ahungpenkit phatnin Japhal lungthim  le  Chongloi le Hangsing lungthim machun akitepnao jalla tohding lentah insung umdanding thuchu ahung lhungtai.  
Lhungjang Inpia Pengpan Inpi angalou ding dana amuphat chun Japhal chu alung oithei tapon ajitenile ajipa komah a uljingtaan ahileh Kipgenpan asungthu umdanchu  ahin hedohtan ahileh alung ahang behseh in anu acha geija kasuhmang ding ahi,  atiphatnin gangtah in Japhalchu aputeo Chailente khollanga chun anao pumin agajamtan ahileh Chailenten Elmunchu anun ahin jampichu asei jinguleh Tugeija Elmun sunga alenpenten Jampi ahin pohlo’u ahitai. Hiche laitah’a insung boinachu midangin imacha aseithei tahlou phatnin Thalhunin Kipgen koma chun ima phatchomna hilou insung boisah achoma cheng dohtan tin alhiemin  Khogal’lakhun gacheng dohtan tia anachen sahle khonungin Kipgen kholah a khomin masapen minin khogalpa kitichu khoval pa ahungkiti dohtai.
Chule kipgen’pa jonghi munchoma achenjeh ’in apa minchu amadingin kuon’ na kihetchet napenin mihon ahin mangpeh taovin ahileh   Kipgen sunga jong Sitlhoute bangin alen penten Thalhunhi tunigeijin apohdenlo kitnuve. Sitlhou sunga Jampi popenchu Henmangte ahiovin, Kipgen sunga Thalhun popenchu Singchaang te ahikitne. Inam sunguva guinu kisuutna jouse’a hin atamjo in alenpen hohin apamin ahin kipohsuhpeh jiuve.Hitiachu Elmun chu Inpi ngah’a anatunu ahitai. Hiche thilsoh hohi Kipgenpa ajinei achanei nungpeh achate pasalho Lhunkhup, Lhunsong, Lhunlut chenghi apen nung sangu ahitai akiti. Kipgen pahin a Uupa Elmun thilongle akivuidaan hojouse  amu sohkei ahijeh in Elmun athipoi tia khonunga Inpi ngahhon Uupat dinmun adet nadinga custom asemthu uva khopisungle Inpisunga penglou chu akisim ngaipoi anatiuva hetphahlou banga anakoiju ahin ahivanga Elmunin Haosat apohthei masanga patna Elmunin Haosat apohlai sungajong kinjousele kihouna jousechu Kipgen beija ana bollou hellu ahi.Hichena lamachu phatseh’a khogalpa gahetsah un, gakouvun, hungtam tiho jeh a hi hiche Khogalpa kitihi Khovalpa hungkiti dohlo ahijoi. Hiche thudol hetchetna thu chung chaangahin Kipgen pahi Lajaang khopi achu kholchethei ahigeijin anachengin, Lhungjang khopi ajong achaneijou geijin achengin, chujouvin khogal’lah acheng kitne.Hitia ahung chenna khang ahungche dungjuijin khochuom ahinsaat tan ahileh akhomin dingin Khuul kotna kon hungdoh mellin atin akhomin chu Leikot tin ahin sahtai. Haokiphi ama khangapat khang phabep geijin ahung galkai tapoi.
Kipgen le Haokip kah’a boina khat anasoh’e. Pi Kimlhing hi athiphatnin Haokipmin a’Uule apachu ahinkouvin ahileh apachu jithah chathah aneinung ahitah jeh a agache thasetjep jeh in acheta pon ahileh, apa achenomlou jehchun Kip gen jongchun chenom louna aneitai. Ajehchu inpia aumlou jehchun ana lung lhaipon hijehchun achedatan ahileh khatcha jong anache khalhon tapon ache lhon louhi apachung sangin Kipgenpa chungahin Haokipchu alhasejotai. Hijeh chun anuchu avuijin Kielpi khatnin akosa’e.Hiche a patchun Haokipmin alhaset manin ka Uupachu athitai anatitai. Hiche thudamlou hi khangsaotah nungin Chahsat pachu Mn.Tongkhothang ahilai leh Leikot pachu Mn. Genkholun ahilaijin Mn. Genkholun chu Chahsatna anache in Siel khatnin aga lhalho in Mn Tongkho thang jong akipah in hiche nia patchun sating apetai.Hichu 8-12-1957 nikhochu ahi.Haokipmin alhaset jeh a ana bolle anasei hochu mihem dinga umdan angaina mongchu ahinai. Hinla chunga kisei banga akibol nungin 19.12.1997 nihin Doungel Innpi sungah Haokipmin Sating aga sepkitne.Chutia sedinga alhah jongle Lotjema asejenga pha ahi.Sating cheding dolhi hitiding ahi,Titouhi Touhin dinga a Uupa ahin Touhin chilhahhi Thadoule Suontah ahin hichi dungjuija chu Suontah in Thadou apehding Thadouvin  Lotjem apehding ahin, chutabang dollachu Thadou sunga Satingchu hitiahi cheding ahi.Hangsingin Chongloi apehding, Chongloijin Elmun apehding,Elmunin Haokip apehding,Haokipmin Kipgen apehding,Kipgenin Lotjem apehding ahi.Chule Haolaijin Doungel apehding, Doungellin Lotjem koma apehdinghi ahunghi.Haokip chu Kipgen penpi ahijeh’a kasei ahi.A Uupan agalhepjou kum 40 jouva Sating midang agapehkit-hi datmo umtah ahi.Chunggam mite khankho thusimhi adeh in medieval khangachun khole mihemhi tampipi ina hitaovin gaal kitihi anahaat lhehjenge. Chunggam mite jonghi hiche khang kum 400 sunghi kho kisimtohi khantouna lenpenchu anahin hiche sungahin khopi  lentahtah hochu gaallin asuhmang akai mangji tenglehin asohchaji hochun akhohina jouse chu ahinkipoh dohpeh jiuchu ahi. Khokhatna kona ama chama anache dohho jongchun adalhahsao mihole khoho hinachu akipohkit  nalaijio ahi.Hitabanghi khangsunga gimle gentheina dimset khankho thuchu anahi.
Keigeldanin Haokiphi penthudolla boilou dingdol ahi.Ijemtia aboina  aum jongle apenpi Kipgentoh thakhatna boikhomding ahi.Sating chena hohi kichentah’a kihetvang angaije.Kipgenhi  Thaalhunpa chigui thu, Lhungjang khopi thu, Lajang khopilangho thu Elmunto akikah thu,Haokipto akikah thu injong aboikhapoi ahinvang ama kisanjong sating ngahna ding helouvin aumme.Khatnin Doungel apeh’a khatnin Guite apeh lhonhi nasatah’a kagelleh amani chungahi koi umaham tihi ahetcheh lhonlou akibange. 
Chule Chunggam mite insunga umdan monghin Uupat kichu thuhi atamin hiche thudolla suhmil louhelding chu Uupat kichu hohi akikhen theilou ahi kihetchetna ahi.Ipichu hitaleh eima insung guithu vanghi kihetnin aphai,ahelou tampi umjongleh.Abaan gahjomkit leohen umdan mongin Kipgenle  Haokip-hi athu hetlhon jong kibang louding mongchu ahi. Ajehchu Haokip hin  ama khanga kipat khang saotah Gundung ahinkhel tapon chule Lhungjang kho kivaipoh’ho jengjong ahepha tapoi, khonunga thu thanga kuona anunghet thubou ahi.
Chubana Elmunin jong imacha ahet phah ana umpon khonunga miseisei bouchu akichin ahibouvin ama hetna’a kona aseijong aumpoi.Kipgenhi Lajang khopijongchu achenna ahin Lhungjang khopijong achenna ahin apatojong  chengkhom lhona apa thigeija insungkin jousejong amabeija kiboljilou ahi.Insung guinu thujong asung apo midang hetsanga ahetchet ahi.
Midangin mi insungthu aseitheiji nahi aman a insungthu akhang guiju thudol akihetjilou jeh’uva  midangchun aseitheiji ahi.Elmun thuhet jousehi insungthu kisemset nungsang jengbou akichin ahitai.Pangah teni thilbol hojong amule ahetkhah tahbeh aumpoi.Kumlekhang ahungche in Elmunin Innpi ahin nga dungjuijin vai ahinpopehtai khang phabep jouvin Kipgenle Haokip chu simlouvin ahinkoitai abullanga pangahteni thubul phu thudolla konchun hitia ahinbolpat khanga kipatnin insunga numei thule thudihlou kisemle kipanho thuchu ahin kichinpat taove.Guinu custom and culture ahipon pienthudol ahibouve customin pendanchu hitihin anajuisahjoi Sating  chu isaanga pengmasa pale insung guija lenjo kipe ahin eichunga patahkhu Sating atingpo akipen asungting khu ama chunga pa khu akipeji’e.Chunggam mite insunga hin eima insunga penglouchu custom dungjuijin insungmin akilapoi tiloi aumin hichu kholaija kimuho kiseina ahin hicheho jongchu alahdan custom aumin, alahdan dungjuija chu alahloule vangchun anu phunga kisimding vangchu custom ahi.Sopi anapaiji danuchu hitihi ahi ami hem aumvanga ama hinamun’na koiding anopjilou jeh’ uchu ahin hijeh achu seithei le bolthei chanchu aseijiuva aboljiu ahi. Kipgenchu aneojo hileh  Elmun’nu Japhal man chungachu mopoh nachu aneisah loudiu ahin tunjong Chinhills langa  Sitlhoule  Kipgen cheng khom hokhu Sitlhouvin Kipgenjoh Siel asutsah’e.  
Hitobanghin Lotjem apen’ masah vangin Doungellin Innpi angah in vaijong apoi, hichejonghi Doungelchu anutoh aumkhom jeh ahi.Chuleh Doungellin Lotjemchu aumlouvin asimkitnin,tukhang jengin jong alenjo hisah aumjongleh agaamji nalaijuve.Hitabang machun   Sitlhoupan jong Doungel chu aumlouvin ahinsim kitne.Sitlhou sungajong amaole amao insunga alenjo ahin simda suhpeh kitnun tua Manipur gama Jampi potehin amao chungaho nile thumlang apaijun simlouvin akoikitnuve.Atumbeh khatnin Thadou sunga umdan themkhat gahsei beute, phunggui dangajong tampi umding ahin akihet themthei nadin.
Kipgente phunggui sungahin abulla patnin achaina geijin minluto lhungkeijin aumin adangho sungahin akimu lhome. Hichu Thadou chun chapa thum ahingin amaho chu Thalhun, Chongloi, Hangsing ahiuve.Abanin Thalhunin Kipgen, Haokip chule Elmun ahinge. Kipgenin chapa thum ahingin apamin alosah sohkeije.Amaho chun,Thalhun na konin alasohkeijun Lhunkhup, Lhunsong, Lhunlut ahiuvin hiche bang banghin kipgen phungbah jousehi minluto aum cheh’e. Haokip hin Lhungjang khopilang chondan lahih jongle adihmopoi Elmunin Innpi anga’a aphung gui mandan jong minluto akimu louhi asungthu vangchu uminte. Chule Elmun hi achilhah ten phungminle mibulkhat minin midangho  manbangin amang pouvin anoilangah ahal’ hallin neocha chahojoh amanguve. 
Tuhin gahseibekit leohen Elmunhi achilhahten phungmina neitah sangin achatenihi ama dinga abah a kisimding ahilhonin Ning-el  le  Hing-el  ‘hi.  Sitlhou le  Singsit tihin amangun hichan geichun angahih laijun, achung chonin Sitlhou lang manghon Sitlhoule Lhouvumhi apeng khom ucha danin aseijun Sitlhou-Lhouvum atiuvin abanin,  Singsit lang mangkit hon, Phohhil-Singson atiuvin  Thomsong mangloi, Singson mangloi  Singsit mangloi hitihin neochacha in amanguve.Elmun chilhah tehi neojo khatnin Innpi ahin ngajing suhpeh jeh in aneojo jepkhat minchu Sating kingahna banga hungkisim suhsuh danin akimui. Chunggam mite khangsunga aumtapoi,a-ingamtai tia kiseijiho jousehi apenpitah aneojopan ama chungapatah chu aseinaji jengseh ahibouve.Alenjole alenpen  hithei nadinga anakibolle anakiseiji ahin hinla khang thuhi aseidohjiho tilouchun chun  ahetlouhel ahijipoi.  
AKICHEN HALDAN : Amasa langa kisei sopi chengchu kingailut sanga gaalla ana kiboltojoh jeh un kiholdohto joutalou khopmin akichenghal gamtai.Adeh in gaalla mi gabulu nomjep-ho insunga hin midangle sopidang tampi aume.Kipgen ho sehseh thu ajong kahetjoujai louhel vangin mun tamtah’a hin avaithaam muve. Tunjong Chiru hiloi, Kholhang hiloi, Hmar hiloi, Failhem hiloi, Paite hiloi, Sukte hiloi, Poi hiloi, Meilhei hiloi, Milong hiloi, Kom hiloi, Kol hiloi seitheilou khopmin aumin tujonghin Belgium gamle US ajong umin akisei nalaije. 
Hitabang banghin Chunggam mitehi ibonun ahoidoh beihellin iumsoh helluve. Singsitjong hiloulaijin Singsonho sehseh jong Meilhei kisoh,Milong kisohkeo hilouvin tunjong Bangladesh border la kon’na 60 mile donah Lhajiing kiti khokhat aumin amin houjong Bangaliho min akisah gamtaovin aphung minuchu Singson tihin akisut nuvin in 70 velkhat aumin atehse pen apaochun eipao ahena laijin 2000 AD kum sunghin adanghon ahetapouve amaho sehhi tinajong ahipon mundanga jong aumin Philipine geijin jong tam thimpi aumuve, hichan geijahi iti ana cheova ahidem.Chule Sitlhoute Tripura lengte jongkhu tuapat khangkit tengle vang Devdas kakiso teiteidiu ahitai atiuve. Seijoulou khopma hitiachu umjengseh ihitaove.
Hiti tabang thuhi India gamsung ihunglhun jouvu Aryanho jeh a  solanga ihung kihei tilluva kipatna hung umpan ahitan koimacha abitsel umlouhella  kihal khopset sohkei ihitaovin haamle paojong kiheto talou ahiala inkuonkhat chu ama phunggui hinala mansah loulai tunigeija kiholtojing nalai jengseh ihitaovin kiholje heloule henasa kihollou chubana hena a kiholto joulou hejong hepha talouhel dimlhajeng ihicheh uve.  Kipgenle Haokip apen nahin Lajang haosapu chateni Chongkiple Chonghao minchu analolhon ahin kipgen hin a Uupa Chongkip min alo in Haokipmin anaopa Chonghao min alo ahi. 
 CHUBAAN’NIN  :Anglo Kuki war jeh in mibul langa Titou insung hojong ahung boikha kitne hichu gaal laijachu gaal bolding thu akihou jiuleh alah’uva phung chedolla Uupapen jichu doungelpa Aisan pa anahiji in hijeh’a chu mi’Uupapen anatijiuleh jaillutna  geijachu mi’Uupa pen minchu anapohjing ahin, guinu kisuutna a mi’Uupapen ahi tia kisei anahipon haosa kikhomji holah a chu aphungu chu avetnuleh alah’uva a’Uupa penjoh hiji ahi. Hichu amanjong ahinlah sangjep kitna phung Uupapen mong mong dana ahung kilah khahkit phatna a Uupa  Lotjempan ahinmah kitna nasatah’a hungboilo ahiuve. Hinla 26.2.1952 nia Doungel phungpi meeting Aisan na Pu Thongam Inn nachun Chairman chu Pu,Thongul Mollenpa ahin Secy. chu Pu Henjang Tuboi KMC anahin hiche kihou nichun boina thuchu anaseijun Pu Thongam chun pendollin Lotjem pahi keima chunga ahinai tin anaphong doh’e. Thongamhi Pu Chengjapao dinga apenpi  anao patah ahi.
KHANG UMDAAN NA: Mihem jousen kihetna  minle khanggui kisimjihi akinei cheh’e.Chuleh kum kitihohi Isrealte chu kum 400 sungin numei chapang simlouvin sang jaguup min  akiseije aumdan chu numeile chapang kisimlou ahinalaije. Hichu kum 400 sungachun mi 12 in pasal lhingcheh 600000 ahinge tina ahitai. Israelte vangchu mihemlah’ah apung theijepte ahinaove, hinla thil umdollin Israel, Muslim, Hindustan hohi chuticheh theidingin aume. Chunggam mihohi mi 100 ninjong kum 400 sungin mihem khujaatkhu hingdoh jou ponte.Akikhet nachu chunggam mitehin itih khangin jong jikop kitihi mivaal khattouvin anabolji jongleh ahin kichepipon ana kideipoi. Hijeh hin namdangho bangin akipung joupoi.Chuti ahileh Thadou chilhahte Haokip Kipgen, Singsit, Sitlhou, Chongloi Hangsing holoi penkhang hi ginchaat dollin 800-600 BC sunglang ahilouleh khangsung thusim kisei dungjuijin ahitheipoi.Ajehchu 200 AD dungahin Kipgenlah’a alhumpenle Hao kip lah’a aneopen Gollut hole Telngoh hojong akhochen daanu chu kho tampipi ana neitaove. 1929 kum vangchun W.Shaw in khang 23 dingin anasunin chule Thadoupa pendan khang jonghi 1300AD khun anasune. Ahinla bung masalanga kisei Muolpi haosapu chapa Thangtin mang Manipur lenga ahungpan kumchu Manipur lengho thum channa aga hipehtan hichijong chu 260 AD langpeh ahitan chuchelaija Telngohte jengjong haosa lentahtah ana umgam danchu naailam talouhel khatchu ahitai.Chule W.Shaw chun misei dungjuija kumchu asuhto ahibouvin chuchelai miho jengin jong khangthuhi imacha chuom anahet louvu akimu chen’ne. Ahinla kenjong ima kahe chuompon lengho historical account nakon’na akihedohho akimu dohho akon na kasut ahibouve. Avellin kiseikitle  364 AD chu Muolpi haosapu Kaikholun thi kumin kiseitaleh W.Shaw account dungjui jin 2008 kumhin kum 1644 ahitai. 
Bible khang simdanin kisimleh kum 1644 kuma mihem tampi umhochu bailam tah in khang ijat ahidem ? David lengpa a kipat Jesu Christa pen geihi kum 1000 ahin khang 24 in akisime.Hiche kisimto kitoh chun kisimleh kum 1644 sehseh chun kisim jongle khang 42 avaltai hinla Telngohte chu akhangu kisimsahle khang 30 simdohjou pouvinte.Haokip khangchu Haokip min ahetdingham ?Amaotoh akhang kibang Kipgen honjong khang 20 lhing louvin akihet nun, Sitlhoujong chuti ma ahin adang jousejong chutima ahisoh kei bouve.Hiche khang thudollahin hetchet malah in ama ama bomsunga neocha chaho geijin alenjole aneojoho kahlah kisan suhmiljeh in mijouse insunga hin kinielna adimme.
Manipur lenghi 33 -1948 geihi ahin lenghi 75 alhinge, ahinla akumhi kum 1915 ahi. Eiho simdoljong hilouva Bible’a khang kisimto kitoh in kisimjongle Lotjem, Doungel, Thadou, Suontah kitiho khanghi khang khatna simthei ahin chule amahon jong chilhah tampi aneicheh uvin, Thadou chilhah hohi tulaija gah hettheijin Kipgen, Haokip, Sitlhou, Singsit, Chongloi chule Hangsing ahiuvin,Suontah chatehi Vaiphei,Mangte,Mate,Baite,Neisiel, Gangte,ahiuve. 
Abullang jepma vekitleohen Titou, Touhin,Toulum,Touthanghi apengkhom ahiuvin Titou chilhahhi pasal 3 ahiuvin Lotjem,Doungel,Haochang @ Haolai ahiuvin, Touhin chatehi  Ni-el  ahin Ni-el chun  Sehtha le Chongmang ahingin Sehtha chun Thadou ahingin Chongmang ngin Suontah chu ahinge. Hichedolla chu ivetle Satinghi hitihin kipeovinte.Suontah in Thadou pentin, Thadouvin Lotjem pente. Achung langaho dingin kisemle Touthang ngin Toulumah pentin Toulumin Touhin na pente, Touhinin Titou ‘vah pente. Hitia kipeh’hi akichen penin ahinla pehdaanhi lampi ni in aume. Khangkhatna pengkhom hohin abaan ban’na petou louvin alenpen pahi kibangtah in apecheh uvin hichipa jehhin khang ahungsot tengle suhmil abailamin anohphahloji’e.
Hichetoh kilhon chun Thadou, Suontah Doungel, Lotjem teho khanghi khang 70 chunglang hidingin katahsanin chule kumsim dollinjong  anaailam penin 600 BC hinte.Hicheto kilhonchun Chunggam hunglhundoh kumchu  2200 BC kumhi ahileh 2000 AD kumin 2200+2000= 4200 kumhi alhingtai. Hiche kumhoto kitoh chun vetohleohen Pu Chongthu a kipatnin tukhang 2000 AD geihi khang 112 alhingtai.Chunggam mite khanggui umdol khatchu numeijeh in  Lotjem apeng masa ahivangin Doungellin Innpi angah’e. Guite apengmasa ahin Thithangin Innpi angah’e, Kipgenle Haokip apengmasa ahin Elmun nin Innpi angah’e.Hitobang hi phungbah neocha cha geijin adime. Hitabanga umdan hohi numei lungput nakon ahijeh in Innpi ngaho lungput nahin numei lungput bangin ahungche phakitne. Lotjemchu Doungellin apaijin, Doungel chu Sitlhouvin apaikitnin, Sitlhoute insung ngajong achung langaho paitheichan akipai kitnuve.   
Chunggam’mite khankho thuhi ichan geija akihol vangin mi sohle kolla  chule midang thaneina  noija hinkho aman nao thudol akimupoi,chuleh midang lahle khopi dunga achenlut nuva chidang namdang hotoh achen hallu chubana akichento hou thujong akimupoi tua  khang nunung tilouvin. Ajoniuleh aneh jenguva angap chatlouvuleh apeldoh jengu ana hijingin tua NE India langkai ahunglhun nuvapat donin achedohle aumden ahung umpeh in Manipurgei hung lhungachu Chongthu group’ho phabep,Lenthang group’ho phabep ,Khongthang group’ho phabep chenghi ahiuvin akikhen theilou domcheh hochu tugeijin kihephato theijin acheng khom nalaijuvin hinla hichengho jonghi kituup tahle kimkei ahidehpon akihethei jepme tibou ahi.Hicheho sonlepah hochu tua Manipur lapat Chin hills gei chule  Kabaw Valley sungahin achengjing nalaijuve. Chubana 1300-1700 sunga sopi gaal jeh’a chunggam mitehi avel avella namsunga chehchaojeh’in NEIndia kalval geijin acheng thaanguve. Chubana hiche chunga kisei mithumho chilhah tilouva chunggam hung lhundoh khanga misagi kitichu groupsagi lamkai’pa tina ahiuvin tun mi thumchu ilahdohle mili groupli umnalai isopi houchu amihemle achen naochu north east India sunga Assamis, Milongte chule meilheite tilou adangsese hi ahiuvin,  Arakan’ ho, Kachin hole Kabaw valley’a Burmis hilou sesetoh ahiuvin, Bangladesh langa Sylhet districtle phabepse bana Chit tagong sejong ahikitne. 
  Eastern Asia langhohi thusimle mihem seikhen chitchet hon Sinotic eitiuve.Hiti chun hiche Sinotic inkuon sunga jonghin haamlepao chiilenam tampitah a kikhen ihikitnuve. Chule hichu Shem, Ham, Japhet tia akisei dungjui jin,Shemetic,Hametic, Japhetic atiu banjomin eihohi Japhet chilhah ihijeh uvin Japhetic eitiuvin hichu Japhetna konin  Gomerle Magog ahin Magog nga konin Sericale Sinim ahunghi kitnin  chubanin Sinim kitipahi eiho hungkon dohna pachu ahunghitai.Hijeh a hi Sinotic jong ikiti kitnu ahunghin hichi Sinim sunga Chongthu innkuon chu ihiuve.Sinotic hohi hiche Asia solangkai sesehi ahung hitai. Sinim sungkon ihiuva  Sinotic tia Thusim luui suut hon aseijuhi  ahungdih peh’e.
Gelkhen nuhite The Thadou Chronicle khun Great Wall of China kisemkhang BC 210 langa natong dinga mitin anamatnu miho lah’a Isrealmi anajao khaho danin aseije hinla, eihohi 800 BC ‘a tu Manipur gamsunga Pallen kitikhu anakisema kiche ngpan anahitan, chunggam lekhabu vang anompoi.Abankitnin Ancient History of Thadouvin apehkit dankhu ivetleh  Thado Thangja kitipa 504 BC kuma Burma gam Tagaunga lenggam hinphut dohpakhu Thadou kipatnapa tin aseije.Hinla chung gam lekhabu vang anompoiajehchu amakhu Hindustan Brahminho ahiuve. Chukitle Manmasi thucheng jong Manaseh kiti Israelte sungapa hisahjong loijong iumun,hinla hichejonghi Chunggam lekhabu anompoi, ajehchu 1500BC khanga tuitobin thusim khun Maalmasi anatin  hichu mibul tinajoh ahibouvin mihemte min ahipon thucheng joh ahibouve. Ichungthu kiholmo kiholkhiel jeh jengseh ahin eiho thusimhi  keimu dollin jong kiholmo nadingle midangkhat kihisah khahdinghi bailamlheh dingin kamu thouve. Chunggam mite thusim suutding dolhi University dunga holle khang masa jepma lekhasun thusuut honjong vang phabep amuthei naovin hinla amaho thilmuhohi kingap nathei vang ahiloudan kamui. 
 LHANGHALTE : Chunggam mite lah a lhanghalte minpohdan chomcha  seijuhite 252 AD kumlanga chunggam miten solang anajotnu chu akiseitan mihonpi tamtah kiloidoh chu anache tajongleu akisei masaho bangchun abonchaova chesohkei anahipouvin hiche achelouse hochu atam hole ahat-ho achedoh phatnun mihem  noise achangtaovin hijehchun ahchate chaangchang  kithepeh petna  aumchanu tobangkhu anahitan ahatmole apaolel hochu delchoile nochoija ana umgamah ahitaove. Alungthim themloijong chu ana umda dehlou ahijeh in phaicham sunga chengden loijong  anatamkitne. Lhanghal aumden phabep-ho jongchu nochoija umloi hochu thinglhang mong mongajong achepouvin phaichamla anaingam pouvin Thinglhang le phaicham chin velhi anabel chetchut nuvin hinkho ana manguve.
Milongle meilheijin lhang kitihi aseithei pouvin ahungsot phatnin Lhanghal kitichu Thangal ahintidoh taovin chukeo hilouvin chenna munpoh dung juijin chunglangaho Thangal akitiuvin phungmin manglouva mipamin hinmang ho Paomei chule akibahpihou khu ahung sobe nalaijin noilangaho Hanghal chule Thangkhal  akitiuve.Bailamtah’a matdoh na theichu milong tahbehle adeh’a Thadouho paohi changkhat chajong kibanglouhel ahi hinla tua milongdana kigel phabep hohi pao le custom Thadou ho atoh alhompenin 75% kibanginte pao chengho jengjong amang theilou nambol simdanle phabepsekhu.Chule amaho sunga phungbah phabep hochu, Lhanghal Changsan,Lhang-um,Khuongthang, Lupho, Lupheng Hangmi, Misao, Mirhem @ Milhiem,Neitham hohi ahiuve.Tuma sangchun Thangal General chu meilhei tele milongte akichu uvin amachu Lhanghalte Phaichama anacheng hojoh ahi.Tuvanghin Thangal hohin hoijakon koichilhah ahi geiju akihetphah tapouvin milong naija chengho milong danin akigellun, amahole amaho geijinjong Thangal Naga geijin atitaove.Ahinla ahi tahbeh pouve. Abul langu kichien tah’a ahettheilou tahjeh uvin India sunga dinga miluikhat namluikhat hijengin akimohsei taove. Chubanin asopiu chunggam miho khonunga Manipur hunglelhun Lhanghal honjong isopiu Lhanghal hoThangal,ana kitidohhochu Thangkhal, Hanghal ana kitidoh nakah un Thangkan atikit nalai juve.Hitihin Thangkanphai, Thangkan gam,Thangkan Thanglunpa geijin atibe nalaijuve. Lhanghal, Hanghal ,Thangal, Thangkhal, abonahi Lhanghal tina ahi cheh’e.
HMARTE AKON : Mibul penchu “Nilachal” akiti. Nilachal chatechu 7 ahiuvin amaho chu Nelvan, Nelsun, Nelpuising, Nelsung, Nelkhup, Nelphiel chule Nelkim ahiuve.
Nelvan kitipa chiguija kona kisim ahiuve.  Nelvan chun Vanso ahingin, Vanso chun Jate le sawn-ngai ahinge. Sagi chan napa Nelkim chilhah chu Changsan, Leiri, Ngente, Ralte hi ahiuvin amahohin Hmar apotapoi.Jate hi Hmar sunga sating kingah napen ahi. Ralte, Garo,Jaintia,Mising chenghi thakhat ahiuvin aminpoh uhi kigamlat lheh daanin umjonguleh.Chule seibai lamin Titou insung ahiuvin mibul langho ahiuve.

Phunggui thuhohi akivetleh tua kiseipa jonghi mi 7 ahiuvin Hmar’te  simdanhi kavetle Chongthu in chapa 3 aneijin amaholah’a khatpen pen nakona ahidiu tahsan aume chenna munho akibahlou tengle minpoh jonghi akibangji tapoi.Hichelang gamkai jahin chunggam miho tilouvin midang mongoloid hohi Tibet mi jengseh ahibouve tua Nepal gama chengho  mongoloid ho jongkhu Tibetmi jengbou ahiuve. Hiche Tibetmi tilou mongoloid jousehi eastern Asia langakon ahin Chunggam mihobou ahiuve ajehchu tua Hmarte suutdaan jongchu Chongthu chiguipa hidingin ahiuve.Tua igahsei baanun mi 7 loi 7 lah achun loithum chu ladohleohen loi 4 chilhah hochu  NE India sungchu alosoh’u ahitai tichu bailamtah’a hetthei ahi.Govt.vetding chun chiile nam vangchu tamlheh nante. Chunggam mite hinkho umdanin Innpisung chilhah hohin  Innpi anada lhaaovin mipiho anahoidoh jiuvin achuomin ana umnom jiuve.
Hicheto kilhonhin kavetleh aloiloija chule agam agama phunggui thu kisuutdan hohi kavetleh kumsao tahle  khang saotah ahibana  gamsaotah  thu ahitah jeh in hamle paojong akibang tapon seidanjong athucheng akibang tapon minhojong kibanggam talou ahigamtai. Ahinla koilangin boljongleohen adoidan abullapat tukhang geihi thakhat ahisoh keije. Ihung kondoh naohi honkhatna kon ihidanu akibang cheh in chule alenpenpa sunga kona hung kisim lhaho jouse jonghi amasa a kisei bangachu atingpi guija kona hiuva ahivanga thuchienho kisuhmil gamho ahijiuve.Ajehchu chunglanga kipatna Chinhills, Mizoram, Manipur geija kikhen louhella hungkivop jingpeh hohi loi phabep lah achu ahungkinai behseh jepjeh’a kidalhahto nomlou kikhen nomlou kikhen theilou chule kilhonlouva hitheilou khelkhel ahijeh uvabou hung kilhonpeh ahiuve.Group khatna kona khatte suutdan chuomjep dingham itile minhole thu chengho seidan akikhel  jepnan athusim, athulhuong thakhat ahisohkei thou thouve, hiche lah a’hin aumthim jingjeploi aumin avah’hat jeploi aumin, hiche dungjui chun  hamlepao jong midanga lahbeloi le asunga pendoh be chule akisembe loi hitia hung umdoh gama hichanhi kisoh gama ahitai. Chuleh asuut lhajousen alenpenpa chilhah akonin ikisut lhakit cheh uve hichehin  avetsah chu  mibul khatna kona hung kikhailha sesehin hitihin asuutcheh uvin hichun mibul khatna kondoh ahiuchu avetsah’e.   
POLITICS DOLLA CHUNG GAM MITE : Gahsei jengtheijin India chamlhat jouva N.E India sunga chunggam miten gamle nam thudolla thilkibol-hi 1966 langa MNF mina kibol chubou ahin, hiche masanga Pu Colonel Sonkhopao chula ana losamtan ahinvang sopi ulenao khentum beihella lungthengtah’a lungtup ananeichu ngailut aumdan khang thusimjousea suhmil dinga lomlou penchu ahi.Hiche MNF mina thil guonchu athule anatoh chu alolhingin hinla gelphah joujeplou jeh in athubul chun ahinpojou jeptapon insung kibaona beple khoisatnabep chu ahikha tai.18th May1987 nikhohin chenkhompi jousen nanghon jong kidellun phatah’a kahinsot chehdiu ahi ati sohkeijuva ahaseibehseh phatnuva tohban jopkitna dinga kiphukit nikhochu ahin, ngaichatle lungtup behseh’akon ahiloujeh in natong  hohi alhasamin akisei bangachu  akhoh sah houhin ahaatdiule ahaat loudiuhi amahon ahasotnule ahasot louvun apoh dingdanin aume.
  Tulanghin NE India sungah tampi ahung umdoh in Manipur sungajong tampi ahung umdoh’e, ipichju hitaleh dinmun hohi aban banin gahve tadiuhite. NNC kitihi milongte dinga political langa kiloikhomna min masapen pahi Naga National Council tina ahin 1946 kuma kipandoh ahitai. Phijole aloi misagi chu NNC minin milongte chungthu dollin MK Gandhi toh ana kimutouvin akihoulim naovachun 14 August 1947 joutengleh milongtehi  chamlhat gamkhat ahi tia phondoh ding ti thuhi ahin hichu 19 July 1947 chu ahi. Ahinla MK Gandhi chun India independent kiphongding hitahila  milong honjong independent amuding hitachu la’em, keiman kadou mah penchu Britishte thaneina noija aki-um hibou ahin ahinla tua amaovin eidalhah diu ahitai, ken kadeichu nanginjong Indiahi keija ahi titheijin, ajehchu keiman milongtechu nangin nangailut  bangin kangailun keima mi’le keima a bangin  kagelle. 
Hiti a’chu India  chamlhat nachu keija ahi natithei louleh nathuseichu aban seibedatan nathilgon jousechu kingahtan India freedomchu najopnom loule jopdan koiman najoplou jeh in hunamin nabol ponte,ajehchu ken hunama kibolla kiloikhom kadeipoi mijousehi ken kangailut akibangin sopikhat bangin kagelcheh  tihi akidon butnaochu ahi. Ahinlah lamchuom chuomin kumlelha ahungche dungjuijin tanglouvin ahin mano jingun Assam state nakonin atumin ahung umdohthei taovin 1.12.1963  nikhon President Radha Krishnan chun Nagaland  state chu kohima ground nah phondoh nale thensona aneitai.Ahinlah chamlhat delna natohchu angadeh pouvin ahung chesao beovin 11.11.1975 nikho jongchun kiphasah na singned anabol kitnun Govt. thalheng hole milong lamkaihon hichu Shillonga anabollu  ahijehchun, Shillong accord akiti. President Phijo adohlou jeh’un hichu ajop tapouvin 1980 kumin NSCN kitihi ahung umdohtai. 
Milongte chamlhat delpatnahi 1946 kumapatna pansatna’a neithei ahitan hiche kuma patna isimleh 2008 geihin kum 62 alhingtan alangkhatna asotne akiti vangin thumasa holah a anukhah pen ahin chule amahon anapat danuhi India independent mu masanga MkGandhi koma anasei tho’u ahi. India independent delnahi 1857 -1947 gei ahin kum 90 lhingset alutnin  seijoulou genthei thohle thisanlonga kona ahin mudoh bepmu ahin India freedom government thusim jonghi suongmantam sanga manlu ahi.
Abanin Manipur lenggam chu Britisten 1891 kumin ana vallhum taovin lengin meilhei techu anatung naovin ahinla athu chu Britiste Knight title apeh’u ahin hichu loupina thiljong ahipoi ahinla leng thaneina sanga lejo danin anakigelle.  Meilhei tenjong surrender anabollu ahipon,nasatah’a asatnu ahin alelkheh’u thubou ahi hichethu jonghi atumbeh in kiseile chunggam mite adiuva anaphatnao asuhmilluva loupina jengbou ahin khoh sah phatnuva hitabang vangsetnahi atolo’u ahi.Ajehchu aleng innpi sunga PuSoja Singsitle Pu Nehlam Haokip hinkho anasuh mangpeh uvin hichi athilbolkhel nalamun gaallen ahung umding phatchun Chunggam Haosaho henga kithopina thum dingchu ana kiphatlam jeh uvin ahileh achanguva adin phatnuva alelnah nah’u ahitai.Anapang khom khaleo Britiste chu Manipur gamachu kijumso teiteidiu ahi.India chamlhat chu anajop daoleh alengamu chu Britiste achedoh phat nuvachu  hingdoh kitna ahitan lengpa chun ahethemlou mong ahidem, guh thima koltechun ana lheplhah’u ahidem, guh thima sumlepaija achoh’ u ahidem aki seithei tapon hitichun 15.10.1949 kumin agam lengpa Budha chandra chun  India chamlhat juinading soi anapetai.
  MNF movement 1966-1986 ahin kum 20 alutne anadoijuchu chamlhat ahin kipalna lentah khat ana umjeh in  imacha deibang ahithei taloudinga ana umtah vangin chief right thanei nagama hole Lusei Hills outsider hojong anajaotha khah jallin state khatnin ahung umthei kitne. Tua  Nagaland le Mizoram hin union state amulhonhi vangphatah ahilhone.  Manipurlin 1972 kumin statehood amukit’ taovin lenga akipoh kitnu sanga amipi dinga phajovang ahi.Tukhanghin NE India sungahin movement organisationhi ahung punglheh jenge, hinlah phatah a igelleh state neihon abolluhi tupledoi khatchu umnantin gamle nam thudolla kingapna lhingset vangchu ahitapoi. Chunggam miten tugeija amulou laijuhi achen khompiu chengsen jong angalelpeh daanule akhoh sahpeh daan’nuhi akidang lheh’e hitabanga midangin adinmunu akhohsah peh namdang kahekhapoi. hicheto kilhon  chun  Chunggam mite political hinkho thusimjong phabep gah seiju hite. 
Milongho chun 14 Aug.1946  chu kakipatnao ahi atiovin hichu NNC kiphu dohchu ahi. 21st 9th 1917 nichu Chung gam mite haosahon saba aneh uva Britiste  saatna dinga thulhuhna asemuva chule khojouse’a sajaam alhah uva, thingkhole malcha toh anasoltha niuchu ahi. Abolnao ajehpenchu 1916 kum langachu chunggam miho gamkai phabeple milong gamkai phabepchu Labour corpma dinga anapui gamu ahitan chujongle 1850 langa Kuki levy tiajong mi 200 ana manchah uva Kasar gamlanga mihem gaalbol dingho suh nemna’a anamansao ahitan tuajong hitia chamlhat tah’a umna gamsung geija abolkitnuhi tia athang tompiu ahin W.Shaw jongchun alekhasutna achun  labour corp’to ahung kitokhah jeh’a kipaome bou ahin eitheida naohi sotthim ahitai tin anasune. Hichehohi Britishten jong ahetlou ahipon chule Chunggam mitenjong minphat deina’a chamlhat delna thutoh kisuto ahipoi chamlhat del ahinaohi adih tahmong ahi.
1917-1919 jalen gaalsatna chunga lamkaihole haosaho Suongkul-lut hojong ahung dohchai phatnun  lunghel puldou ahung daidomin 24.10.1945 nihin tohban jopkit nadingin KNA (Kuki National Assembly) ahin phutdoh kitnun ahileh akigontup kah’uvin 1947 kumin India Independent ahunghi kitleh alung gellu chomkhat akicholdo kittan independent dana anagelkhah jeh’u ahi, dihjongvang dihthou ahinai ahinla union sunga political development ahung khantoukit phatnin akitumsah nomjouse dingin kot lentah chu ahung kihong kitnin ahileh union sungajong state ahungpung tultultan ahivangin chunggam mite lungthim machun midangin geljongle kitumsah nading lungthimchu gellinjong ana neinom pouvin lungpitah in aumjing nguve. Tujengajong agelnom loulaiju ahin hinla achenphanao gamjouse’a mijousen akhohsapeh behseh phaat nuva ahinbol khah’u bou ahinalaije.
Mipi minpohthu jeh in sopi hina kigeldao theiponte, minpoh sangin thisanjoh alujoi tin doiletup thu machu malaija tabanga dinga anakisei kihouvu ahijehchun apangkhom jouchanchu ana kipangkhome movement nachun, ahinla aman kinejousa gama chengholoi mopoh najep ana hikhah jeh in lungtup bangchu anahithei tapoi.Vaai khonung banga aumvangin chunggam mite dinmunhi akile aumchuom dehpoi.Koimahi ama changding jengjong  tongnom akiumpon gamlenam le mipidinga hung kipedohji hohi ichan-geija ngailut uma hitaam...!!! chitinle namtin lah’a jong. Tunjong nampi khonung ding gelkhohna jalla kipedoh hohi iti ngailut uma hitam amam mite jousedinga meichang panmun banga panga ahiuve.Tupet 1987-2008 sunghi mivetdin nampi dinmunhi hoiloulaijin kimunte hichu adihtah ahi ajehpenhi seidinga um khatchu seilouva a’um nahlai jeh-hi ahin, seiloulaile seimanlouva ana umchu seimanlouva aumjing jeh’hi ahibouvin ahungkisei tengle boinadingle ahimoding umtaponte. Aseiding jongchu midangjong ahidehpoi chule  seidinga um thujouse jong hetsale suhtohsa jeng ahibouve.Dr. Robert missionary pachun independent geijong bailamtah’a namu thei nadiu aume kiseijun anatipetna Chung gam mite aseithei chujat uma seinading lungthimnei ana umlouchu apamailheh in, abanin adeh’a political khanga mipi lamkaija anapangho in sopi ulenaohi koikoiham chajong anahetlouhel ahikha hhi vangset hamsiet aum lheh’e.Hiche tenihi tukhangahon nampi khonung ding thudolla chihtheina’a neiding ahitai.
1972 kuma Manipur gamjong statehood ahung hiding phatnin Lt.Governor chu Dr.Kohli ahipetle  Hill Commissioner chu Ramunia ahipet ahin Nepali hon hiche DM road touhi nepali constituency’a semna dingin ngehna ananeijun,guhthima kibol anahijeh in midangchun anahepon  hill area chuleh tribal area ahivangin guhthimin anabolpeh lhone.Nepali tia  atuma semlawm lawm vangchu anabol pouvin ahin unreserve tin ahin semuve. Hichejeh-hin amahodingin dinmunchu aban ahung umbebe theijin abanchu ahung chebeovin ahileh revenues ahin lalut kitnun chuban kitnin Panchayat jong ahinlah lutbe kitnun ahile India sunga chendaan pilhing setnin agam miho sangin aneijotaove. 
Ahinla  hichithuhi agam mihon adeilouni ahunglhun tengle kiladohkit theiding ahi.Lungletha vangchu lutding ahitai.Hichithu ajong aphatcha deiloule noplouna thu anakibol khahthei kitlou jonghi aphamo lheh’e.Tukhangin might is right kitihi politics phapena gella  chepi atamin boljong abolluve, adeh in chunggam mite jonghi achen nagam jouseuvah hitihin abollun hampa bangin vaat ongtho dingin agellun abolsaojong atamtai chule amahojong gentheina seitheilou thoh  atame, hinlah nagamu ahipoi tia abollu vangchu ahipon, chule nachen naohi kagam sungu ahi tiajong abollujong ahipoi.Hiche thudolla hetkhen jingding khatchu Bodha Chandra  lengpan freedom govt. jopnachu signature anape jongleh amagam chu tua Kanglei phai cham sungbou khu ahin apu apaan anapeh dohsa Chunggam mite gamchu ajaopoi chule jaojong jaothei louding mong ahi.
Ajehchu hiche Kanglei phaicham sung tilou Manipur thinglhang gamhi meilhei ten avella achukit naothu aumjongleh amaole amao kipalding ahinalaije ajehchu hiche Manipur gam thuhi abullanga akipat jongle chunggam mite abou ahinalaijin political khanga akiseile jongle hikitnalai ahin,insungthu tabang geija asuhmilkit nahlaiju vangleh koimachaan oi-tapou vintin, amao jengjong ki-oipouvinte ajehchu 27.5.1851 niachu Chandrakirti lengpachu Kangleipak tilou adangsehi nangho khutna kapeh ahitai tia anaphon dohsa ahitan Britishte ana kisatlona jongchu kum 66 Manipur lengpa akona chamlhatgam hinungsang ahijeh ahi.  Chubana 21Sept1917 nikho’a nampi chamlhat tupna’a Britiste satna dinga Jampi khomuna thil anakibolchu numeile chapang geijin suhmil louhelding ahi. Tunjong hicheteni natoh chu akingahna aumkhapon athujong ahingjing nalaije. Britiste record toh kilhona Kuki minhi kimang nalai ahin anagon patnuva patna chu 1917 toh banjom dinga anagonu ahipeh e.Chuban’na Chunggam mite khopi Moirang muna SC. Bose toh INA  flag ana kikhai doh’a India freedom ding delna’a hinkhole kholeveng ichan geija ana kipangham tiho kisanjong Chunggam mihon anaseihih jongule vaipohna anachoiho India govt.vaipohonjong   ageldoh louhelluhi India vaipoho jonghi tugeija chamlhat kidel khang thudolla thilkibol hohi ahephajou khatcha aumkha pouve.
  Ajehchu chunggam mitehi thudolhi ahoinale angeina maimaija kisei ahipon adihnao, athilpha bolnao, ahatnao ,ahansan nao, agaal haatnao jousele aminphat nadiu jouse jonghi kiseidoh khalou koimanjong holkhalou ahin adoltahchu amaovin apohdoh’uchu ngailou ahin,solkalchun aholtupding  johbou ahi.Hijehhin koima hetnin aumdoh paipai tapon thilpha kibolho jousejong chidang namdanghon kisei phatnale min phatnan aneigamtai Nuolna beihella Chunggam mite minphat na midangin akilahle achan thuho lah’a khat gahseijinge,chunga kiseisa INA puonlap SC Bose toh anakikhai dohna khopi Moirangchu meilheiten minphat nan aneitaovin chule freedom govt. ninjong meilheite minin ahetaove,asunga chuta bang thu akiseidoh loulai ijat umnalai jam...?? Manipurla Chunggam mite lengchan kipatna munchu Moirang khopikhu hilou ham...??? Pakhangba lengpa lengmasa penpachu Chongthute insungmi hilou ham ? khulkonho lah’achu  lengmun ana kichupipa Poireiton kitipa jongchutoh insungkhat hilhona ahin hichelai khangachu midang lengmun kichuthei nading khopma  thaneile anatam  chen a’umpoi.1857  napatna India in cham lhat anadellu ahitan, 1917-1919 kumthum sung chunggam miten achangseh uvin ana kithopi nalaijun, abanin Subhas Chandra Bose toh ahung kivop kitnun Burmagam ahinjouvun ahung gaalkai peh’un Chindwin gallah Chunggam haosa jousetoh Japan Armyhon kihoutohna aneijun amaho thahaat najallin Manipur gam ahung lhungun hitichun Chunggam haosahon anadeipeh dungjuijin Subhas Chandra Bose jongchu Netaji ahung kaidoh joutil ahito kilhonachun chunga kisei bangchun Moirang khopi achun nampi jalen puonlaap chu 18th April 1944 nichun akhaidoh taove.Hitichun apang khom kitnun hicheho jousehi India sunga jong geldohle hetpeh in aumtapon, Chung gam haosaho lung gellachu sangah chunga kalung damlou tichu ana umah ahin 1917-1919 thu jeh’achu hapan’na anapang  ahiuvin, hinla Moses thilpha boljouse  Pharaoh lengpan Hebrew mi ahi ahetphatna asuh mangpeh banga Chunggam mitehi Indiate, meilheite chule Japante dinga natonghat pente chu ipijeh mongmonga union sung hihen chennagam state  sungho hijongle hichan geijahi asumsel khumu ahidem? amaho lamkaina chacha bou adomsangun natong mong mong mitehi ageldoh tapouve.
Union sunga constitution toh kitoh a thuum maimai hojong tampi apegam taovin thisan tohle natongtehi tugeija ipijeh pena union sungahi gelphah’a umlouvu ahidem imacha khohsahje ahetlou mongu ahidem, khatjoh johvang hinte.Atohnao jousejong amaho minin akisunpoi mitinin atoh dungjuija minset hihen minphat hijongle akipoh chehding mong ahin ibolla amaohi chang theilou hiuvintem ? gel angaije.
Vondaan: Chunggam mitehi chunggam ahungdoh masangu jongchun Phoipijong amangtaove tijong akiseijin, chubanin Chemjong aphatah Joudichem kitijong ana mangtaove.Hiche Joudichem umdanchu hitihin anakiseije.Amaho chun aman lou diu tenguleh ahekuolluva konggah banga akonguva akipohtho theijiu, ahivanga chu amanding tenguleh akam nachu ameh peljiu tengchule itilamin mangjongleo nemlele kitlouhel ahi akiti.Von’vanghi tillachu ipi anavon nuham akiseithei tapon hinla eiho gah hetphah theijin puon jaang’ah kitikhu ana hijengin tua boitong sangkhol kitiho khu 18th century langa saapte style kila ahitabouve.European gamho jenginjong longpant ahinchen patnukhu 18th century bullang ahibepme. Vonho lah’a dingin delkophi sangkhol sangin ana khohsah uve. Chubanin numeile pasal-hin tillin asam anakihoi cheh’e. Ana tahsan daan’ nuchun samlah’a hin mihem hinna achenge anatijeh un samhi anatanjipouve, gaalla mi anathau jongle asam abantanun ana kichoi jiuve. 
Chunggam mitehi itih khang ahin gaalkuon gaalbol laileh numeile chapang chunga khutlhah chule paolel jothoho chunga kipasalsah hohi abolngai pon, chubanin amao haatna gamle  athaneinao gama midang hungvahlut apaolel hohi amaho banga lung ngam pella lungmong tah’a amaho bangbanga aumthei diuhi adeipeh jiuve. Chule gamleng sadel  dinghole gaalkuonding hohi hoilai munah umjongleo chunggam miten ana nit ngaijiu  guchaat,jotho miho chunga kinoptaal kititabang hole numei chunga kichep kitihi itihkhang ahinjong khanggui sungahin akibol ngaipon boljong akibol khapoi. Chidang namdangho vanghi khatchajong hitabang kigahnanei aumpon atohkha jouse hamphatah’a kigel jengseh ahiuve.

BUNG-XVIII
THE SOURCE OF KUKIS HISTORY IN THE HISTORY OF MANIPUR STATE
INTRODUCTION
The land of Manipur had a historical record of two thousand years. It was ruled by successive Kings right from the year 33  A.D. upto 1948 A.D. The ability and might of a kingdom rested on the  strength and power of king. Manipur was a powerful and glorious kingdom in South East Asia. Eversince the Manipur King Bodha chandra singed Manipur’s  Merger Agreement on September 21, 1949 with India spearheaded by the Political Agent and the Governor of Assam and  size of Manipur decreased to 22,337 sq.km. only. The Manipur Valley consists of around Nine percent of the total area of Manipur Hills and plains. It is mainly dominated by the Meitei Ethnic Tribes. The Kuki Ethnic Tribes dominated and the Hills of Manipur for about 550 years from the 14th century  till 1948, since Manipur had merged into the Indian Union and the Naga  Ethnic Tribes and Kuki Ethnic Tribes  settled in the Hill areas of Manipur dividing the land on 50% basis.The Tribes settled in the Hill areas of Manipur has somehow or the other migrated from North, South, East and West.It might be difficult to determine accurately the epoch and era historically, a reference to the Mangjang Puya throws light that according to the traditional story and Migration Root, the period of migration of these tribe/people can be ascertained.So, the period of migration can be divided into three : stages.
1) Autochthonous People  Had in the Hills of Manipur since prehistoric times beyond imagination.These are the one adored and worshiped as gods who safeguard the frontiers, such as Marjing (Marching), Thangjing (Thang-ching),Wangbem (Wangpha- lem), Lolaalakpa, Khamlangba (K.Laakpa) and Nongpok Ningthou (Nongpok Pan-ganba), etc.
2) Aboriginal Peoples : They were the people who came to settle in Manipur by around 400 B.C. prehistoric periods, and at the beginning of Manipur History, prominent among them were, Chothe Thangvai Pakhangba, Kangba (Pakang), Irum Ningthou, Raal-ngam, Makeng (Makheng), etc. (newly added: The fact was 800 BC. according the Chunggam History)
3) Indigenous Peoples : These were the people who settle along with the rise of Manipur History. The History of Manipur began with the rule of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba at Kangla in 33 A.D. With the begining of the era of tthe history of Manipur, the people started to struggle for safe gaurding themselves and their own villages and Kangleis by deploying man power. This era was followed suit by thge lust for power and supremacy which could help in the extension of hegemony with the rapid growth of population. As the Meiteis were far shrewed and diplomatically advanced, they began to adopt Meitei Nomenclature. From the beginning of 8th Century A.D. King Naothing  khong started organising Meitei Ethnic Tribe to be on a firm foundation. Henceforth, seven years later seven tribes or shalaaisis joined themselves to form a nation and ruled over the Manipur Valley with great might and the Ethnic Tribes of hill areas were recognised by the Plain people “Hao”as nomenclature.( The said Hao is originated from the said kukis which means Haosa. And this haosa means   chief. Later their mouth leave “sa” and said only hao.)
Later, among the Ethnic Tribes of the Hill areas who were commonly known as  “Hao” (their Ethno nomen clature),a dominant body/groups of them adopted the title of Khongshai (khongchai/Khongjai) began a dynamic organisation since the 14th century A.D. covering not only the hill areas of Manipur but also to Kabo Valley, Chin Hills, Lushai Hills with great impact. (Hao which means Chief, originally it was said Haosa after they lose” Sa” then now only they use Hao, then further speaking even to the Nagas. This word also originated from the said kukis.
Again, following this during the Seven Years Subjugation (1819 A.D-A826 A.D) when the Avas (Burmese sudued Manipur and ruled in the year 1821 A.D.The Kuki “Nomenclature”in Mani-pur  from Bengal. Above all, the British took over the “Kuki Nomenclature” to be firmly rooted in Manipur. The people earlier known as Khongshai identified themselves as Kukis and accepted it as their own. Apart from this those people with similar genealogy, culture and custom and dialect merged themselves into Kuki nomenclature. However, research Scholars divided them into “OldKuki”and“New Kuki”byM.C.Culoch Political Agent in 1826.
The domination of Hills areas of Manipur by the people of Kukis Ethnic was disliked by the people belonging to Non-Kuki Tribes.But, as an offshot of political evolution according to the state of nature, by the year 1948 A.D.in order to gain support by Naga Hills, the Naga Nomenclature was spread far and wide throughout the hill areas of Manipur.As a result, despite their divergent genealogy, culture, custom and dialect, the Non-Kuki Tribes of Manipur Hills have merged in to Naga nomenclature. Therefore, the hill areas of Manipur were inhabited by both the Naga and Kuki Ethnic Tribes whereas the valley was inhabited by the people of Meitei Ethnic Tribes.
In case the three Ethnic groups of Kuki Naga and Meitei nomenclature were develop on the same level they could be helped to maintain a balance of life by the Government of india in accordance with the provisions of Indian Constitution but due to the facilities and amenities entitled to them being neglected and at the intermitten,violation of Human Rights. The encountering were made available at their doorsteps in a democratic way, the very problem armed insurgency/uprising would easily be solved once and for all. The Government of India totally denied the 1949 Manipur Merger Agreement. There is absence ofbalance of life among the Ethnic Meiteis :Kuki and Naga,uprising of armed insurgency from these Ethnic groups seems to become th order of the day and these would be no solution to it.
Yours,
Kuki National Assembly 
(K.N.A) Political

(a.) The people of Manipur:
1.1 The People of Manipur State belonging to Japhatic Mongoloid Race who shared similar Genealogy with those settled in the Himalayas Range as well as South East Asia. On deliberation along the lines of Ethology and Ethnicity,they come under the Ethnic and Tribes of Tibeto Family.
1.2 The People of Manipur are altogether migrants of the Mongoloid  Race being migrated. There is historical evidence  of the settlement from pre-500 B.C. If the A.D.section are removed there remain 398 years in B.C.section the immigration of tribe dates back to 350 B.C. They come 
under the Aborigial People of Manipur’s prehistory.  It becomes clear that the Authoch-thonous people would have been around 500 B.C.
1.3 Therefore from the combined peoples of Authochthonous people, Aboriginal people and indigenous people, the people  of Manipur State divided themselves into three Ethnic Nomenclature but settled together. They are: Meitei Ethnic, Kuki Ethnic and Naga Ethnic etc. The Kukis settled since Early Time in Manipur.
1.4 Meitei Ethnic was formed out of the amalgamation os Seven tribes/Shalaaisis within their social structure according to Neo-Colonialism of political culture,there are three Sub Sib such as: Pana, Loi and Pangal (Pang-ngal)
(1) Pana : This group of people were formed out of the combination of the Seven Tribes/Shalaasis whose social structure being of High Caste as Royal families. They consisted of head of the families from :Mangang, Luwang, Khuman, Angom, Moirang, Chenglei, Khaba-Nangba Tribes. In all aspects status, Pana group of people held leadership position and played and played leading parts.
(2) Loi : This group of people consist of the social structure from the Meitei Ethnic group and the seven tribes of the Pana group.Yet from being under neocolonialism they simply continue to live colonized people.In the present social status,Loi is recognised as Schedule Caste by the Government of India.The Loi it begin counting from the Northern Sekmai, Khurkhul, Phayeng,Leimaram,Thoubal Khunao, Thongjao and Kwatha, etc.
(3) Pangal: Historically this group are not the indigenous people of Manipur  State. They are not a part of the Meitei Ethnic group and recognised by the Meitei as Meitei Pangal. Hence, Pangals are known as Meitei Pangal today. They existed quite differently from both the Pana and Loi groups. As the pangal groups were followers of Islamic Religion they adopted Muslim culture in their social lives. So, they remained quite distinctive to that of the Meitei Ethnic.
1.5 Kuki Ethnic consists of more than forty tribes.These Tribes are categorised into two that recognised tribes and non-recognised tribes.The tribes recognised in 1956. They are: Aimol, Anal, Any-Mizo, Chiru, Chothe, Gangte, Hmar, Koireng, Koirao, Kom, Lamkang, Maring, Mon-shang, Moyon, Paite, Kharam, Purum, Ralte, Simte, Sukte, Thadou, Tarao, Vaipheiand Zou. These  24 tribes were recognised from the Kuki Ethnic group.Those more Kuki two tribes recognised so far are Baite, Guite, Khongshai, Lupho/Lupheng, Lushai, Mate, Misao, Thangkhal, Jou, Chin, Haokip, Chong hang, Kipgen, Khoibu, Saibu and Singsit, etc.
1.6 Naga Ethnic tribes recognised in 1956 by the Government of India are Angami, Kabui, Kacha Naga (a split parts of Kuki), Mao, Maram, Paomei, Sema, Tangkhul and Paomei. Paomei was newly recognised in 2001, by the  Government of India.
(B.) Kuki settled since early times in Manipur
2.1 In Manipur beginning from times of history the Ethnic Tribes were named after regional names,names places of their settlement, persons names,names of areas and thereby later known as their Tribes i,e.,
       (1) Regional name-Aimol 
(2) Place of settlement-Hmar, the Chin, the Kuki, the Mizo Ethnic tribes were all named in the aforesaid manner.
2.2. The prominent King of Chothe Tribe called, “Chothe Thangvai (Thang-van) Pakhangba ” ruled as King of Moirang from B.C.90 to 30 A.D.at Thangjing Chingjao. In the pre-history of Moirang, he was believed to have come to life from the dead and thus was known as “Iwing Purik Laai Thingri Nachou ba”. He ruled for 120 years as King of Moirang.
2.3. Again, Taothingmang the son of Kaikholun as the son of Khoi Ningthou ruled over Meitei Kanglei, as King from 264 A.D.to 100 years.This history was recorded in the “Mangang Puya”. As also Kaikholun was the King of Muolpi.he was the king who paid tributes during the reign of Nongda Laairen Pakhangba” .After the death of Pakhangba his son who was also known as Khoiyoi Tompok become the King. As Kaikholun refused to pay tributes the Khoi King invaded and killed Kaikholun. He arrested and brought with him Taothingmang (Thangtin mang) and his mother. Taothing mang’s mother  was a  women of excellency beauty and virtue.At night the Khoi King came by that time the women said “O King I could have killed you, I can take revenge for my husband, but I spare your life for the sake of my son Taothingmang therefore tonight let me incarnate you as “Soubon Laairen” (Goddess), I will preserve and protect your Dynasty up to seven generation.As reward for my works you crown my son Taothing mang as King in place of your son “Yoimong-ba” (Yoi-Mongba).This was the history recorded in the “Mangang Puya”.
2.4 The people of Manipur originated from the same geneology.It was said that the dialects spoken by the people of Meitei Ethnic Tribe was of the Chin-Kuki Language from Tibeto family. The Meiteilon originated from the language of Chin-Kuki.This was thoroughly described in detail in the Linguistic Survey of India,Volume No.III,part no.III.In that case it would not be a mistake to surmise that the genuine Meitei were those  Chin-Kukis. The present Meiteilon was mixed up with Sanskrit and Bengali because, the Meitei embraced Hindu Religion adopted by Bengali and Sanskrit language.For example, Lairik Yengbam Lon and Kshetri mayum Lon (Language).
(C.) The  role of  title  on  settlement of  Manipur
3.1 The hill of Manipur particularly the whole valley was completely submerged under water before the advent of the Christ i,e. during the B.C.period. During this period the people set up villages and  settled on hill-tops  far from one another. Mention may be made of a few names of the land  such as Tillikok, Tilli kokton, Manthak Sharon Pung, Lemthong Maphei Paakpa and Muwa Palli. During this time the defending gods of the frontiers ruled and kings.They were Koubro,Loyalakpa in the North, Wangbren in the South, Thangjing in the South West, Nongchup Thongaren in the West, Marjing in the North East,  Nongpok Pangangba in the East, etc.
3.2 As time passed by about the ending of the B.C.period by about 221 B.C.the water of Manipur Valley began to dry up the people began settle in foot-hill on dried higher of the rivers.Subsequently, they set up more and more bigger village turned them into Kangleis, they are Moirang Kanglei, Khuman Kanglei, Angom Kanglei, Khaba Kanglei, Nganba Kanglei, Chenglei Kanglei, Heirem-Khunjan Kanglei, Luwang Kanglei and Mangang kanglei etc.
3.3 At one time at the end of B.C period the Taai people and Shaan people intruded into Manipur and tried to rule Manipur by setting up Maitaai Dynasty. But in the A.D.period the world Maitaai of the people of Taai had come to be changed into the world “Meitei”.
3.4 King Naothingkhong ruled as King for 100 years as King of Meitei Kanglei from 663 A.D.to 763 A.D. in the 37 years of his reign he attempted to set up a powerful dynasty in Manipur and from 700 A.D. There was extension widespread of Meitei. However King Naothingkhong did not spread Meitei by way of invasion displaying man power. But her spread it through diplomacy by means of inter kanglei marriage to win the Kanglei King.
3.5 Since Meitei was skillful in diplomacy the nine Kanglei where nine Kings  ruled amalgamated and above all the Meitei King dominated and ruled as a director. King Irengba ruled from 984 A.D.to 1074 A.D. From the nine of his reign, the hill people who were in captivities began to be converted into Meitei.During the reign of King Kyamba (1467-1508 A.D) many of the forefather of the present day Kukis were converted into Meitei, most of them being from the Old Kuki groups. As the rule was combination of nine Kangleis, it was named “Kang-Leipak” being dominated and ruled be Meitei it was called Meitei Leipak= Meitrabak. Later during the reign of Pamheiba (1709-1748 A.D) Meitrabak changed into Manipur.
3.6 When manipur state was called Kangleipak and Meitrabak,a large number of hill tribes men become Meitei Ethnic tribes.The rest of the hill tribes men who could maintain their tribal status were given recognisation in the name of their respective tribes.
(D.) The Kukis in Manipur State
4.1 Etymology :The word “Kuki” was derived from the Bengali word “COOCI” (KUSIMANU)before 1512 A.D. The research scholar wrote as “CUSIS” M.C.- Culloch, the Political Agent of British India wrote as to “KOOKI”. Today it is known as “KUKI” by all.
4.2. Migration of Kuki Nomenclature: The Kuki nomenclature originated from Bengali reach Manipur as migrant. Manipur was invaded by Auwa (Burma) and subjugated it for seven years (1819-1826 A.D). During the period of subjugation, Royalson of King Labeinya-chandra, mobilised 380 Khongsai Army and 420 Meitei Army altogether  800 army strength and attacked the Auwa Armies in Guerilla Warfare.
Then in 1821 A.D. when Gambhir Singh (Chinglen Nongdren Khomba) came out from Cachar and become the king. He took up the Kuki nomenclature as directed by the British and added to the hill people.
4.3 For this reason, the Kuki nomenclature which arrived in 1821 A.D not only the Kuki Ethnic tribes but also the Naga Ethnic Tribes in Manipur Sate were treated as Kukis. Similar was the case with the meitei Ethnic tribe or Shalaais were treated as Kukis. One glaring evidence was that with the close of the World War (1914-1918 A.D). When the people returned from Germany everybody  wrote their names as Kukis on their tokens.
4.4 Moreover, the Meitei Ethnic Sub-tribe called Ningthouja though amalgamated with Mangang Tribe even though the Meiteis, the Kukis, the Nagas three Ethnic Tribes were treated as kukis but the Ningthouja and Brahmans were excluded from this treatment.
(E.) Kuki Ethnic Tribes Love their motherland
5.1 The Kuki Ethnic Tribe’s men loved their Motherland so much. During the Burmese subjugation of Manipur between 1819-1826 A.D.a large Contingent of 380 Kuki Ethnic Tribes joined hands with 420 Meities along with leader Herachandra and fought the Burmese on Guerilla warfare to drive them out of Manipur.They tried to save the lives of a number of ordinary people.
5.2 In the year 1850 A.D.King Chandra-Kirti become the two times kingship of Manipur. The Kamhao the two brothers looked down upon him and refused to pay tributes. This enraged the king (Maharaj). The people of Kuki Ethnic Tribes also sent 1,200 Kuki armies to accompany the king for protecting the frontiers of Manipur. This is the two examples showing the love on their motherland by the Kuki Ethnic Tribes.
5.3 In the Kamhao war, a number of Meitei army men who were not experts in hill warfare were killed by Kamhao’s warrior men. When the army of Kamhao surrounded to arrest the Maharaj King Chandrakirti asked to the Kuki Armies to save him. The Kuki Armies sprang out and fought with the armies of Kamhao brothers. They ransacked the village amassed property and presented it to Chandrakirti Maharaj.
5.4 When the Kamhao war was over they returned to the palace. the Kuki Ethnic Tribes were not only rewarded with the gift of valuable properties. They were given all the hill areas of Manipur for protection of the frontiers too. Therefore will effects from 1852 A.D.the people of Kuki Ethnic Tribes were defend the hill areas of Manipur. Since 1852 the Kuki Ethnic Tribes were defending the Manipur Hill Areas upto till in 1948 for 96 long years.
(F.) Anglo-Meitei War in 1891 A.D.
6.1. He appealed to the British India. In the uprising to arrest Koireng who was also called Bir Tikendrajit, five officers were killed infront of Kangla Shaa (Kangla Animal).
6.2 In order to take revenge for the death of five British Officers, armies were despatched from three sides of 
(G.) The kukis escaped from the britishers trap :
7.1 In the Anglo-Meitei a number of Kuki fighter died. They were all war veterans expert fighters. But in the war, non of the Kuki village Chief took part.The reason was that because of the order to the Royal Guards of Juvaraj Tikendrajit, the Son of Chassad King (then the Chief) was killed (beheaded) having aware of this incident the Kuki Chiefs were not invited for help in the war.
7.2 That being charged not only for the Anglo-Meitei war but also for opposing the British, the British captured the palace of Manipur and hanged the following persons (sent to gallows the following persons) :-
i) Pukharambam Phingang alias Kajao, hanged on 25th March, 1891.
ii) Nirangjan Subedar,hanged on 8th June, 1891.
iii) Bir Tikendrajit  Singh, hanged on 13th August,1891.
iv) Chirai Naga of Mayang-khang, hanged on 13th October,1891.
(H.) Anglo-Kuki War
8.1. Since 27th April, 1891, when British India defeated the Meitei ignorant of the geo-politics of the hills, the britishers took for granted that with the defeat of the Meities.They have defeated the hill people as well. They did not know that Chandrakirti Maharaj had ceded all the hill areas to the Kukis who kept on defending the boundaries.
8.2 Without the formal approval of the Kuki Ethnic Tribe and chief, the British enforce Porter system in every village, forcibly collected all forms of taxes, exporting hill products outside the state, introducing forced labour, all these measures displeased the Kukis all over the hill areas. Exporting the products of Manipur greatly affected the economic life of the hills and valley.
8.3. Cause of conflict and war
The following event were the main cause of Anglo-Kuki war:
i) When the Anglo-Kuki war broke out, it was part and parcel of World War-I, (1914-1918 A.D.) 
ii) From the 1915 A.D.the British contributing money to Manipur  for war fund amounting to Rs 1,38,000 to the war loan.
iii) To send a labour forces of 2000 hill men called labour Corps to work in France during the war.
iv) The British tried to raise a second labour corpse to the hill people.
v) The Kukis strongly opposed the  move to go to France for labour corpse and broke out war on 19 December, 1917.
8.4. By this time, the kuki chief were greatly enraged.
Therefore, not only in Manipur State alone, but in all regions of Himalayan Region in South East Asia where the Kukis settled. The Kukis Chief and Villages Headman under the leadership of L.Tintong Haokip Chief of Laijang took up-arms against the British to drive them out from all the Kukis dominated regions. The Kuki waged war and fought the mighty British Forces for three years from 1917 to 1919 A.D. in order to free the Land from Foreign domination. The palaces of fighting areas are: 
Bengal Hills Areas, 
Tripura Hills Areas, 
Lushai Hills Areas, 
Chin Hills Areas, 
Assam Hills Areas, 
Manipur Hills Areas, 
Naga Hills Areas, 
Somra Hills Areas, 
Aruna-chal Hills Areas and 
Cachar Hills Areas.
(L.) Kuki  Ethnic Tribes joined India National Army :
9.1 The Kukis wants self-determination-The Personnal Culture of the Kukis is never to interfere other peoples rights and non-interference of their rights by others.
9.2 During the II World War (1939-1945), the Kukis joint forces of Indian National Army (INA) in order to safe guard their territories.Keeping in view of their inability to drive out the British during the Anglo-Kuki War due to lack of Man power, the Kukis caused the Japanese to bombarded Imphal upon the British on May 10, 1942 A.D.
9.3 The Kukis Ethnic Tribes defended the boundaries of Manipur in all corners. But with the end of the World War II, the Kuki tribes remained silent. Manipur and India attained Independence from British Crown on 14 and 15 August, 1947,  when Manipur attained Independence, the Kuki were greatly honourned. They got land rights too.
9.4 Against the wishes of the Kuki to merge Manipur in India but Maharaja Budhachandra went to Shillong and singed Maniupur’a merger agreement with India on September 21, 1049 with his own subjects only. After the merger of Manipur State of the Indian Union, Manipur was degraded to U.T. standard of the Indian republic. The government of India granted pension to a handfull Kuki I.N.A. Pensioners.
Silchar, Kohima and Tamu which caused the Anglo-Meitei War.Being outnumbered by the British manpower, the Meitei were defeated in the war. The root cause of war is the enmity between the two brothers of Maharaj Surchandra.. So, British defeated Meiteis there after controlled as a colonial kingdom.
6.3 The Kukies Army tried to save the land.due to the weakness of the Meitei’s war strategy, many meitei army personnel sacrificed their lives at the hands of strong invader, well equipped British Forces.
6.4 In that Anglo-Meitei war the forces of the ethnic Kuki Tribes had failed to save Manipur as they were short of man power infront of the British forces who came from three direction. Many of the Kuki fighters lost their lives and as a results, Manipur’s Independence was lost on April 27, 1891.
(L.) Kukis tolerated from the State Central Government :
12.1 The Kuki Ethnic Tribes were all Aboriginal and Indeginous people in this state. Yet the Manipur State Government neglected the Kukis in all matters relating to all round development. For instance, during the reign of Manipur Kings and of a the British in the Hills of Manipur the needs of the Kukis were not attended to.
12.2 But on september 21, 1949 Maharaja Budha chandra signed manipur’s merger agreement with India. On october 15, 1949, the Government of India dissolved the Manipur Assembly.Manipur State joined the India Republic and took part in the Indian Democratic Election in 1952.
12.3 With the merger of Manipur into India,the Meiteis have not remembered or have forgotten the manifold role of the Kuki such as:
i) Kukis,the then called Khong-shais numbering 380 fighters fought with the Burmese called Ava during the 7 years subjugation of Manipur.
ii) Kukis invaded Kamhao Brothers and save Maharaja Chandrakirti in 1851 A.D.
iii) The Kukis waged war against the British during 1917-1919 A.D. in order to drive them out of Manipur. Setting aside all such contributions, the Meiteis did not care to look after the difficulties and short coming of the Kukis. Therefore, the Meiteis should be held responsible for the pains and sufferings encounter by the minority Kuki tribes from 1950 till now.
12.4 Again the Kuki Tribes were denied by the Government of India,the Kukis joined Indian National Army (INA) forces in their war against the British and bravely fought them to drive them from the soil of India. The Kukis fought along side the Japanese troops until the Allied dropped Atom Bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities in 1945 A.D. By that time, when the Kukis fought that fierce battle they had already occupied/settled in these area: Chittagong Hills,Tripura Hills,Lushai Hills,Manipur Hills,North Cachar Hills,Chin Hilla,Naga Hills,Mikir Hills,Nefa (Now called Arunachal)Hills and Somra Hills etc. Nothing tangible was done to these fighter but a few pension was awarded to a handful survivals thus, the Indian Freedom fighting Kuki Tribes continue to endure suffering and negligence.
(M.) Nagaland  invaded on Kukis  of  Manipur :
13.1 The Kuki Tribes and sub-tribes of Manipur are economically backward. Since they were involved in battles from time to time,  which greatly affected their household lives. Taking advantages of their weakness, the Naga Tribes from nagaland joined fold hands with some of Non-Kukis of Tamenglong, Senapati and Ukhrul Districts into Nagas. They took advantages in the name of Nagas, Naga Organisation of Nagaland such as Naga National Council (NNC) National Socialist of Nagalim NSCN-(IM) and NSF threatened, killed and burned houses of the Kukis in these districts.13.2The census of India :- Census Statistics and Economic Department, 
Government of Manipur. From these two records we find the names of places where the Kuki settled payment of house taxes, the names of Chiefs from the three districts of Tamenglong, Senapati and Ukhrul. From the Census records of 1945-1946 upto 1960, these Kukis who were found in the Census record have been driven away by the NCC underground out of these three districts.And from 1993-1997, the NSCN-(IM) undergrounds, UNC,NSF and ANSAM activitist carried on the task of killing, burning villages brought attrocities even as far as to Chandel Districts and dashed it to the ground.
13.3 The kuki Villages destroyed by the Naga undergrounds :
i) Ukhrul Districts Uprooted Villages   153 Kuki Villages.
ii) Tamenglong District
- Uprooted Villages
- 132 Kuki Villages.
iii) Senapati District
- Uprooted Villages
- 39 Kuki Villages.
iv) Chandel District
- Uprooted Villages
- 20 Kuki Villages.

Altogether  uprooted Villages  were 344 Villages, etc.
Provided the non Kuki or Nagas of the three Districts can think of the well being or solution of the problem created anti-social elements, anti-religious conducts, anti-humanity activities which were anti-politics, the Indian government should protect safeguard develop, the poor, helpless Kuki Tribes who have so far stood for Peace and integrity believed in religion and played the role of peacemaker which is the right of every Indian Citizen.
(N)Decision and demand of Kuki Ethnic Tribes :
14.1. In Manipur,during the  reign of the king, the kings looked after and safeguarded the Kukis.But with the abolition of Kingship, Manipur merged with India in preference of democracy, the Kuki have been denied their due share and become foreigners in their own Motherland. Therefore it will be proper for the Centre Government to take positives action and think for the future condition of the Kukis of Manipur and of other neighbouring states. Whereas, the Kuki Ethnis Tribes has a rich documentary and Historical evidence about the origin heritage, culture and dialect, etc. wherefore, it is high time to resolute for the future of the kuki Tribes to which your good office timely intervention highly appreciated and do justice to save our almost extinct identity. Some points are laid down and shown below so as to restore and recuperate the once scattered tribes of the Kukis.
Demands :
A. To compensate all the Kukis who were driven out of Ukhrul, Tamenglong, Senapati and Chandel Districts by the Nagas working as invaders and resettle them in their respective villages. 
Or     Payment of adequate lands for setting up again the 344 uprooted villages from Ukhrul, Senapati, Tamenglong and Chandel Districts.
or To introduce and pass a hill in both Houses of Parliament allowing the Kuki Ethnic Tribes to re-settle in their respective Districts.
B. Creation of separate “Hill Autonomy” by amalgamating the Kuki Ethnic Tribes populated or dominated areas, from the Nagas and Meitei people.This will facilitate the development of the Kuki Ethnic Tribes.
Or The Kuki Villagers in the Hill Areas of Manipur are very much backward in order to take up development works, revive the already defunct Hill District Councils. The Nagas denied this Autonomous District Council so that their political demands can be meted out which greatly effected the Kuki populace.
Set aside insurgency, take up various development works by conducting Manipur Hills District Autonomous Council election immediately will enchance a harmonios and peaceful life to the state.
C. The Kuki people has been suffering from this never ending untold misery in all aspects. It will be highly appreciated if your honour would kindly visit the spot and bear witness to our sufferings.So, bill to this effect be introduced and enacted in the 1st and 2nd sitting of the Parliament Session.The people of Kuki Tribes has reached the point of no return regarding our demands.
Conclusion :
Therefore, after merger of Manipur State to the Indian Union for more than 50 years, the Kuki National Assembly have a great privileged to express our desire to our honourable Prime Minister of India to which the Kuki National Assembly Party draw your kind attention and expect great challenge with the approaching of the new millennium.
Yours
Demand Committee 
Kuki National Assembly (K.N.A.)
North East India,Manipur
Schedule

N.B.Abstract copies from statistical Census Department, Government of Manipur.